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Full text of "America: being the latest, and most accurate description of the Nevv VVorld; : containing the original of the inhabitants, and the remarkable voyages thither. The conquest of the vast empires of Mexico and Peru, and other large provinces and territories, with the several European plantations in those parts. Also their cities, fortresses, towns, temples, mountains, and rivers. Their habits, customs, manners, and religions. Their plants, beasts, birds, and serpents. With an appendix, containing, besides several other considerable additions, a brief survey of what hath been discover'd of the unknown South-Land and the Arctick region."

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♦ 1^ 






Jliibn (fitr|-rr U^iiiUni 



f ■^■ 






O F T H E 



The O^igi^^l of the Inhabitants, and the Re- 
markable y oyages thither. 



O F 


Mexico and Peru ^ 




V L A N T A T I O 



■ 'Their ■ Cities 5 Fortrefles, Towns ,, Temples., 

Mountains, and Rivers. 

Their Habits^ Cultoms, Manners, and Religions, 
Their Plants, Beafts, Birds, and Serpents. 


An AT T E 3^V I X, containing, befides feveral other confiderable 

Additions^ a brief Survey of what hath been difcover'd of the 

VnknoTpn Somh^Land and the aArBicI^ %jgion. 

Colleded from mpft Authentick Authors, Augmented with later Obfervations, and • 
Adorn'd with Maps and Sculptures, by J HH G JL S } Efq-, His 
yi^)z9ifs Qofmografhr^Giogra^hukfrmter,^^^ 

in the Kingdom of I %^'E L A H^ D^ 

L ^© :K2, 

Printed by the Author, and are to be had at his Houfe in 

White Fryers, M © Q L XXL 




of the feveral 
C H A P T E R S and S E C T I O N S/ 

The firft Book: 

AMerica unknown to the Ancients Fol. i 
Of the Original of the Americans ^ iphence 
they came, when^ hott?^ and from what 
9eople flanted n 

Firft iifcoyerers of America, with Chri- 
flopher Colonus his Expedition 43 
Pedro Alphonfo Nigno his Voyage 56 
The Voyage 0/ Vincent Agnes Pinzon 58 
The Expedition of Amcricus Vefputius 60 
The Expedition of Aliphonfo Fogeda, Diego 
Kicuefa, Ancifus^ and Roderick Col^ 
mcnares ^5 

Peter Arias his Expedition, and the remarh 
able faffages 0/ Vafcus Nunnez 69 
The Expedition of Francifco Fernandez, 
Lupo Caizedo, Chriftophero Mo- 
rantes, Bernardo Igniguez, and Juan 
Grifalva 7^ 

The Expedition of Ferdinand Magaglian, 
commonly caWd Magellan 79 

Ferdinando Cortez his Voyage. 81 

Diego Gottierez his Expedition 91 

The Expedition of Pedro Alvarado, Fran- 
cifco and Gonzalvo PizarrOj<j«J Diego 
de Almagro 95 

The Expeditions of John Stade and Nicho- 
las Durando Villegagnon i oj 

The Expedition of John Ribald, Rcnatus 
Laudonier, and Gurgic 105 

Four Englifli Expeditions, under the Command 
of our famous Sea-Qaptains, Martin For- 
biflicr, Sir Francis Drake, Thomas 
Candifli, 4w^ John Smith 108 

J Netherland Expedition, by Jaques Mahu 
dwJ Simon dc Cordes no 

The Expedition of Oliver van Noord 11 3 

The Expedition of George van Spilber- 
gen 115 

The Expedition of Cornelifzoon Schouten 
4Wi/ Jacob Le Maire 117 

The Voyage o/f/^^Naflavian Fleet, under the 
Command of Jaques le Heremite and 
Hugo Schapenham , 120 

Henry Brewer his Voyage iiz 


The Second Book. 

F the bounds of America, and of the I New England 139 

Divifion of the Mexican, or Nor" New Netherland, no^ caWd New York 


J[ new Defcription of Mary-Land 185 

Virginia 19^ 

The ^lation of Qaptain Smith'i being taken 

^rifoner by 1? owha.ta,n, and his deltyerance 

hy his Daughter VoQ3,\iOVii2i, 202 


them part thereof 





Terra Laboratoris. 


Canada, or New France 


Accadia, or Nova Scotia 







Porto Rico^ and Monico 









The Iflands call'd The Lucaies 

Vera Paz 


The Caribbee-Iflands 



Anegada W Sombrero 



Las Virgincs 







Guatimala, propi 

'.rlyfo call'd ibid. 

St. Crux 

The F^ngdom of 

Mexico, or New Spain 

St. Martin 


St. Bartholomew 
















New Gallicia 














Todos San(5tos 







New Bifcay^ 



New Mexico 


St. Lucia 

Cibola , Tontonteac, and Nova Gra- 




St. Vincent 




Terra Nova, or 

New-found Land, "n^ith 


the IJland of Af^umftion 304 


'ihe Bermudas, or 

Summer.Iflands 311 

St. Chriftophers 




The Third Book. 

V^ Firma 

:a, otherwife call'd Terra 



Los Charcas 







New Andaluzia 


Chile, properly fo call'd 

St. Martha. 



Rio de la Hacha 

• 405 

Paraguay, or Rio de la Plata 

New Granada 


Rio de la Plata, properly fo call'd 


408 i ' 




La Crux de Sierra 


412 ] 



441 . 

St. Vincent 

Los Quixos 

446 Rio de Janeiro 



De Spirito Santo 































A Catalogue of the Authors, which are either mentioii'd, or 
made ufe of irt this Volume of America. 

Graham Melllntd 
^ Abraham Myl'tm 
Adrtaen yander Donk 

jilhertm Magnus 

JBUiii Lampridim 
Alexander Aphrodienjis 
Alexander ah Mexandro 
Alexander Guagmus 
Alonfo Garcia 
jilonfo de OuagU 
Andrdos defarienjls 
jingrin Jonas 
Antonio de Herrera 

Arijlonicus Grammaticm 

Athanafius IQrcher , 
Augujim de Tarcate 
Augujius Tbuanus 
Ayton of Armenia 
^akha:^ar de Ami;^quita 
!Barnaba Caho 
^artholomao de las Cafas 
benjamin Tudaknfis 
Cafpar 'BarUm 
C aft aid m 
Charles ^chfort 
ChriHopher Arcijfeuski 

Claude de Abbeville 
Clemens Alexandrtnm 
Conrad us Gefner 
Cornelim IS^epos 
Cornelius Wit fleet 
T>aVtd Ingran 
t>aVtd foml 
Diodorus Siculus 

Dionyjlus Halicarnajfdus 
Dirk ^iters 
Vithmar 'Blefken 
Duarte Mende^ Seraon 
Egydius Fletcher 
Emanuel de Morae^ 
Erafmus Stella 
Erick %oothaer 
Everhard ^id 

Euthymius Zibagerius 
Feftus AVtenus 
Francifc, 'Burmannus 
Francifc, Delapuente 
Francifc, de Gomara 
Francifc. Lopes de Gomefa 

Francifc* ^phelingiusm 

Francifc. Soare:^ 

Francifc, Tirolmonts 

Francifc, Xayerius 



Garcilajfo de la Vega 


Gerardus Joannes Voj^ius 

Guido de Bre;^ 

Guilielm. Tifo 

Guilielm, Tojiellus 

Fiarmannus Moded 

Henrick Haelbos 

Fienrick Hawks 

Hernando de Leon 



Hieronim. Ben^ 

Hieromjn. Cardanus 


Hugo Grotius 

Hugo Linfchot 
Jacob Bontius 

Jacob Tlanenfls 
Jacob %abbi 

Inca Garcilajfo 

A 2 








Joannes Ardenoh 
Joannes 'Bertius 
Joannes Qhilton 
Joannes Gyfius 
Joannes Johnjlonus 
Jean de Laet 
Joannes de Ledefma 
Joannes LeonclaVms 
Joannes Levy 
Joa?ines Mariana 
Joannes ISlieuwhof 
Joan. "Van de Sande 
Jofeph, Jcojia 
Jofeph, Jnchieta 
Jofeph, ScaUger 
j/aacus Tontanus 
Ifaac. du Verne 
Ijldorus Mendes Sequera 
Julius Cdfar 
Julius defar ScaUger 
Lauren, Jnanias 
Lauren* 'Bikker 
Lauren. Guafcus Gerafcius 
Lauren, jt^ymis 
LeVmus Lemmius 
LieVen Ai:^ma 




Lodowick Leo 


Manethon Terfa 

Marcus Zeno 

Martin del Bar CO 

Martin Tere;^ 

Matthicus Van den Broeke 


MelcJ?ior Soiterus 

Mich, Lithowcr 


Names of the Authors. 

Miles philips 

■ Mofes 

"Nicolaus Zeno 


^aulus Venetus 

^edro de Ancieta 

Tedro ^i:^arro 

Tedro Fernaftde:?;^ de ^ir 

^edro Maria 

Teter Martyr 

Tedro Ordonnes de CeVallos 

Teter Van Gendt 

Wtlo JudiSus 

^hilippus Cluyerius 

Wtlippus Morndus 


^iere Moreau 





^^mponius Mela 




%abbi Simeon 

^hertus Qomt^^us 

Sam* Turchas 

Sehajliaen Schroten 



Sigifmond Baro 












Porto Seguro 49^ 

Los Ifleos V . 501 

Bahia de Todos los Sandos 502 

Pcrnambuco 5°5 

Parayba 5°^ 

Maragnan 5^^ 

The Lordjhip Tatnarica, Rio Grande, 
Siara, dw^ Para 517 

'j (I(elation of the froceedings of the Nether- 
land Weft-India Comfany in Brafile, to 
the Tear 1658. 518 

The Journey of Rodulphus Baron, Vtth the 
Defcr'iption of the Qufioms and Manners of 
r/;eTapuyans 5p5 

Grave Maurice his Jccomt of Brafilc, /o 
far as it concern d the Wcft»India Qom» 

N T E N-T S. 

pany ^ <^oo 

The Qomcellor Duflen'i ^latiori of fo much 

of Brafile as concern d the WeftJndia 

Company 601 

A Vefcription of the Talace Prey burgh, two 

Bridges J and a Banquetting-houfej all built 

hy Grave Maurice 605 

Guiana 6oy 

A Relation of the Journey of Francifcd 

Orellana ibid. 

Paria, or New Andaluiia 620 

Cumana 611 

Venezuela 614 

The Ijlands Margareca , Cubagua, and 

Coche 617 

Of the Iflands of Southern America ^28 

In the Appendix. 

Rio de la Plata Fol. ^^31 
Chili <^34 
A View of the Chilefian Language 635 
Magellanica ^A9 
The Unknown South^Land 653 
Terra Boreaiis , or The Ardick Re- 
gion ^01 

Several Attempts for the difcdVery of the 
North- Weft Paftaae 672 

A brief View of what f laces are pojfef'd at 
this day in the Weft-Indies, by the Eng- 
lifli, Spaniards, French, Portuguefe, 
a}id Dutch 674 





■ I 




ftand in the leall degree of competition with our ii. 




i j. ■ . --^i^sis 

i W ^^^f-J— '^-^- 1 

^^^^^kJfhi '^^ 



'OlTi the Difcript'on of the Ocean, 

the dry 
g Bays, 
here Co 



1 to the 

of the 

td, are 

Tj hath 

, who 

I cleat 

'i'o ob- 
3 find 




'A^n'd "^^^ Ancients had tittle 
knowledge i» Navigation, 

. _-...^.v,cio tii^u Ignorant cd — xi^ng iviantim Affairs, and are not fit to 
iland in the leaft degree of competition with our later Voyagers. 


« ^ p , 1 » • Ai 

Chap. I. 

A H 




America -» unsown to the (L/fntiems, 

HE Sea, that takes feveral Denominations from the DifaiptionofiheOcean. 
Countreys which it waflieth, and furrounding the dry 
Land , cuts out , and fliapes fo many winding Bays, 
Creeks^ and Meandring In-lets, feems no where fo 
much confined and penn'd into fo narrow a Channel, 
as the Straights of Magellan : From whence again, 
foon expatiating , it fpreads it felf into two immenfe, 
and almofi: boundlefs Oceans, that which opens to the 
North, gives terminaries to the four Regions of the 
Earth ; that to the South, onely to JJta and Jmerka ,. both which, indeed, are 
..%ut one continued Sea, extending it felf round the Univerfal Globe, 

This watry part of the World, that almofi through all Ages lay Fallow, hath \ 

in thefe later times been Furrow'd by feveral Expert and Scout Captains, who 
now by their Art and Induftry, have given a good Account of, and made clear , 
Difcoveries from Eaft to Weft, where-ever the Sun rifes or fees. 

The Northern Bounds under the Artick-Zone , have been hitherto fo ob- 
ftru6ted with Ice, that the undertakings of fuch as adventured either to find 
by the North-Eaft or North-Weft a Paftage to India , have been utterly 
fruftrate. Of the Southern, no fuch pains hath as yet been taken in the Dilco^ 
very , fo that for the moft part it is yet unknown how far the Water , either 
deep or fhallow, overfpreads the Earth, onely thus much Experience hath made 
out, that the jntartkk needs lefler Line to Fathom, than the Artkk-Ocean, 

The antient Greeks j^henkians^znd Romans ^ or whofoever that were Renown'd The Ancients had litdc 

lA-- JT-n.1-1 1 r t n knowledge in NavigatiQn, 

by Antiquity, and Lilted in the number ot their famous Navicrators, were n,o 
lefs Timerous than Ignorant concerning Maritim Affairs , and are not fit to 
ftand in the leaft degree of competition with our later Voyagers. 

B ' 

Navigation is veiy an- 

Geegra^h. lib. i. 


"Vltima 2^;«/e,fuppos'(l by 
fome to be Lelnnd, Vide 

1 he Voyage oiHnnno. 
OiEudoxus, Strah.\.z^ 

Strange Voyage of fome 

Of Menehus. 

<Ul M E%I C A. Chap. 

OFoldj by an inviolable Law, made by Ciiilom, according to ^/wj, Vi^ethis 
and ochers, the Sea was lock'd up^, from the eleventh o^ October ^ to the tenth of 
March J no Ships daring to venture forth^ dreading fhort Nights, and foul Wea- 
ther j neither in Summer, did they fo much as once offer, unlefs driven by 
Storms 5 to attempt the Ojfm, or loofe fight of Land 3 yet there is no queflion, 
but that feveral Nations in former Ages, made it their buhnefs, ipending their 
whole time, and wearying themfelves in the Practical Art of Navigation. 

The Sacred Scripture teflifies , That the Kings of Judea, Solomony Jehofaphat, 
O^mj and others , prepared feveral Fleets that Sail'd through remote Seas_, 
freighting themfelves with Gold from Op/;ir , and other Rarities, which were 
Imported to fupply and enrich the Holy^Land. And Strabo alfo tells us ^ That 
K'mgSolomon being contemporary with HomeVy then difcover'd India. And Wny 
relates^That the ^oymnsj in the Reign o^ AuguJluSj pafling the Straights of Gibraltar y 
and fleighting the Nc plus ultra, Coafted Spam.,Frunce.^2Lnd 'Belgium Ac2.\ ing notac 
the Promontory of the C'mbrlans (now call'd Shager-^jj ) but alfo ventur'd in- 
to the Northern Ocean , which waflies Norwey and Lapland : But long before 
this , as Jthen<£us relates , ^hlka^ Taurommtes , a Greciaji Captain , and feveral 
others pafs'd the Herculean-Tillarsj penetrating the Northern Seas as far as 'Brit* 
tain, and adventuring, made the firfl: Difcovery of Thule : And to the South- 
ward the ^ric^?2 Coafts without Gibraltar y and beyond Jtlas, were now and 
then explor'd by feveral expert Captains. But more remarkable is the Voyage 
of Hanno a Carthaginian , who out-fail'd thefe , and infpedVed the Coafts of 
jifrica-^ as far as the Gorgades : And Eudoxm Cy^icenuSj flying from King Lathyrus, 
fet Sail from the Arabian Gulph, and pajling the Great^Cape,, came to an Anchor 
at laft in the Mouth of Gibraltar, having difcover'd all the Eaftern, Southern, 
and Weilern parts o[ Africa. 

Moreover, it deferves fpecial obfervation , That an antient STt>edtfi King, as 
Cornelius JS^epos relates, fent as a Rarity and great Prefent to the \oman Conful 
Metellus Celer j fome Indians ^ who loofing their courfe, hatter'd up and down 
with perpetual Storms and ftrefs of Weather, were at laft driven into the Nor- 
thern Ocean, where they fuffer'd Shipv^rack 5 yet faving themfelves, Landed 
on his Coafl: Arijlonicus Grdmaticus relates, That Menelaus Sailing from the Sack, 
o^ Troy J became fo great a Voyagjer, that leaving the Straights, he furrounded 
Africa, and dilcovering I«i/rf, after eight years re-meafuring the fame way he 
went, returned with great Riches in fafety to his own Kingdom: Which is 
confentaneous to Homer, who faith,. O^j^//". 1. 4. 

■ ■ None mufl compare 

Manfions with Jove, hi^ Seats Celeftial are : 
But with fne any may, ivho eight years toft 
Through Worlds of Miferies from Coafl to Coafl, 
'MongH unknown Seas, of my %eturn fmall hope, 
Cyprus, Phoenicia, /Egypt, ^'^^ JEthio^c, 
Sidon, Erembosyo«72ii, and Lybia, lt)here 

'"H'Tdj <^^->) /3g/Tcyj/ »>t oLviii s^A^oi. 

Avo'poov d" r]VAv Tis fj^L e^AC^eloci ve, ^[gA ayu 

K.oii Ki^vufj, iva. T ccj}veu ce.(pap vji^o\ ^nAsQiiaif 

Their La}?ibs are horn d. their Ews teem thrice a year. ^ > x 1^ -^ , / ^ , ^, 

■' -^ 1 ^s 'yap Tix^lGi ju/ifiAcc 'nAev(poQ;n' as evicc-vioy. 

(J) The Comment.itors on Homer h.ive been very inqtiifitivc to find out Mtnelata Voyage into t/ftlnopia. Crates fuppos'd that he pafs'd out at xhs Straights^ 
iloublcd the Southern C'/rpe, and fo arnvd thidi r. -Eyatejihcucs coiijefturcs , that in the time of Homer the Straights Mouth was an Ifthmus , and the ^lyptiatt 
Illhniusoverflow'd by the Sea, \vhch allordcdhim a fliorter paffage. But that is moll probable which Sf r-tZ-o delivers, thnt he then went to the borders of ^V/^/o*w, 
when he pafs'd up Rgyft to the City of ? heles ; the Bordei s of ^thiopa bi ing not far dilLint from thence in Strah's tjme, probably very neai' it iii Htmer's, 





. ilct-.uiliable Voyage cj 

OiFtolomy iiuo Iniia, 

And alfo of Ckopatts, 

Cliap. L ^ ^[ M E%I £ A, 

Thac whicfi the Grecian Geographers relate concerning ^tolonvj Eucr<retes'^ 
King of E^^t , is non to be forgotten , That fending Pilots^ Cornmiirion'd 
to take the Soundings, and fettle the Land^marks in the Arahtah Gulph^ they 
found by chance a forfaken Veflel ;, onely in it one Man half dead ;, lyine 
;^mong feveral other breathlefs Bodies, of whom, being refrefh'd with conve- 
nient Cordials, they enquired his Fortune, but he being unable to give them 
any prefent fatisfa«5tion, neither underftanding what the other faid , they fenc 
him to the Court, where foon having got a fmattcring of Greek, he informed 
Euergetesy that he was a Native Indian , driven from their courfe into the place 
where they found himbyftrefsofWeather;,and that his company were famifh'd, 
all their Provifion fpent in theit Watidrings from their intended Voya(7e. Thus 
being kindly entertain'd, he alfo promised the King to open his Pairage(if fo he 
pleas'd) into India. The King flept not upon this Intelligence, but immediately 
prepared a Fleet Freighted with fuch Commodities as were advis'd j with which 
fetting forth by the Condud of this their Indian Pilot , they Anchored in their 
deiir'd Port, and brought the King in return from thence a rich Cargo of Silk, 
Spices, coftly Drugs, and precious Gems. Cleopatra, about fixty years after, 
intending not to lofe the advantages reap'd by the former difcoveries, equipped 
another and greater Navy ; which pafling through the Red^Sca , found the 
Stern of a Ship, on which was Prefented a Horfe, whereby fome of the more 
knowing Sea-men judged, that it had been a Gibraltar VefTel, and Sailincr about 
Jfrica, there by fad accident fuffer'd a Wrack. This Stern was afterwards fet up^ 
and fix'd as a Memorial in the Market-place o£ Memphis. 

In thefe later times , the firft that endeavored to drive an European Trade 
in Jfrick , and held Commerce with India , was the State of Fenice , who 
Saird from thence through the Jdriatick, into the Mediterranean-Sea : So 

' r j1 J- 1 11- 1 1 r ""^^ '"'^^'' ^'^^^^ ^ trade 

Steermg ror Alexandrta, where unladmg their Goods, from thence they carry'd ^'°"' ^"'o^' ^" ^^^ ^"J^- 
them over Land , and Shipping again in the Arabian Gulph, Sailed diredly 
for India, Thus by Land and Water , were exchanged feveral Commodities, 
and the Indian Growth and rich Produds of the Oriental World plentifully 
Tranfported to Fenice, and from thence , all Europe had ample Accommo- 
dation, until an Egyptian Sultan fuffer'd the Way to be infefted by Thieves 
and Murdering Robbers , that fo they were enforced to remove thence, 
Q.nd Difcharge their feveral Cargoes at Aleppo j from whence, on Mules and 
Camels, they carry 'd their Goods to Babylon, To to Balfarum, and then to , 
Ormus, where they Re-fhip'd thence, diredly Handing for hdia. 

Thus they enjoy'd the benefit of fo great a Tra'de and Commerce, until the 
^ortuguefe found a Paflage by Sea, faving the Expence and trouble of carrying 
Goods fo far by Land to India j Of which here we will a little inlarge. 

John, the firft King of Portugal, who took from the Moors, by force of ..^IjL'S^fa^^^^ 
Arms, Septa, an African City, having five Sons j Henry his fourth behav'd himfelf Si'^°'^^'"'"^^ 
fo gallantly in the Leaguer of Septa , that after he became Mafter of the place^ 
this Prince made many bold Excurfions in feveral Parties againft the Ene- 
my, bringing in daily great ftorc of Booty • fo growing rich , he Rigg'd out 
two new Vefifels to make farther Difcoveries along the Coaft of Africa, Yec 
this his Expedition went on but flowly, being much taken off in Building 
there a new City , then call'd Tar;^anahala , and fince Villa Infantis ■ but being 
Admonifh'd by a Dream, and Check'd for his laying thus afide his firft De« 
fign of Navigation ; he foon after, An?io 1410. fet forth the Ships that he inten* 
dcdj which he the more accelerated , being informed by fome of his Prifoners 

B z NativeS;, 

The Venetians were the 
firii that drove a trade 

How they went their 

ricfs 3-nc4 



'iA M E%1 C A. 



Who fini vemui'J into 
the (?/;». 

Madtr»*s, by whom peo 

By whom Gcnny was dif- 

Natives , that Jfrka fpread from the Bafis of cMount-Atlas , very far towards 
xkSliS!^"'''"^" the South : This Mountain then was the Terminary of Navigation that way, 
becaufe thereabouts a long Ridge or Shelf of Sands thrufl its Point under 
Shallow Waters fo far out into the Ocean , that none durft venture to Sail in- 
to the Ofm, being out of fight of Land to double this concealed Cape. 

The firfl that attempted to find Deep Water , and get round about dis- 
covering feveral unknown Coafts, and Uninhabited Ifles belonging to that 
Region^ were Joannes Gonfahes, Trijlan ^arfem, and /Egidim Jmiim j amonsH 
which were the Madera's j and St, George de ficho, which Prince Henry firft 
Planted with fortuguefe , and others fince with Netherlander s. He alfo obtained 
a Grant from Pope Martin the Fifth, of all the difcover'd Territories Eaft-ward 
from the Canaries, for ever to be the undoubted Right , and belon^ina to the 
Crown o^ Portugal. 

Kktt Henrys Deceafe, Anno 1460. the bufinefs of Navigation and Difcove- 
ries of new Countreys, laynegleded, becaufe King Jlphonfo turmoyl'd in a 
Civil War ;, his Crown being at ftake , had not leifure to think or look after 
uncertain improvements by Sea 5 yet at laft having quell'd his Enemies , he 
ventured forth fome Ships, who Sail'd as far as the River Zenaga, and came ta 
Anchor before the City of Gen?iy , famous fince for Trade , which gave its de* 
nomination to the Countrey and Coafts of Guhiy, where they dealing, Bartered 
for Ivory, Gold, Slaves, and alfo got fo much footing into the Countrey, that 
they fuddenly rais'd up a Fort, and Man'd it with a ftrong Garrifon, Shippino- 
their Slaves for Lisbon. 

John the Second fucceeding his Father Jlphonfo , had a great defign upon Jra-^ 
hta and India , and if pofTible , was ambitious to open a PafTage from the Atlan<t 
ticky to the Oriental-Seas., But the difficulty lay in Steering fo often from fight 
of Land, venturing into the Main Ocean, obfl:ru6ted by fi^ many dangerous 
Shoals that lay fo far out into the Offtn. 

At that time fiourifh'd three famous Mathematician,(2^W^ndJo/^j;/?3and Mar^- 
tin 'Bohemus , Pupils bred up by Joannes Monteregiiu 5 with which the King 
confulting, perfwaded, that they would by their Art invent fome Inftrumenty 
that by Southern Confi:ellation, the Pole being deprefs'd, the Navigator might 
know where he was, and in what height ; fo gueifing what difi:ance they were 
from this or that Countrey 5 they accordingly Club'd Learning, and by their 
great Study, found out what fince hath prov'd fo ufeful and beneficial to Sea- 
men, the Afirolahe j which help having obtained, the Sailers encourag'd, more 
frequently ventured into remote and unknown Seas. 

After thefe, K.m<^John oifortugal fent Jaques Cano with a Fleet, who SaiiingjJ 
found the River Zaires , where he ere45led a Pillar with an Infcription, Latin 
and Tortuguefej^i'^m^y'mo by whom, and in what Kings Reign thefe African Coafts 
were difcover'd : Here he alfo met fome'of the Natives , who more civiliz'd 
than the refl: , told him , That they had a mighty King, who Raignina over 
them , kept his Court fome few days Journey up in the Countrey , to whom 
Cano lending his Agents^ detained four y^/nV^«5 as Pledges, which he carry'd 
with their free confent to "Po/t/z^ci/, promifing to brincr them back in fifteen 
Months, who before that time having got fome fmatterings of their Tongue,' 
rvcim.k.bic paiT-i-e of iufotm'd them, that their Native Soyl was call'd Conoio^ whither returning bv 
the appointed time, they were according to their agreement, exchang'd for the 
^ortuguefe^^nd Cano addrefs'd himi"clf with rich Prefents to their King,whom he 
found fitting in their manner on an Ivory Throne ^ being from the middle up- 

For the Northern Cor.- 
fldlauon the Afirelabe was 
in ak long bctore. 




■iicorer}' olQongh 

dslcovci' /m4(« by waterj 

V.'ifiHs de GAnm his eg-* 

Chriflopher Cotunthnitl 

Divitling of the earth,' 

ward Naked, hh nether parts covered wich long Silken Skirts, & Gcid^n Artn^ 
let on his left Arm, athwart his Shoulders hung a Hories Tail, their Badge oF 
Royal Dignity : Cuno humbly laid the Prefents down at the Kings Feet,amongfi: 
which was a Gilded Flag , or Pennon with a Crofs , which Pope Innocent the 
Eighth had Confecrated with great Ceremony. After this , many of that Na^ 
tion became Chriftians , and the King himfelf received Baptilln. But in Oiort: 
time, by the Inftigations of their Diabolical Priefts, and others, Chrifliani- 
ty loofmg ground, grew out of countenance : Mean while;, King Jo/;?z the 
Second vigoroufly Profecuted the bufinefs of Difcovery, fending Jems and Chiu 
ftians by Land from Alexandria and other parts o^ E^ypt to 7?/Jw,and from thence 
to explore the Coails on the Eaflern fide o^ Africa, to the Great-Cape ; if fo a way 
might be found fit for Navigators, having doubled that Pointy to Traffick with 
the Oriental parts of the World. 

After this Princes Death the Work lay ftill a while, but in Oiort time, Kina 
Emamielhis Succeflbr freOiIy undertook the bufinefs once more, fending faf^ues 
Gama with four Ships, who pa/Ting through many Dangers with great Difficult 
ties. Anchored at lafi before Cakcut:, and was the firfl:, of the Europeans that found 
a way to the Eajl-Indies. 

But Qbriftopher Columbus, five Years before Gamas Expedition to the Eaft, had 
been employed in Welkrn Difcoveries, which prov'd fo very fuccefsful, that 
lie found no lefs than another World ; which foon after , from Americus Vej^a- 
tins, was calFd Jmerica : So that the Divifion of the World by the Antients 
(concerning which they had fo long err'd^, and were utterly m'iftaken j was 
now made manifeft by Experience, and undifputable Demonftration • for 
formerly the whole World was known by no other names than Afia, Jfrica, 
and Europe, but now, thofe three are found to make but one Part of what in* 
circles the Univerfal Globe j becaufe in the South lies a fecond, known no fur« 
ther than by its Coaftings and Superficial Margents j the third part being the 
New;= World, our America. 

Here it will not feem amifs , having provM that Africa was more than 
Coafted by the Ancients, to ingage and fearch ivith fome fcrutiny concern, 
ing this America • Firft , Whether at any time 'twas known by the Anci- 
ents ? And next , by what People , and when firft Inhabited ? About the 
former, the Learned of thefe later times Jangle amongft themfelves , for 
fome of them will needs afcribe fo much Honor to Antiquity , declining the 
;Worthy Praife of thofe that made fo wonderful a Difcovery, as if they of old, 
and many Ages before, had done the fame, or at leaft, that this New*World to 
them was not unknown, maintaining this their bold Aifertion from the Au^ 
thority of what they find , both in Ancient Greek , and Latin Authors : Firfl;, 
efpecially in the Learned ^/.ifa, who, as you know at large, defcribesa New ^IL'^t'* ^^''""''''^' 
Atlantis, lying beyond the Straights of Gibraltar j whofe Coail is furrounded with 
two vafl Seas that are Sow'd thick with fcatter'd Iflands. By thefe Seas they 
underftand the Atlantiek and Southern^Sea, by the many Ifles, Cuba, Hirpaniola, 
Jamaica, California, and others, which lie fprinkled along the Coafts o£ America o 
But it cannot be made out, that (p/^.to defcribes ought but a Fancy, his own 
Idea, not a Countrey that ever was, is, or fliall be,though he fets it forth fo Ac- 
curately, and with fuch Judgment,as if he had taken a Survey of the place, and 
found fuch a Land indeed. 

In like manner, DiodorM Siculus undertakes to prOve,That America was known 
to the Antients j telling a Story , how the fhenicians were driven by a Storm 





A query :^ UJmenca vCis 
Known to the Ai^cients, 

pied, Sif. lib. S. 


AriflM Mirandit In da- 
tura anihif. 



^neid. lib. 5.' 

^A M E R 1 C A. Chap. I. 

from the Coafls of ^ncd Weft-ward, falling a: laft upon a great and akoge* 
ther unknown Ifland, which our late Expoficors take for America -^ Muft it 
therefore be fo ? Surely not, for it is onely a bare Story, v/ithout any Proof or 
the leaft Teftimony. They endeavor to ra^kt Artjlotk bolfter up their opinion 
that he had a knowledge of this New-World, which with no fmall pains they 
pump from thefe Words : ^^ Beyond the Herculean Pillars , certain Qarthannim 
*' Merchants penetrated the Atlantick Ocean fo far _, that at laft they found a 
vaft, yet un-inhabited Ifland, producing nothing but Herbage, Plants, and 
Wild=Beafts, yet interlac'd with many Meandring Rivers, abounding with 
" feveral forts of Fifh, lying fome days Sail from the Continent^ they Landing^ 
** found a Soyl fo fertile, and Air fo temperate, that there they fetled, and were 
'^ the firft Planters of that Ifle. But the Carthaginians having intelligence thereof, 
" Prohibited all Perfons whatfoever, upon Pain of Death, to go thither, fear* 
*' ing the place being fo much commended ;, all the People would be ready 
'^ to flock thither , and defert their own , and fo utterly unfurnifh and debili- 
" tate their then growing Common-wealth; 

But how could the Carthaginians find America , without the ufe of the Com- 
pafs I How happened it, that they were fo taken with the fertility of this their 
New'found-Land, when the Adjacent Countreys and Fields about Carthage are 
every where Flourifhing, and moft Luxurious ? So that it may better be fup- 
pos'd, that what Arijlotle found fo long fince, may rather be the Canary^IJles, or 
Great'!Brittain, than America. The Creeks having then alfo made fome Infjpei^tion 
into the ^rittijh-ljjes. They Would alfo make you believe, that Virgil the Prince 
of Latin PoetS;, had known the New- World in thefe Verfes 5 ^?icid. lib. 6, 

T?;^re, there^s the Prince ^ oft promised m before^ 
Divine Auguftus Caefar, "jb/;o once more 
Shall Golden Days bring to t//Aufonian Land^ 
IQngdoms that once old Saturn Jii command^ 
Andjhail His power to India extend^ 
beyond the Annual Circle, and beyond 
77;e Suns long ^rogrefs^'i^here great Atlas hears. 
Laden with Golden Stars, the glittering Sphears • 

Hicvir, hie eft, tibi quenx promitti faspius audis, 
Auguftus Cicfary divum genus, aurea condet 
Stecula,qui rurfus Latio, rcgnata per arva 
Saturno quondam, fuper dc Garamantas 8c Indos 
Proferet imperium. Jacet extra iidera tellus. 
Extra ajini Solifque vias, ubi coelifer Atlas 
Axem humero torquet ftellis ardentibus aptum. 

Amtrie» was not known 
to the Ancients. 

IttUaHt. l.j.c- 54; 

But what of all this ^ Who finds in any of thefe Writings, any Marks of 
America, or the leaft Defcription thereof? Though we cannot deny that the 
Antient Sages and Wife Philofophers of former times might eafily make out, 
and no queftion did,that the Earth and Sea made the perfed Figure of a Globe * 
firft from the round Shadow of the Earth that Ecclipfes the Moon 5 the diffe- 
rent Rifings and Settings of the Celeftial Luminaries 5 and the ftill Variati- 
on of the Pole; fo that the Earth and Sea making one Ball , they might 
eafily conje(5ture_, that the South-fide of the Equinoctial might be Inhabited as 
well as the North : But all this was more grounded upon Natural Reafon and 
Right Judgement, than any Experience of theirs , or the leaft certain know- 
ledge thereof, which fince thefe later times had the firft happinefs to obtain 5 
fo laying thefe Conjed:ures afide, there have been none more grofly erroneous, 
and fo utterly miftaken in this Point, than fome of the Ancients , and efpeci- 
ally the Fathers of the Church. 

LaElantiii'S Ftrmianus, and St. Aujlin , who ftrangely jear'd at as ridiculous, 
and not thinking fit for a Serious Anfwer the Foolifli Opinion of Antipodes^ or 



^ M E R I C 

another Habitable World beyond the Equator : At which, LaBantius Drol. 
ling, fays, What, Forfooth , here is a fine Opinion broad/ d indeed .^ ^« Antipodes/ 
MghMy ! People ii?hofe Feet tread D?ith ours, and H^alk Foot to Foot with us • their Fie ads 
dowmvards, and yet drop'not into the Sky ! There^ yes, -Very likely, the Trees loaden with 
Fruit grow dowmvards, and it (^ains, Hails, and S?toTi?s upwards ; the %pofs and Spires of 
Cities, tops of Mountains, point at the Sky beneath them, and the ^yers re^^ers'd topfi-turVy, 
ready to flow into the Air out of their Channels ! 

But thefe Teeming witty ObCtry.3.tions o^ Uaantius , though they may fervc 
for a Jell, yet are not grounded on any ferious Reafons ^ for the Earth and Sea 
being Globular, making one Univerfal Ball j all Materials whatfoever that 
belong to this great Body, fmk by a natural Propenfity towards its Center • 
fo that where.ever we Travel , our Feet are downwards, and our Heads up- 
wards, the Sky above, and the Earth beneath j neither need they fear, that any 
where the Earth (liould Moulder and drop into the Clouds : But St. Jujim 
Reafons better , admitting that the Earth and Sea make a Univerfal Globe - 
yet it-no way follows , that inhabited Countreys fliould lye oppofite to our 
Northern, nay, altogether impo/Tible , feeing that fide which is our ^«r^poJe5 
is all nothing but Sea ; and fhould we allow, that there were Land and Water 
mixt as ours is, who could prove, that they were Peopled ? or how could any 
get thither, over fuch Vail and Immenfe Seas ^ or poffibly pjfs the extream 
heat of the Torrid Zone, not to be endured by any living Creature ? And 
what then becomes of Sacred Scripture, which fays pofitively^TW^// Men it^ere , 
deriVdfrom Adam, and after the Floud , from Noah and his three Sons ? Therefore 
the Nations of the Antipodes muft be of another Abftrad, there being no poffi- 
bility (as they fuppos'd) of paffing from this World to that : But fmce the Dif= 
coYCty of the Eaft ^nd mji-Indtes , Experience, the bell Miftrefs, hath taught, 
that in the South are mighty Lands and vaft Territories, and that as far as they 
have been Penetrated, are found to be full of People , extending their Domi. 
nions from Eaft to Weft. And though St. Auftm deny d this now welUknowa 
Truth, yet long before his time, Qcero , Tliny , and others amongft the Gre^^y 
and (Romans, divided the Earth under five Zones ^ which T/rgi"/ defcribes 
thus : , 

Latlant. ci-rar Conteriir- 
ing oiu" Antipodes. 

. As alfo St. Aii^in. de Ci< 

Fiye Zones the heaVrts infold, hot Sun- beams heat 
Ahvays on one, and hums with rao-ino- heat. 

<±> <i> 

Tl?e two Extreams to this on each hand lies 
Muffled with Storms , fetter' d Dpith cruel Ice, 
'Twixt Cold and Heat, two more tJ?€reare,th'aboads 
Aj^ign d poor Mortals hyth' Immortal Gods, 

Quinque tenent caelum zoiii?e:c|uarum una corufco 
Semper Sole rubens,&: torrida femper ab igni : 
Quam circum extremse dextra,l^vaque trahuntur 
Cxrulea glacie concretae, atque imbnbus atris. 
Has inter, mediamque, duae mortalibus xgxis 
Munere conceOa! divum : via feda per ambas, 
Ohliquus qua fe fignorum verteret ordo. 

With Tz/vi/, fliny, and the Prince of Latin Orators agree , who faith ^^cr.Lm somnio sa^h^ 

'' You fee, that thofe that inhabit the Earth dwell in Countreys fo feparated 
'' one from another , that it is impoffible they fhould have any Commerce - 
" fome of them are our Antipodes, walking with their Heads downwards, fome 
^^ their Feet againft our fides, others, as we, with their Heads upright. You l^ee 
"how the fame Earth feems to be Swath'd about with Rolls, of which, two 
^^%aratcd by the other three , are at utmoft diftance one from the othe'r, ly- 
"mg equi-diftant under the Vertick Points of Heaven , always coverM with 
'\ Snow and Ice 5 bu<. the middlemoft and greateft is fcorch'd by the violent 

*^ heats 

vide Car^ent. Geogra^h, 



Flirty lib. i. 

Macrob. inSomns Scif. 
lib. 2. " 

How beafls came on re- 
mote Iflands. 

And chiefly the wild. 

^u^iii is contradided. 

How men came to new 


Rcafons why America was 
fo bng unknown. 

Who firft faird on the 

Several opinions oi th£ 
Anucnts concerning it. 

<iJ M E R 1 C J. Chan. i. 


'^ heats of the Sun : Two Trails are Habitable, one to the South . our Jntipo^ 
'^ iies, the other North;, which we Inhabit. 

And flmy alfo affirms, though againft the Vulgar Opinion, this triuh^ 
*' That the Earth is round about hihabited, and that people walk Foot to Foot 
^'^ in moR- parts thereof; though every one be ready to ask why our Jntipodes drop 
*' not into the Sky j which queftion;, our Antipodes may alfo ask concernincr us. 

But although the Ancients upon thefe and the like Denionftrations well un^ 
derftood, that there was a Habitable World towards the South under our ioc* 
ri\on^ yet they could not make out or believe, that there was any pofTibility td 
pafs thither ^ And, according as St. Auft'in conceived , That the Earth produced 
nothing under either Pole, by reafon of exceffive cold , and that the Ecniinoxs 
or Middk^Zone^ was not to be penetrated, becaufe of the infufFerable heat. 

And Macrohms laith^, " That the Ecju'inoHial Orc/f,the Jrtkk and Ant art ick Line s^ . 
^'^ bind the two Habitable Zones ^ and make Temperate by the exceffive Neiah- 
*^' boring Heats and Colds 5 and thefe Countreys onely give Animation, and 
^^ comfortable Enjoyment to all Living Creatures. ^ 

Moreover, St. Anflln in fome places feems to clear his own DoubtS;> fayinr, 
" That People , if they could find a means to Sail thofe Vaft and Undifcover'd 
'*' Seas, might make Land, raifing new Stars under another Sky. 

A Learned Father, fearching after the Original of all forts of Beads which 
multiply by Generation, concludes , That they mufl derive themfelves from 
thofe diat werefav'd with ISLoah in the Ark. But how came they to the Ides ? 
To thofe adjacent and near the Main Land, they might eaiily Swim ^ to the re- 
moter.they wereTranfpoired. 

But this Doubt is not altogether clear'd, for the Domeilick and other Crea* 
tures fit for Humane ufe and Suftenance were thus brought thither : Yet how 
comes it to pafs , that Voracious and Wild Creatures are alfo found there, fuch 
as Wolves,Tigers,Lions,and other Beafts of Prey ? This puzzle putting St. Ju- 
ftln to a Hand , he had no other means to get off, but by faying, that by God's 
Commands or Permiffion, the Angels conveyed them thither • If fo, why might 
not God pleafe to Plant Men there in like manner, and the rather, the Earth be*» 
ing created for Humane ufe ? But what needed this , when Men can in Ships 
Tranlport themfelves , either of their own accord for curious Inqucft, to find 
new Countreys, or elie enforced by ftrefs of Weather, to far remoter, and alto- 
gether unknown Lands : Befides, though the Earth is he"e and there divided 
by large Bays and vafl: Seas, yet neverthelefs, in other places it is all continued 
Landj or at leail parted by fome narrow In-let or Sea; fo that there was no 
difficulty for a crouded Plantation to go over, and fo eafe themfelves in an- 
other Countrey, till then not Inhabited ; therefore none need to queftion, but 
that from Adam^ or nearer, from Noah's three Sons, Seju^ Ham, snidjaphet^ thofe, 
as well as we, were extra(!^ed, that Inhabit this our other World. 

But one queftion is to be obferv'd , How firft after the expiration of fo ma« 
ny Ages in thefe our later times , a New^World was diicover'd , altogerhec 
unknown to the Antients , when they in the greatnefs of their Parts and iln- 
dej'taking, Prowei's and Prudence, were no ways inferior to the Modern, and 
every way as fit (or great Defignsand grand Exploits ? We need not fcrupleor 
make the leafl: doubt, but the Sea hath been Navigated of old ; but the firfl: at* 
tempters fet forth unexperienced, in as pittiful and ilLcontriv'd Veffels. The 
Heathens afcribe the Art of Navigation, firft to the Cretans^ who under the Con« 
dwOi oi t{eptune ^ fet forth a Navy to explore Foraign Countries. But ^Imy 


Chap. 1. ■ AMERICA. 

long before gives the Invention of this Ait to Erythra^ King o^ Egypt, who lipon 
Pieces of Timber^, conjoynM andbrac'd together, crept along the Shores, and 
ventured to Difcover the Illes in the ^ed-Sea. But others give that honor to the 
Trojans, and Micians, when with a Fleet by Sea^, they Invaded Thrace : Others, 
to the ^rittatns, who made little Veffels of Leather, and were the firfl that by 
this Invention found how to Float upon the Waters : Some plead, that the 
Samothraciaiis vrttt Rv9: -J Others, thit Van^us before all, found a way by Sea 
from Egypt to Greece. But without all Contradidion, IS^oah's Ark was the Pat- 
tern or Sample, that fucceeding Ages imitating, built their Ships by 5 and the 
more probable, becaufe his Offspring multiplying fo faft;, that they were en- 
forced to inlarge their Colonies, by paffing Seas, and other broad Rivers, to 
fettle their Super-niimeraries there. . 

So Ja/on Invented a Ship, which he call'd Jrgos, which Se^oflris King o^ Egypt 
took as his Pattern. Next, the 'B'tremis, a Galley with double Banks of Oars, 
was made by the Erythreans -, with treble Banks , by the Corinthian Jmocles j the 
addition of the (Quadruple , the Carthaginians boaft -, oi the Quinqueremis ISleJlchtho^j^ 
Alexander the Great , brought them to twelve Banks ; Ttohmy Soter^ to fifteen » 
Demetrius, Antignnus Son, doubled them to thirty -, Ttolomy Thtladelphus, to for- 
ty J and laft of all, Wilopater rais'd them to fifty Banks of Oars. Hippus a Ttri- 
an, was the firfl that fet Ships upon the Stocks 5 the ^hodians a Ketch, and the 
^ataVians a Boat j the Copes made the firfl Oar ; Dedalus the Mafl and Boltfpritj 
Tifcus the Beak -, the Tyrrheans the Anchor -, Tiphys the Rudder -, taking exam- 
ple from the motion of a Kites Stern j Icarus found Sails ;, fancy'd by the Poets 
for Wings^though fome afcribethat honor to his Father Dedalus. 

Mmos was the firfl that IngagM in a Sea-Fight, whereby we may eafily con- 
je(fture, that of old none adventured far into the Offiuj or to remote Countreys, 
not daring to trufl their fo (leight contrived Veffels. But thefe later times have 
ilrangely and fuddenly improv'd this growling Art of Navigation, yet pitched 
not to that height at firfl, as boldly to adventure, and loofe fight of Land. 

ThcTyrians RrH underflood how to Steer their Courfe by the North-Star, 
and wtien dark and foul Weather had Clouded the Sky , that they could nei- 
ther fee Heaven or Earth , but onely Sea, they direded their Courfe by the 
Wind ; and if they doubted the change thereof, they let fome Birds Hie, whom 
they follow'd , fuppofing that they flood difedly to the nearefl Land. But 
thefe arc but poor helps, and blind Guides to fhew you Land from the middle 
of the boundlefs Ocean. It is certain, that the Romans in the time o^ Julius Cdfar 
^ndjugufius, flretch'd the Bounds of that Empire Eaflward to £«p/?r^to , the 
^yne, and the 'Danube , and Weflward to the Ocean and Mount Jtla^ , Sailing up 
and down the Mediterranean^ with great Fleets, which floutly endur'd the vios 
lence both of Waves and Weather -, but all this made them not fo hardy, as 
once to think or look after new Worlds. But after the %oman power decreas'd^ 
by feveral Eruptions of the Goths , Vandals^ Huns, Normans, Lumhards, and other 
Northern Countreys, which fwarm'd with People, that overflowM all places 
like a Deluge, fo that Europe was every where puzzel'd and Imbroyrd, their 
whole bufinefs confifling in conjoyning Forces to withfland fuch bold Invaders^ 
and fo vexatious an Enemy. 

And farther Eafl, Afia was at the fame time little bettei*, flill trembling 
at the daily Alarms and Incurfions of the Scythians, Terjiansj and Saracens ^ and 
afterwards the Turks growing upon them more than any of the former, expe6l« 
ed no other than a fad Cataflrophe, fo that the known World had too muck 

C work 

Erlttains amongft the 
firft Inventors of Naviga- 

1 he firft Inventer s of fe- 
veral things belonging to 

Why in forrner Ages no 
remote Countreyb were dif^ 
cover'd. , " 

The manner of the Anti- 

ents Sailing. 

Cf the Rdmaiif. 

Why America Was fo latc^ 
ly known. 

Hieron. met. ZpJ:ef. 

lo' <a M E%I C A Chap. 11. 

work cut out for them by thefc Diftracflions and Alterations of Government 
then to go in Quefl: of uncertainties, to find they know not where, another. 

Here alfo is added by St. Jerom, what an antient Writer faith. Great care hath 
been taken in Commuting the Agt of this World , and if there he another which Commenced 
not lip'uh ours, (as Clemens mentions in his Epiftles) Hihere are fcituate thofe Seas and 
Lands that make that fecond World ? Or is it a part of that ^ in ^hich Adam ivas Created ^ 
Or may it not rather Metaphorically he taken for V/orldly Affairs^ govern d by the frince of 
the Jir, ruling in the Hearts of the Children of Dif obedience ? 
The .-(mients opinion of But Wny , Cicero, and VirjrlU the beft in their kind of Latin Writers, concur 

an world. ,_^,. 11111 * 

Ihat there may be a habitable World under am Horizon, in the temperate 

Southern Zone, beyond the extream heat, and on this fide of the Antartick 


But what fignifies all this to the Difcovery o^ America, which lies not onely 

under the fcorching Heats of the Equiiiox , but under the Frofts and Snows of 
V. f^^^~;^"^^''°'^''^' the Artick and Jntartick-Toles ^ Yet lefs probable is that which Lodowtck Leo, an 
foitthhilniS^ld ^^'g^'P^^^ Frier takes out o^Obadiah ■ as if that Prophet in the three laft Verfes of 
i£(t/S;/SJ#r^ ^^^ Proj^/^eg fhould fpeak of the Spaniards, which (hould not onely difcover and 
'Jl^toff.n^n^^^^^^ Conquer America, but alfo Convert the Inhabitants to the Chrijlian Faith, hccauCt 
'^A!!rttca ttf^^fMsfo^ ^^^^^ ^^^"^ ^"^^ ^^^ Sepharad, Oiould Inherit and Poflefs the Cities of the South, 
of the Mdrenofiix^d jhaR j^ij^ SaVtows [hall artfc from the Mountains of Zion, to iudcre th CMount and Wealth 

pojjejs that of the (.^naanites, J J J J 'JO ,w ^^ *,^ 

even ttnta Zaiephath, and qj- ^,\2i\X» 

the Cii tivity of Jsrufalem, J 

•ahichuxn sepharad y^.a But ccrtaiuly , Obadiah meant no other than the Reilauration of the lews from 

pofjejs theCttiesof the Jouth. J > J " •<'•■'■'■ 

jud javioys M come t<poK thc Captivltv o^Babylon, who after their return, fhouid arow more powerful 

mount Zion , to judge the i. J ^ > 7 X2 j- vTx^iiw* 

mount of ^{m,ani the king, [^an ever, and they, led by their Mel^ias, obtain the height of all felicity who 

dom Jh.-illbe the LOR.DS ' ■' ' J J * D /' 

^^^^^^^i!'''''^'''''''''^''^^''^^^ declare Salvation to the utmoft Bor* 

ders of the Earth. It is true, that the %aVms Expound Sepharad to be Spain, and 

therefore he concludes , that Obadiah ProphefiM of the Spaniard, and their Con» 

^ quells in America ; fo they would prove , that America was long known before 


And lallly, It fignifies as little what fineda and LeVmus Lemnius drive at, 
top.lT" '''''''' "'"'^"^'''^^^'^ '^^^'^"^^^^ ^^^ finding the ufe of the Compafs, Rigg'd a Navy at E:^io?t'Ge* 
her, which from the ^d^Sea had no indired Courfe to the Straights of Magellan-^ 
from whence he might Lade his VefTels with the Gold of feru. In whofe De- 
fcription it fliall be manifefted , that ^eru is not Ophir-, as forae without any 
fliew of Reafon or Truth would make us believe. 
' compX'^'^ notHndthc But as couceming King Solomons finding out the ufe of the cMagnet, it is 
foon faid, but not eafily proved ; for though that Prince exceeded all Man-kind 
in Wifdom and Learning, and was perfe(51: in the Operations , and knew th^ 
Occultefl: Secrets of Nature, underftanding; what e're beloncr'd to Plants, from 
the Cedar o(Libanus,to Hyfop^and the meaneft Shrub that grows upon the Wall- 
yet it nothing makes out , that he knew the Myftery of the Navigable ufe of 
the Load'Stone : But fuppofe he did know, there is no where any mention of icj 
and if this excellent thing, the Compafs, had been found in Solomons time, how 
came it afterwards fo utterly to be lofl: ? 

Albertus Magnus rniftakes , when he afcribes the knowledge of the Compafs to 
Ariflotle, of which he himfelf makes not the leafl; mention ^ neither Galen, Alex- 
ander Aphrodifienfs , fliny, Lucretius, nor any of the %oman, Greek, Arabian, or 
found' ""'^' "^ '"'^'" other Countrey Writers whatloever. Some give the honor thereof to an In- 
dian, others to a Shepherd in Mount Lla, whofe Clouted Shooes being full 
of Hob-Nails^ rhe Iron flicking faft to the Stones on which he flood, fi:opt his 



Di [uhUitatt 1. 

Variance of the Com- 

Genehrad. Chren. 

Chap. II. ~ J M E 'B^I C A. 

motion. And although the Antients found out many Secrets of Nature^ 
amongfl: which this of the Load^Stonc, Attra6i:ing Iron, as being its proper Foodj 
and the three forts of the Magnet^ of which fome will not draw Steel, found by 
Theatnedes a Greek Author, and other iince, well known Properties : Yet they 
never attained that knowledge, that the Load-Stone would eafe Pain , and ftop strange operations of 
the effufion of Blood, though the edge piercing the Skin, opened the Vein : as '^"^ ^''^'^^'°"^" 
Hteronimus Cardanus experiencM on himfelf and others, which he had from Lait- 
rentius Guafcus^ a great Chyrurgeon. Much lefs, that the Needle of the Comfa[s 
being touch'd by the Load-Stone on the Northfide of the Equinox^ refpeds the 
North J but deprejfing the Ankky and railing the Antartick Pole, it looks as fted- 
faftly towards the South : But far lefs dreamt they of its feveral variations, 
according to the Coafts that are neareft j as wheti you come from the Ifland del ^^ '" 
Cmryoy the Point varies more Weft; but Sailing towards the Equinox, it varies 
Eaftward; by which we may abfolutely conclude, that without this ufeofthe 
Load^Stone, firft found by Flavins MelVius 2l ]S[eapolitanj in the Year 130^. it was al- 
together impoflible to reach ^wmc^. So tha.t J of eph de ^cojia nfiiftakes, who when, and by whom the 

11 r } r ^• r i r >..t • • r -» ^ t Compafswas found. 

gives the honor or the hjndmg lo great a benent to Navigation, to iome Mabu- 

metan Sea=men which Fafques de Gama met with near Mo/amhique, who had Sail'd \ 

thofe Seas by the ufe thereof; whereas Gama's Expedition was above a hun« 

dred years after Melfim , who liv'd in fuch a jundure of time for Mathema* 

tical Learning, that few Ages boafted the like : For then flourifli'd in En(rland^ 

•and were Contemporaries, befides others abroad, ^chard Wallingford^ Isljcolas de 

Lynna J John Halifax, Walter 'Brkte J John Duns J 2.ndJohn de Lignarijs , all eminent 

in Aftronomical Arts, belonging to Navigation, and doubtlefs, no fmall helps 

to Melfius in this his happy Invention. 

Laftly, We will relate what hath been held as a feeming Teftimony, (that 
'America was known to the Europeans before the Birth of our Saviour) by an an- 
tique Meddal of the Emperor Augujius, digged out of the Ground in feru, and 
fent to his Holinefs at (^me , which may well be reckoned with the like 
Chcsit conttiy'd by Hermicus Cajadus, ^nno 1^0^. ncsiV Syntr a, a. Town in Portu- 
gal, where three Marbles Ingraven with antient Charaders, concerning a Pro- 
phecy of difcovering the EaJiJndies by the Tortuguefe, in the Reign of King Ema^ 
72«e/, were privately bury'd under Ground, and not long after, by a pretended 
accident digg'd out, which made fuch a buftle amongft the Learned, that fc« 
veral tired themfelves about the explanation of the fuppos'd Sibylline Pre = 

C H A P. I L 

Of the Original of the Americans , whence they came 
how, and from what Teople Planted. 

orieinalot xhe^mt- 

ABout the Original of the Americans , the Learned Difpute fo much, that ,w muchdifputedon 

they find nothing more difficult in Story, than to clear that 
Point ; for whether inquiry be made after the time , when the AmerU 
sans firft fettled themfelves where they nov7 inhabit, Or after what manner 
they came thither, either by Shipping or by Land; on purpofe, or accidental- 
ly 5 driven by Storm, or elfe forc'd by a more powerful People^ to remote 

Qi' from 



Voyage/, i. c. 8. 

The time v/lien Jmtr'ic 
was firti Peopled. 

The condition ot the firfi 
"orW after cbe Floud. 


from their old Plantations, and feek for new r or if any one fliould be yet 
more curious, asking the way that direded them out of another Countrey to 
this New World ^ or elfe enquire for thofe People, from whom th&Jmerkafis 
deriv'd themfelvcs I He will find feveral Opinions , and the Learned ftill 

The firft Doubt is concerning the time : Mr. Tunhas, where-ever he had the 
Hint, endeavors to prove, that Jmcrica hath been but lately Planted ^ for which 
he thus araues, '<^That i^ Jfia, or Europe furnifh'd America with People in Jhra- 
" hams time , or at leaft before the Birth of our Saviour ; then it mufl upon 
^' necelTity, by the Expiration of fo many Ages, have been much more Popu- 
. ' '' lous, then the Spa?iiards found when firft they difcover'd it. Befides^ the valt 


" Territories yet unhabited (fays he) are fufficient teftimoriies, that this New 
''^ World hath been Planted but fcatteringly, and not many Ages fmce, elfe 
" the Countrey would have more abounded with Inhabitants, becaufe the fer- 
'^ tility of the Soyl was able plentifully to maintain Millions more, then were 
^^ there when firll difcoverM : And what Marks are better to know a ncwPeo- 
"^ pie by, in any Countrey , than a rude Life and unfettled Government ? juft 
*' like a Family removing to another Houfe,which takes no fliort time to fettle 
'^ their Goods and Houfhold-fluff in a handfome and convenient Order. 

'' When Tsipah went out of the Ark on Mount Ararat, and not long after, faw 
^^ his Seed fpread over Jrmenia and JJfyria , the new Generation of People con- 
" lifted in Shepherds and Husbandmen , that fetled themfelves near Lakes and 
" Rivers. Villages, Cities (and much lefsj whole Kingdoms/were fcarce found 
•^•^ on the Face of the Earth, and as little of TradeorCommercejRicheSjDivifioa 
'f of Landsjcoftly Garments and Furniture for Houfes^werc not then in ufe^Fjut 
" the works of long fettlements in happy Peace. To curb growing-Wickednefs, 
^^and the Pride of Libertines^ who incroach'd upon their weaker Neighbors, 
'^ Laws were invented , by w^hich Bridle, the unbroke or wild World grew 
" tamer : And firft, the Affyrians w^ere brought to endure the Bit,and anfw^er the 
^' Reins of Government j then^i Greece^ and after that the (^omatis, who 
" fpreading their Power by Arms and Martial Difcipline , firft civiliz'd the 
^'^ Gauls J Spain, ^rittain J 2ind\3.({.\y Germafiy, 

" But becaufe a Countrey or Paftoral Life, knowing no Commerce,but mean 
<^' Hovels, and to dwell in Huts, priding in poor and no Habits , defpifing all 
" greatnefs,unlimited by Laws, and all things elfe, (which the People obferv'd 
" prefently after the Flood) is now found among the Americans , who will take 
^'^ them for ought elfe, but new Comers to that Land, as themfelves acknow^ 
" ledge ? For the Mexicans boaft^ that they are the eldeft there , and that from 
" them, feru, Chili, Chika, and other Countreys towards the South, had their 
" Colonies, and yet the oldeft Chronicles of Mexico reckon not above a thou^^ 
'^^ fand Years. Thus far Mr. Turchas, 

But certainly , all this Muftcr of appearing Reafons , is not able to van = 
quifh finale Truth ; For, grant that America was not very Populous when the 
^,«fm« was Peopled ma- Spaniards firft arrived there • muft this needs prove , that it was never w^ell in- 
habited before ? Perhaps the Civil Wars, which have been always deftrudlive 
to this Nation, have much hindred the increafe of People ; and the more, be- 
caufe their Salvage Nature is Inch, that in feveral places they account Man's 
Elefli Broird a very great Dainty. And fuppofe fuch Prodigal Exccfs of their 
Humane Bankets were not us'd in America, as indeed they are, Is it wonder, that 
fuch a great part of the World, not oncly exceeding Europe in bignefs, but Afia 


ny Ages ago, 

Furchas contfadlfted. 




Chap. IL 

alfo Oiould here and there have a Tra6t of Land uninhabited ? Thefe mighty 
by reafon of their Barrennefs, be ulelefs^ as many fuch places are found in the 
midll of the mod Populous and fertile Countreys. But above all this, it is cer- 
tain, that America to this day (notwithftanding almofl: innumerable thoufands 
of Indians formerly Slain and MalTacred by the Spaniards) is Co well in- 
habited^ that it may ftand in Competition with either Jfia or Europe. And 
how could fuch vail multitudes Plant the far=fpreading Counciey of Jmerica^ 
without the help of many Ages ? Moreover, This truth is not without (ijffici-- 
ent Tcftimonies - when any one looks on the Iflands with which Jmerka lies 
incompalVd , he may fuppofe they did not willingly go from the Main Con- 
tinent to the Ifles , but were driven thither by Wars among themfelves^ or as 
mod times it happens, becaufe of the vaft incfeafe' of the Natives , the Coun« 
trey muft difchargc its burden. 

'Hereto is added , the fevcral Languages us'd in America, as in Europe or any 
other part of the known World ; whereby we may eafily guefs, that America 
was Peopled prefently after the Confufion of Tongues at !BabeL Furthermore^ 
If the Americans live a Rude Life,go meanly Habited,be without ftately Houfes^ 
fuch Cuftoms are even among us obferv'd by feveral People 5 zs the Tartars , 
Numidians, and others , which made their Antiquity be call'd in queflion. He 
alfo mull needs have no knowledge of the Arts and Mechanick Sciences us'd by 
the Americans, vjho concludes, that they fetled but lately in America. One Ar- 
gument at prefent will be fufficient to contradid them all 5 and in the further 
Defcription, the contrary will be more manifeft. • 

Hieronimus 'Benfo relates, That he flood amaz'd at the Gold and Silver Smiths ^meman coid-Smkhs 
in the Territory of C/?i/'o, who without any Iron Tools^, made Images, and all 
manner of Veflels : Which work they performed thus, Firfl, they made an Oval 
Crucible of a good Lock , round about Pafted with Earth , embody'd with 
the Powder of Wood Coals 5 which Crucible being Bak'd very hard in the 
Sun, they fill with Pieces of Gold or Silver, and put in the Fire; about which 
Handing with five,fixjdr more Pipes made of Canes,they blow the Fire fo long^ 
till the Mettal melts, which others fitting on the ground, run it into Moulds 
of black Stone , and fo with little trouble, Caft into what fhape they ple^fc, 
Laflly, Though Mexico can reckon but a thoufand years, muil it therefore fol- 
low , that the Inhabitants are no older? How many famous places (even 
among our felves) have no longer Regiflers^ and if they have,they are common* 
ly Fabulous , few Nations boafling truly their own Original j which Argu- 
ment, not onely contradids (as we fuppofe) Mr. 'P«rc/7ii^, but all others afcri- 
bing the Plantation o^ America to our later times. 

S E C T. L 


N the next place, let us enquire, how the Americans \^ere tranfmitted thi- 
ther, whether by Sea, or Land ? Both which are feafible two feveral 
ways 5 if they made an Expedition thither, as Difcoverers, or were driven on 
thofe Coafls by ftrefs of Weather. 

The firfl: is moll unlikely, and not feeming poffible, for how could they 
Steer thorow fo vaft an Ocean, to Countreys they never heard of, without the 
Compafs, and other Necefiaries for fuch a Voyage ? for when firfl: difcover'd, 
their want of experience in Shipping for fo long a Voyage, knowing no fur- 
ther than the ufe of fmall Boats or Canoos^ plainly explode, that they willingly 


After what manner the 
Inhabitants of Ameucii 
came thither. 


^ M E'R^l C A, 

Chap. II. 

P/.« \.%. C.Xl, 

Steer'd from a known World, to an unknown , with no better accommodati- 
on J but Tome probable reafons may be made out, to induce us to believe, that 
they were rather driven thither by Storm. 

But fomc will fay, How liv'd the little Boats, and how indur'd they in fiich 
a continual Tempeft, and were not either fwallow'd up amidft the Waves, or 
ftarv'd for want of Proviiion, which their hollow Troughs could not con- 
tain ? 

The firft doubt is the leaft, for there are Examples enough by which appear, 
that oftentimes great Ships Bulging, are over=fet or funk in the Sea by foul Wea. 
ther when the Mariners efcapein their Cock^Boat j and if they were but thin- 
ly Vi(5tuard for fo long a Voyage, queftionlefs^ that little which they had, they 
fpun out, and made it lad, while the impetuous Storm fhortned the paflage, 
which fair Weather would have made. much longer. 

^iiny tells us o^ Jnn'ius Tlocquius, General of the %ed-^Sea, That one of his 
^anS7''^^^^''^^^'' ^^^^^^ bciug Eufrauchiz'd , Sailing down towards the Arabian Gulf, was car- 
ry'd by a violent Tempeft from the North, beyond Qaramama , and on the fif- 
teenth day came to an Anchor in Hippuros, a Haven o[Taproba?ie, which Ortel'tus 
judges to be Sumatra 5 but Mercator and Clu^erius, on better grounds, Zeyloity 
which is no lefs than three thoufand Englijl:> Miles. 

In like manner, Jofeph de Acofta tells us , That in fifteen days time, he got 
with a Northerly Wind from the Qanaries to Ajnerica^ and his Voyage had been 
fhorter, durft he have born more Sails, which may partly clear the former 
couccUnl^ZntLTsc^ Moreover, the Teruviam themfelves give fome fmall Teftimony (in their an- 
tient Records) of a few that Landed of old upon their Coafts, which were (as 
they fay) mighty and cruel Giants, committing much Bloodflied, Slaughtering 
the Natives every where 5 and having fijbdu'd the whole Countrey, built ftately 
Edifices, of which remain yet the Ruines of fome Foundations, very Artificial 
and Coftly. They alfo fliew near Mant^j and fnerto Viejoj many huge Bones (as 



Chap. II. ' <tIMERlCA 15 

they belieye of Giants, three times longer and thicker than an ordinary Mans. 

They alfo tell us, that many Ages fince, one lea and Arlca SaiTd Weftward thi= 

ther upon Sea Wolves Skins, blown up like Bladders : But however, without ^^;;^^- "^'fi''- ^'"^•^•^ 

contradiction, the Americans never kneW;, much lefs built any fuch VefTels, 

with, which they durfl venture to the Ojfm, out of fight of Land ; their 'BalfaSy 

Venafros ^QiW^ C^?2005, will not all amount to the Bulk of one of our fmall Barquesj 

wherefore the Inhabitants o^Tumhe^^ when they defcry'd the S^amjh Fleet, fent 

to difcover feru^ were amaz'd at the high Mafts, fpreading Sails, and bignefs 

of the Ships, judging them firft to be Rocks, call up out of the Sea ; but ob- 

ferving them to approach their Coaft, and that they were full of Bearded-Men, 

thought the Gods were walking in then; ; by our Modern Poet, Mr, Dryden in 

his Indian Emperor, thus Elegantly defcrib'd. 

Guyomar to Montezuma. 

K-idi'calous opinion of the 

I went in order. Sir, to your Qommandj 

To View the utmoft Limits of the Land : 

To fee that Shore, where no more World isfound^ 

^ut Foamy 'Billoli^s, breaking on the ground j 

Where, for a while, my Eyes no OhjeB met, 

But diftant Skies, that in the Ocean fet : 

And lo^-hung Clouds that dipt themfehes in ^in 

To pake their Fleeces on the Earth again. 

At laft, as far as I could caft my Eyes 

Upon the Sea, fomewhat, methouglit did' rife 

Lih Bluifh Mifts , iDhich fill appearing more. 

Took dreadful Shapes, and moVd towards the Shore, 

Mont. What Forms dtd thefe nelo Wonders reprejent ? 

Guy. More f range than liphatyour Wonder can in'Vent. 

The OhjeB I could firfl dtflinHly view. 

Was tallflraight Trees, which on the Waters flew ; 

V/ings on their fides, inflead of Leases did groU^, 
Which gather d all the 'Breath the Winds could hlol» i 

And at their ^ots grew floating Palaces, 
Whofe out-hlow'n Bellies cut the yield'mg Seas* 

Mont. What 'DiVine Monflers^ ye Gods, "^ere thefe. 
That float in Air, and fly upon the Seas I 

Came they aViVe or dead upon the Shore ^ 

Guy. Alas, they liVd toofure, I heard them roar. 

All turnd their fides, and to each other Jpoke^ 
If aw their Words break out in Fire and Smoke. 

Sure, 'tis their Voice that Thunders from on high, 
Or thefe, the younger Brothers of the Skie» 

Deaf wh the noife, I took my hafty Flight, 
No Mortal Courage canfupport the Fright. 

But the refolving thefe Doubts, flarts a harder Queftion, Vt^, Grant that the 
Americans were by Tempeft driven thither, How then came the Beads thither ? 
It is certain, that thofe which are beneficial for humane ufe , as Dogs for to 
Hunt, great Cattel, Sheep, for Food, and other NeceiTaries, might eafily be car- 

■*■ 1 y^ T T r c ' Jkrf^«- Spaniards carry Oxen, 

ry'd thither, for fo the Spaniards brought Cows, Horles, bwrne^, ana otner ^at* and sheep to the American 

tel J and alfo Poultery from Spain, to the ncw-difcover'd Ides, Cuba,Hi^aniola, . '"' 

Jamaica, Margaretta, and La Dominica, when at their arrival, formerly no four. 

footed Beads were found there, whofe fertile Soyl hath fo multiply'd their 

increafe, that the Doggs running Wilde , and breeding as faft, do great hurt 

to the Grazing Herds, which they onely fiioot for their Skins, leaving their 

Flefii, the bed: of Meats, onely to Manure the Ground on which they lie. 

The Tranfporting of tame and profitable Cattel might eafily be allowed of, 
but who would load their Ships with Lions, Tygers, Bears, Wolves, Foxes.and 
other Serpents and Voracious Beads ^ it is certain that fome may be tam'd 
before they were Ship'd. „ n ^ ,a. ... 

/ r i 1 r ^^ Beaib cam?. 

Lampridius relates, ThsitHelicgahalus the^oman Emperor, took great pleaiure in^«mv.,andtheifies. 
ia Domedick Lions, and Leopards, to frighten his Gueds withal ; for with tnvjaHei.osah.», 

the third Courfe, they were all brought in^ and fate betwixt the Invited, a Man 





1. cap. »7. 

Strarge Hunrinii 

Strnn^e accident of two 

JJzj fez in. I z. 


and a Bead. The great Qmm^ as Taulus Venetus an Eye-vvitnefs attefls, Rides on 
Hunting, attended in couples with tame Leopards. The King oid^mhoja in like 
manner is Terv'd with Panthers : Scali^er adds alio, That they v\^ent not unpro- 
vided of a Lamb or Goat, to give the Panther , left falling into his natural fc:. 
rocity, provok'd by hunger, he fliould make the Huntfmen his Qiurry, if he 
had no other Prey. But notwithftanding lome wilde Beafts leem to forget 
their Voracious Nature^, yet there ought great care to be taken in the Tranf- 
porting of them, becaufe they oftentimes grow wild again , which Fra?jce can 
witnefs, where two Leopards, a Male and a Female being tam'd , preiently 
after the death of King Fraiick, whether negligently or on purpofe, let loofe, 
ran into the Woods , and near Orleans devoured a great number of People, and 
Cattel : Gejner faith^ That fome Womens bodies were found;, who were un- 
touched, onely their Breafts eaten by the Leopards, as if they took them for 
the daintieft part j which is not unlike the antient^^re^, who according to Saint 
Hierom , entertained their Guefts as a moft delicious Difh , with Womens 
Breafts, and Mens Buttocks Roafted. Belides, the devouring nature of thefe 
Wilde Beafts, what profit could Tygers, Lions, Wolves, Bears, and the like 
advantage the Tranfporter ? And how came Serpents, Adders, and other Re- 
ptiles, thither over the Ocean, that with no Art whatfoever can be made 
tame ? Were the fmall Veflels juft laden with fuch terrible Creatures^ when 
againft their wills, they were by Storm driven on a new Coaft ? By thefe im- 
pofiibilities we may eafily judge, that the Jmericans came thither by Land, 
and no other way ^ but how, and upon what occafion muft be our next 

S E C T. I L 

To/0 reafons' l[f F T lftorjes generally gives us onely two accounts. Why People remov'd 

the peopb rtmov: horn i 1 .^ 1 -i t-i-ii-i i 

their couatreys. -^ -■- from ouc Counttey to another, either not, or thinly inhabited • whe= 

ther driven by force, or of their own accord, fo to unburthen and give eafe to 
their too Plethorick Countreys. 

Thus the ha.n\(h'd J apanners forfook their Native Countrey, and fetled them- 
felves in a defolate Soyl, llnce a flourifliing Empire, fhining with Riches, and 
CrownM with ftately Cities: So the ^atayians rook pofteffion of the uninhabi- 
ted Ifle, lying between the ^^ynCy and the IVael , being driven out of Hejjen by 
Civil-Wars , and preferv'd the memory of the place, from whence they had 
their Original on the utmoft Point of the Ifland , in the Villages of Offe??!^^^^ ; 
for the H^jZ/fn^ formerly went by the name of C^fti • others that removed did 
not onely fall upon their Neighbors, but made a way by force of Arms, cho- 
fing their Habitations under a temperate Climate, and in a fruitful Soyl. Af- 
ter which manner the Franks enter'd Gauly and afterwards the ]S[ormans fet upon 
France j fo that the Conquered Countreys, have ever flnce from the Conque- 
rors been call'd France and Normandy : But although it cannot punctually be 
faid, how the Inhabitants o^ America remov'd , yet it is without contradiction, 
The Hooa ackiiowiciig'd that thcy fitft fouud an empty Countrey. The Opinions which they have 

by the Aineyidin!. and other ri r \\ r • ^\ • • r\ \ n • 

H««fi.«j but myitcriouny. themfclves concerning it, are full of idle Fancies j Firft, they queftion their 
Original from the Floud, which is fo well rooted in the memory of all Nati- 
ons, that the blindeft and moft ignorant know fomething of it, though dc- 
formedly alter'd and vary'd , tack'd up with additional fabulous Stories, the 
truth it felf known onely to us, but to all others loft in Oblivion. 


Prometheni and Nsah are 
the fame, j 

Chap. IL ^ <tl M E R I C A, 17 

Who hath not heard of Deucalion s Flood, how his Wife ^-^rrhci and he only 
efcap'd in a little Boat, and fas 'tis FablM) landing on a Mountain, from 
thence Peopled the World again, by throwing Stones backwards over theit 
Heads .^ Something of this feems to hint the true Story of N04/?, his Wife^, 
and Children, from whom the defolated World was replenifli'd. 

The fame they relate of frcmietheuSy concerning whom, thus Dlodorus SkU" 
lus : " They fay that the Nyk breaking through his Dams, and over-flowing 
*' his Banks, drown'd all £g}'pr, efpecially that part where 'Promelk«5 Rul'd, 
" wh^re all the Inhabitants were fwallow'd by the Deluge. None can ima- 
gine but that Viodorus by this makes mention of a particular Flood,and not the 
general one in NoaJ/s time ; for as the Greeks afcrib'd all things to their Heroes^ 
fo the Egyptians in like manner did the fame to theirs : Therefore they have of 
the creneral Flood, made a particular one in Egypt, though perhaps it never was : 
So that what is Fabled of frometheus, is nothing but a Part of the Univerfal 
Delucre J which the Name Prometheus proves, becaufe it fignifies, Sprung from 
Beayen,2inA is the fame with ISloahy whom they hold to be the firft Father of all 
Mankind fince the Flood, born of, or regenerated from his Wife ^//^ - and Jfia 
fignifies Earth, or The Uother of all things ; and fo efpouhng IS^oahj being fprung 
from God, to Jrarat, from whence defcended the Generations of Mankind^ 
and by degrees Ipread over the whole furface of the Earth. 

The ChmefeSjEaJl'IndianSjJapannersj and other People of Jfia and Africa, have 
alfo fome knowledge of a very ancient Flood ; but hood-wink't under many 
idle Fancies, not unlike that which the Americans relate, from whom fcveral 
Learned Perfons find no obfcure Confe/fions of the Deluge, which thus my- 4coHa,u\c.z$i 
ftically they have wrapp'd up, That one Vtracocha came out of the great Lake 
Titicaca, and fetled his Reiidence upon Ttaguanaco, where yet remain the Ruines 
of ancient Walls, built after a wonderful manner : At length removing from 
Ttaguanaco to Cufco, he began to multiply the Generation of Mankind. They 
lliew in the foremention'd Lake a fmall Ifland, under which, the yfmertcans fay, Sn-ange Opimon of the 

1 /-jii-z-irr it-1 1 1 r ■ ■ nr" 1 r -Americans Concerning the 

the Sun fav d himielf from the Flood ; wheretore in ancient i imes they iu- Hood. 
perftitioufly obferv'd that place, heightning their Bloody Sacrifices with Hu- 
mane Slaughter. Others relate, That fix Perfons leap'd through a Hole out 
of a Window, from whence all Men were fince Extraded • and from that new 
Increafe, the place (after the Inhabitants of the Old World were all drown'd) v 

got the Denomination of ^acariTampo • and therefore they hold the Ta77ipo's to 
be the mod ancient Families : From hence Mano-ocapam derived, being the Pri- Orgnaioftk 

1 • Ti Kings, and their 

mogenitor of the Tncas or Kings ^ from whom fprung two Generations, H<^?20« 
C?^,^co,and Mrim Cu:^co. They tell us alfo,That their Tnca's,when they make War 
upon any People, fay that the occafion, as they pretend, wasj becaufe all Ter* 
ritories are Tributary to them juilly;, from whom they were deriv'd and re- 
ftor'd, being the firil: Planters of the New World v and withal. That the true 
Religion was declared to them from Heaven. 

This Relation, though mix'd with Fables, fliews (but very darkly) that f^j„v*«/ Flood is ta 
they have fome knowledge of the Flood : For who are thofe fix elfe that kenoutoftheScnpiure, 
leaped out of a Window to replenifh the Generations of Mankind, but Shem, 
Ham, and Japhet, with their Wives ? 

The Americans can sive but a little better Account of their firft Oriainal ? 
and indeed it is no wonder, becaufe for want of Books they can relate nothing 
certain, but only what they have Regiftred in their ufual Qiiipocamagosj which 
is not above four hundred years old. Acofla asking what Original they judg-d 

D they 

e Amerkan 


,! j 



i } 
! t 


^'m e%^i c a 

Chap. 11. 

ver uvictns ofxmon. they wetc of, and from what Countrey and People derived ? receivM no other 
Anfwer, but xX\2X America only was their native Countrey, and that they were 
deriv'd from no other elfewhere. But though the ^eruVians are of this Opi= 

Ana aifothe Mexicans, nioH, vct thc Mexicatis atc of anothet mind,aivin2 the Spaniards a far better Ac- 

of ch:ir Ongmal. ^■' r n 1 it i • n i i i • 

count when hrlt they came thither, wherein we mult a little deviate, >i;^. How 
they were removed from fome other place, as Robert Comtdus relates , who 
with many Learned and feemingly true Arguments affirms, That the Original 
o^t\\t Americans mufl: be fought for either among the ^hmtcians ^Sydonians ^Tyrians ^ 
Lib. I. cap. 7. ot Carthaginians J being indeed all one People. izZ'^ro^ofw:? faith thus of the '?k«i= 

cians^ ^' They liv'd formerly, according to their ownRelation^, along the Shore 
^' of xhtl^d^Sca ^ from whence removing, they planted the Sea-Coaft of the 
^' Syrians. Fejitis AVtenus the Latin Poet agrees with this Opinion,where he faith, 

On the Phenicians Cnafls the Ocean heats, 
Who throu<ih the Red-Sea Sailmz-, chan^'d their Seats. 
They were the firjl that yentur'd through the Seas, 
And freighted Ships with richer Merchandi-^e : 
Fair or foul Weather, They l^ithout controule\ 
^ ' Sought Foreign Trade , directed hy the Tok, 

OiiginaUnd Hjijitati- Jriftotk hoxu 2i Greek. '^ Old calls them Phenicians, from their being red or 

ons of the P'jimcians 5of|,"l lirl I Tllf^ 1 Y 11 1 ni 

whom, according ro federal bloodv With the Slaughter or ail Stranc^ers that Landed on their Coaft • but 

Learned, the Americans are '' 1 ^ • 1 1 1 1 1 ' 1 %> r • • t r r^ 

extraad. rather, and io indeed they are call d 'Phemcians, or Erythreans, from Efau, or 

Edom, from whom they are deriv'd ; for thefe two Words, or Denominations, 
fignifie in Greek, ^d -^ the two lad, the like in Hehrelp, ^henix him.* 
felf firll: planted all the Countrey lying between the River Eleutherus, and 
the Egyptian City ^elufium -^ and afterwards D^;?ji^f^ , wafh'd by the Medi:' 
terrane : But lince, thele Boundaries are al erM, on the North, hyjudea ; Weft* 
\Na,rd, hy thc Me diterrane '^ Southerly, by %ypt ^ and towards the Eail, by the 
Defart Arabia. 

The chiefeft Cities are ^tolemais^ otherwife call'd Aeon, Stdon, Arad^ Great Ca^ 
na, Sarepta, 'Biblis, 'Bothri^, ^erithus^ and iheir Princefs Tyre, formerly fcituate in 
an Ifle, but lince joyn'd to the Main-Land by Alexander the Great. 

None can difown, but that the Phenicians have every where been Admirals 
of the Sea • fo that they were formidable to the areatefl: Princes. When the 
Terfan King Qamhyfes came with a vaft Army againH; the Carthaginians, he was 
forc'd to give over his Defign, becaufe the Vhenicians refused to help him with 
their Fleet, being allied to, and the City founded by them : But they not only 
built Carth age, -vjhicli ftrove with ^ome to be the Emprefs of the World, but alfo 
thc famous Cities Leptis, litica, Hippo, and Adrumetum in Africa, with frt^/;^and 
Tartejfm in Spain • nay, they fcnt Plantations of People into the Heart o^ Iberia 
and Lybia. It will not be amifs to add Q^Curtiu^ his Relation, who tells us. 
Wonderful Power of the <( Whete-cver the fhenicians came with their Fleets, Landin? their Men, they 
^'^ fubdu'd whole Countrey s, and by that means fpread their Colonies over the 
*^ known World • Carthage in Africa, Thebes in [Boctia, and G7^ii;^near the V/efern 
■* *' Ocean. Arijlotle relates, " That they made fuchxich Returns of their Mer- 

*' chandize, and chiefly of their Oyl, in Spain, than their Anchors, Pins, and 
'^ all Iron Materials belonging to a Ship, in (lead of that Metal, were Silver. 

But to return to our Difcourfe, and dilprove the former Teilimony, That 
the Thcnicians found America, The formention'd Comtdus faith thus ; '' None 

"' can 

Hertdot. lib. I, 


Cliap. II. 
can JLiftly doubt 

A M E R^l C A. 




but that fince the Tl:c?ncims took the Command of the Sea Tefiimonics that the a- 

meiicms are denv'd frcni 









Firft Teftimony* 

Is contradifted. 

Lib. J. GengY. 
Ikmmijh.lji^ ■ 

from the ^)odianSy they more and more increasM their Fleets, and growinc? ^^c I'henkians 
experter in Navigation, pa/iing the Gibraltar Northward, became Mafters of 
' Cadi:^y3.nd ftill prepared new Fleets, which fearching beyond Jtlas Southward, 
difcoverM the Coafts o^ Jfrtca^ and the adjacent Ides, driving a great Trade 
" to the Canaries j and to thofe which lay fcatter'd along Cape de Verd, formerly 
call'd the Gorgades^ This way of Trade alfo was not unknown to the Greeks.^ 
Iberians J and other People^ but after the Thenicia?is affum'd it wholly to 
themfelves, without any refpeit or difference of CountreyS;, they funk all 
whomfoever they could catch. Curtim further adds, faying, ^^ I believe that 
the Thcnicians, failing into the Main Ocean, have difcover'd unknown Couns 
treys. And which are thofe ? Not the Gorgades^or: Canary Ifles j for thofe were 
fufficiently known before^ but a Main Land, far beyond. But though the ^heni- 
cians were moft expert, yet not skilful enough to make out fuch Difcoveries. 
They indeed were the firft that before any other failed out of the Mid-land 
Sea ; nay,they ventured a good way into the main Ocean, beyond the Straights 
of Gibraltar .^ or the Herculean Millars : But how far ? Not to the Gorg^<i^5, above 
half way betwixt Spam and America j but to the Caj^iteridesy or Flemijl^ IJla?ids, 
which to the number of nine lie in fight of Spain. Straho affirms this Truth, 
laying, "^ The Cajfiterides are ten, lying in order clofe by one another : One 
'' remains uninhabited; on the reft live a fwarthy People. This way the 
^henicians fail'd firft, when they were in queft for Trade, from Cadi?^. And 
though he reckons ten, there are indeed but nine, V/;^. St. Michael., St. Mary^ St. 
George, Tercera^ de Tico^ or Tenarijf, fo calFd from the Mountain which vomits 
Fire^ Fayal,La^ FloresjDel CuerVo, and Grdtiofa, Moreover,the fame Strabo relates, 
'*That the Carthaginians did not throw over^board the Traders on the remote 
*' Gorgades, but thofe efpecially that came from Sardinia or Cadi:^, 

Mean while, we cannot deny, but that the Gorgades that lye before Cape de 
Verd were frequented by the Carthaginians ^ long before the Birth of our Savior; 
but with io much admiration, that i^^?/wo their Captain in that Expedition was 
lifted amongft the number of their Fleroes, hapning thus : The Carthaginians 
failing for Cadt:^, to affift the ^henicians againft the Spaniards^ made that the Seat 
of War, which foon drew on a greater Defign ; for Hamilco and Hanno being 
impowr'd by the Senate at Carthage^ manag'd the War in Spain. Both of them 
were ambitious to difcover new Countreys. Hamilco fail'd along the Coaft of 
Spain and Gaule, reaching to Batavia, Hanno fteer'd Southerly, carrying thirty 
thoufand Men of all Trades in his Fleet, purpofing to build a new City in 
fome place or other, and got beyond the Promontory Jmpelufium, now call'd 
Cabo Spatil • the River 2tloaj which wafheth the City Ar:^ilU j and the Stream 
Lix, now Lujfoy where the Poets place the Gardens of the Hefperides, in the cu- 
ftody of a waking Dragon : From thence proceeding on his Voyage, he came 
to an Anchor in the Mouth of the River Suhur^ at this day calFd Stibu ; and 
afterwards before the City Sala., now call'd Salle, at that time made very dan- 
gerous by the voracious Beafts in the neighboring Woods : At laft the Fleet 
reached the Foot of the leffer Atla^., which ends at the Point Chaunariay by the 
Modern Navigators call'd Cabo Non, becaufe it was judg'd, that none could 
fcape with Life, that durft adventure to fteer beyond Chaunaria ; yet Hanno 
faird between Talma^ one of the Canary-IJla?ids, and the Promontory ^ojadoris^ 
towards the pointed Coaft called then Cornu Helperitwi, but now Qape Verd^ in 
the River Jffama, by Cajlaldm call'd Omirabi : Here he found horrible Crocco- 

D t' diles. 

Lib. \-J. 

Salt-IJlaiids how long 

Joa». Mariana de Reb. 
Hifpaa. lib. i, cap. %o. 

-Very remarkable Voy- 
age of Hattue the Cartha- 
grnian, aiona the Coalt of 
Africa to the Salt-IJlands. 




Strange Vifion. 

Baboons to be Men, 

A M E %^I C A, Chap.IL 

clilcS;,and Hipl>opotami or Sea^Horfes. Atfama is held to flow from the fame Foun- 
tain whence the Kyle hath its Original. In this Latitude Hmino defcried thofe 
Iflands which he callM Gorgones (from the three deformed Sifters Medufa^ Sthe» 
nio, and Enryale^ whofe Heads were Periwig'd with curl'd Serpents) becaufe 
they found as illfavor'd Women on thefe Iflands^which at this day the Hollanders 
call the Sak-IJlands j amongft which, the chiefeft is St.Jago, a Colony of The 
Tortuguefe j but the Mountains oppofitc to the Gor^onesy on the main Coaft of 
Africa, rifing aloft with fpiring tops near the Kiwcr MafitholuSy Hanno call'd the 
Chariots of the Gods,now nam'd Sierra Liona^ lyi^ig ^^ eight Degrees Northern La- 
titude. When Ha?ino and his Armado^either provok'd by an undaunted Courage, 
or covetous of Fame, if they proceeded in their fo wonderful Adventure, went 
forward;, where they reported, that they faw Rivers of Fire falling into the 
Ocean, the Countrey all about burning, and the tops of the Mountains dazle- 
ing their Eyes with continual Flafhes of Lightning, intermixed with terrible 
Thunder j adding further. That the Natives all the Summer fhelter'd them- 
" felvesfrom the exceflive Heat, in Cave^ under Ground j and coming forth in 
the night, run abroad with lighted Torches over their Ground, fo gathering 
in their Harveft, and Officiating all other Affairs of Husbandry : Yet Hanno no 
ways daunted at fuch ftrange Sights, fail'd from Sierra Liona Southerly to the 
jE^tiinox, where he difcover'd an Illand not far from the African Coaft, inhabited 
The Ancients beiievd by a touph and hairy People, to take fome of whom, he us'd all po/Hble means, 
yet could not ^ onely two Women, being incompaiVd by Soldiers, were ta- 
ken, and carried aboard j but being very falvage, and barbaroufly wild, could 
not be tamed, or brought to any Complacency^ fo they kill'd them,and carried 
their ftufPd-up Skins to Carthage, where they were a long time gaz'd upon with 
great admiration. * 

This Illand which Hanno then found, can be no other but that which we 
call St. Thomas, and hath a very unhealthy Air for Strangers, but elfc very 
fruitful, and abounding with Sugar-Canes j and the hairy People which he 
makes mention of, were 'Babeonsj or Baboons, which Africa in this place breeds 
large , to the amazement of the Beholders, in great abundance j becaufe 
thofe deform'd Monfters, more than any other Beaft whatfoever, reprefent 
Humane fhape. 

Here Hanno ftopp'd his Voyage, being hindred from going further for want 
of Provifion. Five years he fpent in this Expedition, before he Anchored 
again at Cadi;^, from whence not long after he fteer'd to his Native Countrey 
Qarthagey where he was receiv'd with no lefs Wonder than State, infomuch that 
none before or after him ever gain'd greater Honor, feeming to oblige his 
Countrey with the hopes of future Profits from thefe new difcover'd Regi- 
is for his Voyage piac'd qj^j . Nav, he reccivM a Name, and was plac'd amonaft their Gods in the 

longU the Gucis, /' ■' i- C» 

Temples, which he being ambitious of, promoted alter a ftrange manner, 
teaching feveral Birds to cry, The great God Hanno j which when they could 
fpeak perfed, they were let fly in the Air, where to the admiration of all Peo» 
pie, they every where repeated their well -taught Lefton. 

This the moft remarkable Voyage which hapded in the time of the Anci- 
ents, confidering they Wanted feveral Mathematical Inftruments belonging to 
"Navigation, and efpecially the ufe of the Compafs 5 and alfo confidering the ' 
length of the Voyage to Sierra L/o;w, whither never any durft venture before : 
Nay, in fo many Ages after Hanno, the famoufeft Navigators which were fet 
out by the King of Tortug^l, fear'd a long time to cut their Paffage through the 


Ths I/land St. Thom.ts. 

Hanno's Return." 


Chap. II. 



Mc^uimtiiaULint -^ however in long Procefs of timc_, divers Experirrients were 
made^ which have now fo much improved the Art of Navigation. 

Haww's Voyage was four hundred years before the Birth of our Savio» j Tefiimony that America 
therefore if none have been further than Hanno, until the nmeihc^onuguefec^t"."'^''"''''"'^"^'^ 
faird beyond Cape de 'Bona Efperan:^, how could America be difcover'd by Sea ? 
How did they fteer from the Salt-Ijlafids, or St. Thomas^ out of fight of Land, 
through the Main Ocean;, to an unknown World ^ Hanno himfelf, who was the 
ftoucefl of all Ancient "Navigators, not only crept along the African Coall, 
which made him fpcnd fo much time ^ but not daring to crofs over thofc wide 
fpreading Bays he founds, left not his hold of the Shore;, and meafur'd and 
fearch'd every winding Inlet and Creek : And if he found a New World, why 
was it not known ? The more, becaufe his Ambition carry'd him on to get a 
Name and Reputation by fuch Naval Difcoveries. And how true the Relati- 
on of this Expedition is,'?/wj/ tells us^ faying, The Journal-Books were then 
to be feen which Hanno writ in that his African Expedition : Though many of 
the Greeks y and alfo of our Moderns, following Hanno, have found feveral 
things contrary to his Obfervations, wherein he makes mention of feveral 
Cities built by him, which none ever fince heard of, or any hive feen, neither 
is there the leaft Marks of their Ruines to be found. 

This large Relation ferves for nothing elfe, but to fliew that they feek in 
vain herein to give the Honor of the Difcovery of America to the Ancients • 
And as little do thofe Teftimonies fignifie that are taken out of Diodorus Sicu* 
Imj K?iy, Tomponim Mela^ and uElian, It will be worth our time to hear every 
one of them particularly. 

Firfl, Diodorus faith, ''^Beyond L^hia. in the Ocean, lies a very great l'*^/*^7. 

■ ' _ >' •' ' ■' J Z) Second Tefiimony, that 

*^ Illand, feveral days failina in Circumference, having a very fruitful SoiLand 1^^ ^»'^rica»s are deriv'd 

*' pleafant Meadows, dimnguifli'd by Hills, and moiftned by Navigable Ri« 

*' vers, unknown in Ancient Times, becaufe it feems to be feparatcd from the 

*' other World, and was thus found ; The fJmiicians failing along the Lybiari 

*' Coaft, were feveral days and nights tofs'd with perpetual Tempefts, and at 

*^ laft driven to the forementlo'n'd Ifland, where Anchoring, and obferving the , 

" pleafant Scituation thereof, made it kno'#it to their Magiftrates. 

But how comes this namelefs Ifland to be Jmertca ! What Man would take iscomradiaej. 
that for an Ifland, which far exceeds the main Continent of Afia > And have 
the Thenicians afcrib'd the finding of this New World to any ? Whence then 
proceeds fuch great filence amongfl: all the Ancient Writers of a whole World, 
who otherwife us'd to give Denominations to the leaft remote Village, or 
Mountain, or River ? 

^liny Ipeaks after the fame manner, faying, " The Writers make mention^ 
•^^ that Atlas rifes out of the middle of the Sands,With a Shrubby and Bufhy top 
" towards the Sky, on the Shore of the Ocean to which he gives his Denomi- 
^^ nation ^ That it is full of Woods, and water'd by feveral Fountains on that 

fide towards Africa, by which means it bears all manner of Fruit. In the 

Day-time none of the Inhabitants appear, all things being in filence, as in 
*' the middle of a Defart ^ the Approacher is ftruck with fudden Amazement. 
*' And befides its exceflfive high Crown, reaching above the Clouds,and neigh« 
*' boring, as they fay, the Circle of the Moon^ appears in the Night as if it 
" were all in a Flame, refounding far and near with Pipcs,Trumpets,ahd Cym- 
" bals • and the Journey up thither, very long and dangerous. 

I carinot underftand thztf liny can mean Jmmca by chis/ becaufe himfelf, in 


Lib. %. eap. I. 
Dcfcription o( Atlas.' 



! |H 



Lib. I . cap. 4. 
S:ran<?e Men. 


Ii'^, j.c.lp. 18, 

Difcourfe between ■<^'R- 
d.ts and Sileniis concerning 
the Unlinown World. 



A M E %^l C J. Chap. II. - 

the firft Divifion of his Fifth Book, makes his beginning with the Defcripti^^ 
on of Africa : And as to what further concerns the ftrange Relation and dan* 
aer thereof, is a little before related in Hannos Voyage •, .and it is but a flight 
Argument to prove it J7?icrica, becaufe it Teems to refound with thofe forts of 
Inftruments which the Americans were obferv'd to ufe when difcover'd. 

^ompoiiim Mela being the third, hath no greater Arguments than the former. 
*' We hear (fays he) that utmoft People towards the Weft, being the Atlanttcansj 
^' are rather half Beafts than Men, cloven-footed, without Heads, their Faces 
upon their Breafts^ and naked, with one great Foot^ like Satyrs or Goblins, 
which range up and down, without any Artificial Shelters or Houfes. 
Laftly, JEl'tan feems to fay fomething, when he Tets down the Difcourfe be- 
tween JMida^ and Sihimsj out of Theopompmy where Sihius relates, *' That Eu* 
^ rope^Jfia, and Lyhia are Iflands ; and that a vaft CoMntrey lyes beyond this 
his tripple-divided World, mighty Populous, and abounding with all other 
Living Creatures, as big again as ours, and living twice as long : That they 
^ are wondrous rich ; their Religions, Laws, and Cuftoms, founded upon 
""^ another Morality and Reafon, quite different from ours. They boaft efpe- 
'^ cially of two great Cities, Machimu^ and Eujehes j the Inhabitants of the firft 
^*^ maintaining themfelves by driving altogether a Trade of War, muftering 
"^ up, and filling theirnumerous Regiments with feveral valiant Nations. The 
'' Lifted Citizens amount in their Mufter-Rolls, all bred to Soldiery, to two 
*^' Millions, of whom few but fcorn either dying bravely by Wounds received 
with Flint=:edg'd Laths, and Staves, in ftcad of Spears, pointed with Stones, 
' not knowing the ufe of Iron or Steel, but fo over^ftock'd with Gold and 
' Silver, that they account it a Drug of lefs Value than our bafeft Metal. 
Some Years fince they march'd into our World, a hundred thoufand ftrong, 
'' as far as the Hy^erhorean Mountains, where being informed, that all the Na=x 
^^ tions of our World, compared with them, liv'd in a poor and defpicable 
" condition 5 as not thinking them worth their Conqueft, they returned. But 
" thefecond City Ettfehes, dcds altogether in Peace, and its Citizens are not ra- 
pacious, but exercife Juftice, fo much affeding Vlorality and Divine Wor- 
' fiiip^ that they conquer Heaven by their Piety and Meeknefs j and the Gods 
themfelves are pleased to defcend, and advife with them concerning their 
" Celeftial Affairs. 

Who obferves not this to be a Poetical Relation^ fliewing how much better 
the Acquirements of Peace are, than thofe of War • the one conquering only 
Men, the other, the Gods ^ Nor can more be taken out of jElians Difcourfe, 
but that the Ancients believ'd there was another Habitable World to be our 

Thus far hath been difputed concerning the Original o^ ih^ Americans y\Mho[c 

Plantations from Tyre or Carthage by Sea, are found altogether invalid : Yet 

Luiuirics Nvkthcr the we will fearch a little further, to fee whether the People Analogize, either in 

jnfhruricMis of the t'he- ^ 

uh the ^- their Religion, Policy, Oeconomy, or Cultoms. 

It is certain, that the ancient ^henicians liv'd in Tents, and fometimes ex- 
changed eateU'Up Paftures for frefli, which the Americans to this day obferve - 
by which it might appear, that they are of a Thcnician Extradl. But why not 
as well derived from l>{umi(lia^ Tartary, or the ancient Patriarchs, who all liv'd 
fuch an unfettl'd wandering Life ^ Befides,the ^henicians had a long time givea 
over Paftoral Bufinefs, for Maritime Affairs of greater confequence, not only 
Merchandizing through all the World, but fending great Colonies in Ships to 




niciam a^rec \v 
i^\ tnericans. 


Chap. II. ■ A'MEX^ICA. 

new Plantations : And moxto\ttytht Americans could not fo ftrangely degene- 
rate from their Anceftors, but would have built great Cities like them j of 
which many were found in ^henicla, but none of Antiquity in America. 

As to their Religion, if it agreed with the fhemcians, it was the fame that all Asaifo both their ReU- 
the World profefs'd at that time, and therefore may as well be extracted from ^'''"'* 
any other, as them : 'Tis true, we find them inclind to Sorcery, and dealing 
with Evil Spirits, as the fhenicians, in which they were not only guilty, but all 
other Nations at that time. 

Nav,whv not as well tranfported out of Ma or Europe.vjhcTt were formerly The Known worid for- 

1 f r 1 1 1 r 1 • t 1 • 1 r> • A J '"^"'y ^"^^ '^^ Witches. 

many the likeTamperers,and thole that dealt in iuch Diabolical Sciences ? And 

why not from Salmantka^ where, qls Laurentius Ananias relates, Magick-Arts BeNat.mmon.i.z. 

were publickly taught, and they commenced Dodors, and took their Degrees 

according to their Learning ? The Devil alfo hath publick Worfliip amongft 

the Americans, and fo he had vj ith the Thenicians : yet not only they, but the 

whole World had dedicated Temples to him. Here began Humane and Infer* Lucan.ub^e, 

nal Sacrifices, fuppofing that Evil Spirits were delighted, and fo feafted with 

the Steam of Humane Offerings, whofe fweetnefs made them milder, and fo 

intoxicating^ luU'd them into lefs mifchief. 

How famous is Zoroafter, and the whole School of the Eafiern Magicians ? u.^indnh^^odTmld 
In Mo/es's time this Wickednefs had already took place : Nor can it be deny'd nov/hy Ac Americans. 
but that the ^henicians carry'd their Idols in their Ships, as Herodotus teftifies, -^ Wois in ships. 
faying , *^ The Image of Vulcan much refembies the ^hmicians ^atacoioi^ which 
" they plac'd on the Fore-caftle of their Ships. 

In like manner, the Americans when they go to Sea^, carry their Idols with 
them ; and the Ships took Name from the Image, which was either painted 
or carv'd on the Stern, or plac'd elfewhere upon the Deck. 

The fame Cuftom the Chinefes obferve to this prefent : Vrancu 'Xayeriiis re- 
lates, ^^ That he faiTd in a Chinefe Vefiel from Goa to Japan, which bore an 
" Idol in its Stern , before which the Mafter lighted Candles, perfum'd it 
**^ with Aloe-wood, and offered Birds and other Food , inquiring of it the 
" Event of his Voyage. Sometimes he judg'd from the Statues immovable 
[' Looks, that it would fall out fuccefsfully j and other times, not. 

Laftly, Torphyrim relates, '^ That the fhenicians upon any great Exigency, as ^^ ^^pn^nt ^numi.u\ 
" War, exceflive Heat, or Mortal Diilempers, by order feleded one of the 
** moft comely and beautiful of their Children, to be offered up to Saturn. And 
Eufehius faith alfo out of ^orphyriuSy ^^ Thz-t Saturn, whom the ^henicians call Prewar. Evang \^h..i: 
" Ifrady the Learned Vof^ius and Hugo Grotius read 1/, or El (one of the ten 
** Names of God in Hebrew) which they alfo give to the Planet Saturn, who 
" when he Reign'd in ^henicia, having one only Son born by the Nymph Ano<> 
" hret, and was in danger to lofe his Kingdom, being worilcd in an unlucky 
" War, he drefs'd him in Royal Robes, and placing him on an Altar built for 
^J that purpofe, facrific'd him with his own Hands. 

And although fuchlike cruel Oblations are us'd in America, mu^ it therefore m™ anj children ufed 

ft* , ^ . . r r \ 1 for Sacrifices by i\\e Pheni- 

roUow, that they are derived from the ^henicians,^htx\ leveral other People are a<Tw and other People. 

guilty of the fame ? Nay, there is fcarce one Countrey, which hath not at 

fome time or other perform'd fuch inhumane Ads, feeming to them Zeal in 

their Religion 5 for the moil eminent of the Heathens fcropled not at it, which 

certainly are held to be the ^erfians, Greeks, and ^mans j and yet they were not 

abhorrM^ though committing Humane Slaughters. 

This holy Butchery and Religious Slaughter of Mankind began in ^me m 



V.'hn forbade the facriS- 
cini oi Men. 

Lib.Je Stt^ey/lit, r. 
Lib. ! I . Gifoc 

Lii. 1 . caf. 

Bsll. Gal! Comm. 


^ M E T{I C J. 

Chap. II. 

the Emperor Adrians Reign, To continuing till the time of Terttillian, LaBantl- 
us, and Eufehius. The Gredj which inhabited the iitmoft part oHtaly, em- 
ploy'd themfelves daily in Sacrificing Strangers to Saturn, and fometirnes one 
another. But at laft this formal Cruelty became a ridiculous Cuftom • for the 
(^Qma?is by fevere Edidts ftrialy forbad allfuch Humane Offerings: Yet that they 
might retain fome memory of their former Sacrifices, they order'd thirty Ima- 
ges to be made of Ruflies, which every year on the fifteenth o[ Jpril, were b'y 
the (]{oman Priefts and Veftal Nuns, to be thrown from the Mihian Bridcre into 
the Tyher. 

Moreover, Manethon rchus, '' Th^t the E^yptiajis in Heliopolis us'd to offer 
three Men at once to ^w^/o 5 which Cuftom was obferv'd till King ^w^yiy or- 
der'd, That in ftead of Men^they (hould ferve her with Wax Candles. 

Jmefirps, Queen to the famous Xerxes, caus'd twelve Men to be burn'd alive 
as an Oblation, to pacific and oblige fluto to maintain them in their prefent 

Trocopius relates of the People about the Jrahtan Gulfh, '' That they often- 
^^ times Sacrific'd Men to the Sun, 

'' The Indians, faith 'Tomponius Mela, kill their nearefl Relations and Parents 
'' before they decay by Sicknefs or Age, and judged it fit and moft Religious to' 
" Fcailand Banquet themfelves with the Entrails of the flain. 

The Albanians , ^sStraho relates, offer yearly one of their Priefts to the 

The fame Afe/rf relates of the T^wn, That they us'd to cut the Throats of 
Strangers, whenever they came near to the Place of their Sacrifice. 

The Egyf)tian Idol Typhon, as you may read in Mancthon, was daily made red* 
hot, and living People put in^, and broylM to death. 

But to pafs by feveral other People guilty of fuch bloody Idolatry, How- 
did the Altars creded in the Woods in Gaul and Germany, for Taran, Hefus, Ten- 
tares, and Woden, continually fmoke with the Blood of Humane Expiations ? 
Of which Cdfar faith thus in his Commentaries j " The Gauls are a very Devout 
'' and Superftitious Nation j and therefore when any were dangeroufly fick^, 
'' or likely to be worfted in Battel, they vow'd to feaft their Gods that favM 
'' them with Humane Flefli , and" if need were, would make themfelves a 
"' thankful Sacrifice to thofe that helped them off in fuch an Exiaence. Con- 
'^cerning thefe bloody Rites, they confuked and imploy'd the Druydes, by 
" whole advice they all believed that no Vidim was fo acceptable to the IS^u- 
*^ mens , as pour'd<out Humane Blood, but efpecially that of Malefacfbors • 
'^ which Dainty if they could not procure, their Gods mull: be treated with 
*^ the Lives of the Innocent. 

Laftly,the Holy Scripture faith thus, W}?en the I'Qng of Moab faliy that the battel 
was too fore for him, he took ivith him fe\en hundred Men that drew Sr^ords, to break 
through even to the I\ing of Edom 5 but they could not. Then he took his eldefl Son, that 
fmdd have reigned in his flead, and offered him for a 'Bmmt-ojfering on the Wall. 

Thefe Tcftimonies are fufficient Witneifes^ That the Ancient Heathens ex* 
preisM the height of their Devotion, and fury of mad Zeal, in fuch execrable 
Rites, as to this day the like is pradifed by the hidians, Chinefes, Japanners, and 
others: Wherefore it can no ways be a fufficient ground to prove ;, that the 
Americans are derived from the fhenicians, becaufe of their Humane Sacrifices, 
for that they were ufual Cuftoms in all Places, 




Chap. II. ^ AMERICA. 

The third Proof they offer us, is borrowM from the fimilitude and likenefs 
of thtnmkun and American Languages : Comt(£us fets down fome Words, Vi^. 
tht^henklans C2XVA a Mountain, ^W^ 5 Blood, Edom -^ a Mother, Anech ^ a. 
Maid, miotia ; Water, Heni, znd Jam : With the firfl agrees the American Anth^ 
la. with the fecond, Ho/fio«c/7; with the third, >4W ; with the foutth, tt/- 
lotie- with the fifth, Ame, Sind Jame. But thofe that will thus corrupt the 
Words, may as well make the unfeemlieft Comparifons. It is certain, that the 
nenictans and fome of the Americans call a Cup Afur, and Red Wine, ^elafa - 
But does it therefore follow by this, that the one is extraded from the other ? 
How many Names do fignifie all one, amongft People that never had any 
Convcrfation together ? This proceeds only from meer accident j Or clfe if 
fome Words of one, found like the fame Words us'd in a remote Countrey, 
and be of one fignification, muft they therefore be deriv'd from one another ? 
Then upon necefllty the Greeks, Latins, and Germans had their Original from the 
HehreTi^s, br the Latins from the Greeks, or the Germans from the Latins, or the 
^erfians from the Germans ; or, on the contrary, the laft owe their Extrad to 
the firft. I will as a Teftimony, and to give you a Pattern, pick out a few 
from a greater number. 

How little difference is there in many Words between the Greek and 
Behrew ? The Hebrews call a Church=Congregation Sanhedrim , the Greeks 
:ZvviS^e^ov ', the Greeks ^or I advife, ufe,raG«, the other nHSl ; the a^reTbs call 
,Wife-men Zo^hei, the other So>o. : And lefs difference there is between Sympho- 
niah and S.^<po.;<x, A welLfet Lejfon ^^ ot Tfanterin ^nd ^^ATig^o., A Spiritual Hymn: 
And who alfo will not find a near refemblance in the confonating of divers 
Latin 2Lnd Hejbrew Words? For there is little difference betwixt M/«rtf/? and 
Menfura, a Meafure ; Shekar and Saccarus, a fweet Moipre • LeVya and Leana, a 
'Lionefs,Sabheca^ndSa7nbuca,aChoppmg'^hoard- (Pefa ^ndTajfus, a?ace. 

Then ftarting over the Greek and Latin, the Tcutonicks would likewife pro. 
ducc many Words which have the fame found and fignification with the He- 
brew J as Chobel,a QaUe ., Ethmol and Etmael, Watching ; Sothim and Sotten, Fools ; the 
Hebrew Arets,is in 'Dutch,Aerde, or as we in Englijh^Eard Lands 5 <^hert and ?eert, a 
Horfe • Leyyah and Leeuii?,a Lion 5 Shad and Schade a, damages 5 K^iffe and liujfen.m 
our Dialed the very fame,/(,# ; 5/^^^^» ^^^ Schenken, agmng, whence we derive 
our Engli^y Skinker, from ferving of Drink ; 'Bel and Beeld, an Image ; for Bel 
properly fignifies Lord, perhaps becaufe the Images of Heroes or Lords were 
worfliipp d by them, or elfe becaufe I^inus firft ereded an linage for his Fa- 
ther Belus, ovBel^to be worfhipp'd. 

It would make a large Volume it felf, to reckon up the Confonancies of 
the Hebrew, Greek, ^nd Latin, 'and their fcatterings among all Languages where 
ever their Empire fprcad, the one being indeed borrowed from the other, as 
all Languages that deal or have any converfe together: For not only the 
.Words, with fome fmall Alterations of Letters, fignifie the fame in both Lan- 
guages ; but alfo without the leaft alteration. Both Greeks and Latins exprefs 
Ido, hj Ago 5 the Number Eight, by OBo ; an Arm, by Brachium or Brachion, in 
Englijh, Branches, and Braces - I eat, by Edo ; a Cup, by fhiale . a Curtain, by Cor- 
tina, or Cortine ; Merry, by Hilaris, or Hilaros • a ratling Noife or Sound, by Clango-^ 
a Camel, by Camelus, or Camdos ; a I^nee, by Genu^ or Gonu 5 a Bowl or Chalice, by 
Calix ; a Moufe, by Mus • Deceit, by Dolus, or Dolos -, a Houfe^hy Doinus, or Do- 
mos ; ' I carry, by Fero, or fhero -, the Pronoun I, Ego 5 a Lion, by Leo, or A^'^v . 
Flax, by Linum, or Linon 5 a Mother^ by Mater ^ or Meter | now, by nunc, or nun-^ 

Third teftimony. That 
the JmeHcans are denv'd 
from the Phenicians , be- 
caufe their Language agrees 

Is contradifled. 

Greel^ and Hthew agrae. 

Alfo the Nihejf and L4 

Likewife the Teutotiick, 
the great Language of Ger- 
many , Britain , the low- 
Ceuntreys, ■ nd other Nor- 
thern Nations. 

Grei\ anJ Latin Tongues 

Ahrah. Milii, ling. Bilg. 


A M E -2^1 C A. Chap. II. 

theNi^ht, by 2^oXj or Nux -^ a '^ock-ftoney hy Tety a -^ a Kichname ^hy Sconma, or 
Skomma ^ a 'Boatj by Scapha^ or Skaphe j d TreafurCy by ThefauruSj or Thefauros - 
Father^ by 'P^tt^r j I tremble ^ by Tremo -^ an Hour, by Ho/'.i • t/;e Eyenin^^ hy Vei^e- 
ra, or Hejpera ; and an innumerable many Words more, chat are of one fignifis 
cation in both. 

Ton^'^cXlv^nt ^Ziltuds Now if thcre is not the hundredth part of the refcmblance found between 
the American and Theniciaji Tongues, as there is between the Hehrap, Greeks, Latin^ 
and Vtitchj according to the foremention'd Examples, which notwiihfl-anding 
cannot be obfervM to be deriv'd from one another, what teftimony can there 
be in five or fix Words, which only have a few Letters that do not differ? 

^ Ame> ic.tns nvjchiivided gut fuDDofe that the agreeing of the Theuician and American Tongues could 

in ^^^eech aad People. C -*- O O u 

ferve for a teftimony, that thefe lafl: People had their Original from the firft^ 
then there remams another doubt, Vi:^, To know what Americans acknowledge 
the ^hentcians for their Fathers ^ becauie their Countrey is fo big, that it may 
almoft ftand in competition with all the other three parts of the Know^n 
World, being divided by fo many Nations, which differ not only in their va» 
rious Cuftoms, but alfo in their feveral Lang-uages, moft of them not having 
the leaft likcnefs one with another : "Nay, often times the Inhabitants of one 
Province differ fomuch in Dialect^, that;, according to Tetrus de Cieca, the one 
cannot underftand the other. 
In ^mnica one Tongue JqJ^^^ dc Laet obfcrvcs out of fetcr Martyr, and other Writers concern in2 the 

IS not at ail like the other. -^ -^ ' O 

IVeri-hidies yTha.t there are feveral Languages and ftrange Words fpoken among 
the divers Inhabitants o^ Amerka-^^ov the Hurones call a Head Sionta-^ the Mexicans^ 
T:^ontecontli -^ tht lnh!^hita.nts of IS^ew-iSletherlandy A?wuji -^ the Br afdians, Ac a)iga - 
the Jaos, Boppe : the Figures One^Two, Three^, and Four, the Hurones tell thus, 
Efcate^ Te?ii, Hachin, Dae 5 the Mexicans, fe, Ome, leij Nahuy ; the Sankikanders^ 
Cotte, Nyffe, ISjicha, Wyye ; the Brafdians, Oyepe, Mocoy, Mocapir^ Oirundi j the Jaos^ 
TelpyUj Tage, Terrewaw^ Ta^?ie 5 the Natives of ]>leip -Netherlands Onfat^ '^i^^^^S 
AJfe, Cayere, Moreover the Hurones call a Father Ayftan -^ the Mexicans^ Tathli -^ 
the Canadenfers, Notao^n ^ in New-'Netherland, ^agina-^ in Brafile, Tuba : And fo it 
is generally with all other Words, which agree not in the leaft one with the 
other J fo that every Territory hath not only a feveral Dialect, but in many 
Places they ufe befides two, three, or more diftind Speeches, not relating in 
the leaft one to another, in one Province, by which the People inhabiting 
Towns and Villages are diftinguifii'd. The lOanders difcoverM by the Spani» 

Dtcad.3. ardsj and deftroy'd, have left few Words behind them ; yet ^cter Martyr fets 

down fome of them, which were formerly us'd in Hijpaniola : They call'd 
Heaven Tures ; a Houfe^, Boa 5 Gold, Caum j a good Man, Tayno. It is worthy 

Deua.ongAmer.ohf,^. of obfctvatiou, that they pronounce no H in their Language, but what is fpo* 
ken with a Vowel;, and then give it a ftrong Afpiration, like the w^iibling gut- 
tural \! Chain of the Hebrelvs. 

®f«.9 1-. if,t^,i7. Our laft and chiefeft Teftimony is Mofes^ who fays thus in Genefis, Ctirfed he 

Canaan, a Servant of Servants JJ?all he be unto his Brethren, Moreover he Jcid, Blejfed 
he the Lord God of Shem, rt;?^ Canaan fhall be his Servant : Cod pall inlargc Ja- 
phet, and he fiali dwell in the Tents of Shem j atid Canaan fl^all he his Servant. And If. in the next Chapter, Qanaan begat Suion, Thefe Scriptures are explained as a 

Laft Tefii monies of the Teftiuionv of thc Americans Extracft from the Thc?ilclans, which they ground on^ 

Americans F.xtraft from the . "^ , ^ ^ 

Fhimcims. thcfc followiug Rcafons : The Thenklans are Qanaans Succenors rrom Sldon^ 

who gave name to their chief City. T///'^/ the Iffue of J^/'/'Cf, ' whofe Tents 
God promised to enlarge, and that Canaan fhould be his Servant, planted Spam. 



Is contradifted. 

Chap. I!. ■ - J M E %^I C J. 

The fhenkianSj defcendants from Sydon, (fay they) Peopled America 5 the Spani- 
ards fpriing from Tubal ^ of Japhct, have lubjedted the Americans^ defcended from 
Sydon, of Canaan-^ wherein is fulhll'd that Prophecy of Mofes, That Canaan 
(Imdd be Servant to Japhet j but it feems a great miftake, fo to derive the fheni- 
cians from Canaan^ for they are Extraded from She?n, Heber, Abraham^ and Efau, ^^'^^'- ^''''"'"*- '"^'^^ 
iirnam'd Edom, from his faying, ^dom^ Adorn ^ when he ask'd of Jacobs That ^^'d, 
That (^d^ becaufe he knew not how to call the prepared Pottage by its proper 
Name ; And Edo?n fetling himfelf on Mount Seir, a part of the Stony Arabia, phenkims dcriv'd from 
and on the Coaft of the %ed-Sea, gave denomination to it, becaufe that Sea ^■^'"'" 
was much frequented and Navigated by his SuccelTors. The Greeks call it fir)/* 
thrcum, from Erythros , who is the fame with Efau^ and likewife fignifies %ed. 
Hereto is added , That Th^n'tx and ErytbrOi have the fame fignification in the 
Greek-^ So then, thefe Idumeans taking the name of ThenicianSy from the great l^^ha- 
nix, fpread themfelves far and near under mighty Kings, by Navigation in the 
<I(ed'Sea^ and from thence Planted feveral Coafts and Iflands, removing at laft 
to Syria. 

The feventh King of £<io;;j, Mofes Ycckoneih to he ^aal-hananj which name, Gen.3^.39, 
by tranfpoflng the Syllables, the famous Carthaginian General Hannibal bare. 
Moreover, it may caiily be demonftrated, that the Thenicians Extraded from 
i^^^er, have formerly fpoke He/reiii? , and fince ^r^/'icA 5 for they dwelt before 
their removing, in the Stony ^ Arabia. St. Jerom faith, the ^unickTono^uQ agrees com.injer.i^ c.iy: 
for the moft part w^th the Hebrew : And St. ^ujlm tells us, that many, nay, moft inVLii6.vofforig.jki. 
of the Qartha^tman words are Hebrew. Elifa, Vido, the firft Foundreis of Carthage ^'"'''^ Tongue, 
proves this , for Elifa or Eltffah , with the Hebrews^ denotes A Lamb of my God 5 
and T>ido, A Lo'ver, But who can find the leaft Ukenefs, between the Hebrew or 
^r^^/^/i Tongue with the ^wmc^?2j ? Laftly, Since the '?/;f?2ici^i«5 acknowledge 
Efau for a Father, what then concerns the Americans , the curfe of Canaan , fince 
they are no more Extracted from Canaan^ than the fhenicians ? Thus much con- 
cerning ^he (P/?e^ici^72j. 

Some would derive the Americans from the Je'l^s • others , from the ten 
Tribes of i/r^e/, carry 'd into captivity. The ground of which Opinions is, 
That thtjeiifs and Ifraelites were fcatter'd amongft all Nations • therefore they 
conclude, that America was alfo Peopled by them, the rather, becaufe the an* 
tienty^^^ and Americans were of one Complexion , and went a like Habited^ 
both going without Shooes, onely wearing Sandals;, and an upper Coat over 
a fhorter Linnen Veil. Both are humble, quick of apprehenfion, and obliging, 
yet Valiant : But it is certain, they cannot be like the Jews, becaufe the Ameri^ 
cans change their Habit, according as they live in cold or hoc Countreys, and 
go not in the Icafi: like one another. 

Father Lnmanuel relates. That he faw a 'Brafiliany not onely ftoutly make his 
party good againil three Portugal Soldiers, but had it not been by meer chancCj 
worfted them. 

Laftly, What Ceremonies of Religious Rites are obferv'd by the Jmericain.^ 
t^hich are ufed in Judai/m ? The Jeii?s indeed have tranfplanted their Circum- 
cifion amongft divers Eaftern People, and have they onely forgot the firil Ce- 
remony and fignal Badge of their Religion in America, which yet not onely 
they, but thofe Mahumetans and other Sectaries punctually obferve ? 

This makes evident their fcatterings about the Face of the Earth, but will 
not bring them to reach America. The Sacred Text lets forth a two-fold de- 
feription of the Jews • The one before the Birth of diir Saviour, when they 

'" ,' E i- - liv'd 

if" the Americans were dc- 
rivM from the Jevus^ or the 
ten Tubes ot IJrael, 

Is contradided. 

Jevfs dxftribution. 

J^h. 7' ?f- 

LJ.! liclB.vamiaie. 

2 Reg. 17. 5. 

z8 AMERICA. Chap. II. 

1 Pvt. T.r: liv'd as (Iran^crs in Tontas, Galatta, Cappadocia. Jfia. and 'Byth'piia. "jerufaletn was 

their Metropolis, aithough others had their chief reiidence in Babylon, a.ndjlex:^ 
andria-^ for there was an Jfiatick and a European difperfion 5 thofe o^ Ma had 
Babylon for their chief City, and iis'd in their Synagogues the Chaldean Tranfla- 
tion of the Bible. The Europeans kept their Seat at Alexandria , where they had 
a Temple like that o^ Jerufakm -^ and whilft they employ'd themfelves in the 
Grt'C'^ Veifion of the Holy Scripture , by the feventy two Interpreters , under 
^tolomem Thiladelphu^ , they were calTd Wandering Greeks : Therefore ;, certainly 
the Americans are not deriv'd from thefe Jews j and with as little reafon from 
thofe, which by Titm Fefpafianj after the deflrudion o^Jerufalem were driven in- 
to feveral Countreys, for they were never permitted (that I may borrow the 
words of St. Cyprian) to fet forward one ftep, though but as Pilgrims, towards 
their Native Countrey;, but ftridtly forbidden not to afiemble or meet toge- 
ther in any confiderable number, which would have been neceffary^ if they in- 
tended to Plant a new World. 

A fmall feeming Teftimony is added , being taken out of the fourth Book 
of Efdrds , that the ten Tribes of Ifrael that were carry'd away by Salmanajfar 
with their King Hofea to jS^ahalah, Habor, the River Go^n^ and the Cities oi- the 
Medes, might be acknowledged for the firil Planters of Aenc^ : Concerning 
4Efi I5.4o,4I,4^,45, which, Efdras fzith thuSj The ten Tribes brou^-ht oVer into another Countrey, confulted 
that they Jhould forjake the multitude of the Heathens , and tra'vel to a remoter Countrey 
Dphere no Generation of Mankind had ever Itv'd before , there they l\?ould maintain their 
Laws, which they had not obferVd in their Countrey : V/hereupon they went thither thorolp 
the narrow entrances of the {^'^rr Euphrates, for the Almighty flopt the Vains of the %i' 
Ver^ till they were pasi o'Ver • for thorow the Countrey was a ^Ipay of a year and half Journey: 
l^herefore that Traci of La?id is caWd A[[iveth, thentheyliVd there till the laH time. 

But fince thefe Books o[ Efdras were not Written by a Prophet, either in the 
Hebreli) Tongue , or allow'd by thtjews to be the Word of God;, or any where 
taken notice of in the M/i? Tfyl^wje?2t J wherefore then is ^Jfareth move America 
than any other remoter Countrey ^ 

St. Hierom (who certainly had a peculiar knowledge of the condition of the 
ten Tribes of Ifrael , becaufe he liv'd in Af^ty and held Correfpondence with 
the Jews J that he might perfectly learn the iiZt'i'r^M^Tonguej) relates, "That 
^' the ten Tribes (St.Hierome liv'd about the Year four hundred, under the Em- 
'' peror Theodofius) underwent great flavery in the Cities of Medes and Terfians-^ 
fo that this ilrange Voyage to Jjfareth^ which mull have happened long before 
St. Hierom\ time, may be Recorded amongft the other Legends of the 
Rabbles, concerning their Behemoth and LeViathan, who lock'd up the Souls of 
^4^nfi.6.4?,5o.& I4.1N ^^^^^ j.|^^^ lleighted their Laws, in Caves under ground, as Efdras. 
Antient conditicnof the ^ud how little Opportunity the ifraelites had to remove fince his time, may 
appear by the horrible Deftrudion that was made for feveral Ages together in 
Terfia a.nd Media j for although the Terfians became Mailers again of the Realm, 
Conquer'd by Alexander the Great, whilfl Alexander's Succeffors invaded one 
another, yet they were continually in War, either againft thz^^ynanSj or elfc 
the Indians^ and other Eaftern People j nay, the Saracens wrefted the Scepter 
out of their hand, though but for a fmall time • for foon after , breaking out 
into Factions amongft themfelves , Muchumet SubiBige?ics., hnbrael's Son, efta- 
blifli'd his Throne on their Ruines_, and incourag'd by luch fuccefs, Arm'd 
himfelf agarnft the Indians, and made ule of the T;o7a afliftance, with which 
he fubdu'd the Babylonian j4rahians : After which j. the Turks, not without great 


Jerom . 

Mtlchiot Stiierm lU Ii.el>. 

Mora's opinion conctrri- 
ing the Amerkam Extraft. 

Chap. II. ■ AMERICA. 

ilaucrhter fet thcTerJian Crown on their Head , which immediately totter'd by 
bloudy Commotions j for Tan^roUl)ix being King of ^erjta^ clalbing with his 
Brother Qutlumufes , made ^erfa fwim in the Blood of a Civil* War , till at laft 
Zengts Qha7t brought from Tartary fo great an Array, Jnno nob. that none durft 
flay to make oppofition j for the Turks foiTook ^erfia after a Conqueft of fix 
Ages, and made their own way for new Quarters into Carmania, ^hrygta,^ and 
fBithynia, whence they made fuch incurfions on the Greek Empire, that at laft 
they became fole Mailers thereof. Who cannot but eafily judge by this, .how 
little opportunity the ten Tribes had , to be affembled together from remote 
Countreys, and to go long Journeys through untrack'd ways, and full of Ene- 
mies, to travel to America ? 

Immanuel de Moraesy who had gotten peculiar knowledge of the Americans by 
his long Converfation w'ith them, judgeth that they are not deriv'd from one 
People, but from the Qarthaginians and Jews^ and that at feveral times, and pla- 
ces, they Landed in this New World; for the Carthaginians Sailing thither, 
found the Soyl fo fertile, that many forfook their Native Countrey to dwell 
there : Whereupon, it was forbidden upon pain of Death, to fend no more 
thither , left if Carthage (hould be invaded by a foraign Enemy, it fliould want 
People for a Home-defence : From this occafion it happen'd , that thofe that 
were already Tranfpdrted, became rude, and of a Salvage Difpofition, and 
fpreading their Families, planted the defolate Countreys in a ranging manner, 
without acknowledging any Supreme Head or Governor* 

Thus being fcatter'd up and down , every one invented to himfelf a new 
Language, which iliould neither agree with the Carthaginians, or any other : 
But this Opinion is before at large contradided. 

Moreover, Moraes endeavors to fliew, that the 'Brajilians are of a Hehreli? Exi* 
• tra«5t, becaufe that according to the example of the Jei^s-, they might not Mar^ 
ry, but in their own Tribes j they alfo call their Unkles, Fathers, and their 
Aunts, Mothers - both mourn for the Dead a Moneth together, and wear long 
Garments down to their Ankles. But thefe Arguments feem to us of fmali 
confequence, for indeed tht 'Brajilians difftv in their Marriages from the j^^K^^yy 
for they not onely Marry in their own Tribes, but frequently commix With 
their Sifters, and Daughters, or other their neareft Relations. Moreover, the 
Jeii>s call'd them Fathers, from whofe Loyns they fprang many Ages before, as 
well as their Unkles, which the Americans do not. ' 

The Mourning for the Dead hath been an old Cuftom, and is not obferv'd ^ 

by many People, but the time of a Moneth was not fetled amongft them, buc 
was obferv'd after a more unufual manner , feventy days, as in the Fields of 
Moab for Mofes , and elfewhere for the Patriarch Jacob. Laftly, all people 
know, that the (2(o»24?w and 'P^r/idw.y girt themfelves about with long Clothes. 
Befides, the Jews were ftrictly bound to obferve Circumcifion, without which 
they were not accounted Je^s ^ which the Srafilians ufe not, as neither their 
Language or Letters. How is it poffible , that in ^wmc^ they fliould at once 
have forgotten their Extrad, Laws, Circumcifion, Language, and other Ce- 
remonies, when the reft of them obferv'd nothing more ftridly in all parts of 
the Earth F 

The Learned Hugo Grotim, in his Enquiry after the original of the Jmericans, .^''Z^^.^ls^^^ 
brings them with many Circumftances to belong to fana?7ia, fituate oppofite to ^'^^''^'' 
the Northern Parts of Nora^^j/, becaufe fomethirig of their Languages agrees,and 
the Way thither eafie and neareft to be found : for §rft they travelled from Nor* 

Cuftorasand Conftituti- 
ons of the Brajilians arc fe- 



Ifaac Pout anus de Keh. 

,0 A M E-'^T C J. Chap. II. 

way to Y/land, over which the Mbrwegians Rurd above a thoufand years iince - To 
iiomljland through Frie:^a?id to Groenland, and from thence to BJlotiland, bcino-' 
a part of the Main Continent o^ America. 

From Vrie^^and fome Fifiiers went thither (as he fays) two Centuries be* 
This Opinion i. largely forc thc Spaniards touch'd that Shore ; which 7o/;?2 de Laet contradictls. And in- 
deed what Reaions can be given, why the Amertcans or the Straights ^ between 
Manama, and No7nhre de D^o;, lying Northerly, fhould have another original than 
thofe that live to the South;, feeing the fame Straights are neither divided by 
Mountains nor Rivers 5 and the Spaniards found no alteration in the Cuftoms 
and Languages betwixt them that liv'd above or below thefe Straights. And 
who will believe that Ncnvay, which was but indifferently peopled, could af- 
ford fuch numerous Colonies as could plant the Northern Jmericcij which far 
exceeds the South, and chiefly, when the great Idands that lie near the Eaft 
and Weft, are added to it ? Moreover it is certain, (if the Yflander Jngrim Jonas 
is to be credited) that fome Families fled out of NonT?^^ from their enraged 
King to Jjland in the Year 874. which at that time was but meanly inhabited. 

Forty years before, Lni^w the Juft put the Yflander sun Act the procedion of 
Pope G/T^or;) the fourth, who gave the Government of the Tfland Church to 
Anfgar Archbifliop of Hamburgh. But how comes it that there is not the leafl 
fpark of C/;ny?w??/Vj)/ found amongft the Northern Americans ^ if they are derived 
from the Ifland Chrifiians ^ and why did the If [landers remove to colder Coun- 
treys than Greenland and Frie:^land^ or their own native Soil, and for the mofi: 
part not inhabited ? 

Concerning Greenland and Frie^and^ it is known by our E)iglijh Navigators 
that they are joyn'd together, and both to the Northern America-^hwi not with« 
out vaft Bays and Inlets, which betwixt Greenland and America are obftrud:ed 
with floating Caftles of Ice j fo that the Paffage is very dangerous. And full 
as troublefom, if not altogether impoffibk;, would the Journey be by Land, 
becaufe the Earth lies fo thick covered with Ice and Snow, efpecially the Val« 
leys, that no Traveller is able to get through. 

Moreover, that which Grotius lays farther of the FiOiers which firft difco- 
ver'd Eflotiland, is grounded on the Relation of the Venetian Knights_, jSljcholas 
znA Marcus Zeno^ two Brothers. Annon^%o. Nicholas <;^^«o fuffer'd Shipwrack 
on the Frie^land Coa.0: '^ Marcus informed thereof, fteer'd his Courfe thither • 
fourteen years they fpent before they came to EJlotiland : at laft they returned 
again to Frie^and, where ]\[icholas died : But Marcus returning home publifh'd 
his Journal 5 wherein he relates, Th^it EJlotiland is above a thoufand Learues 
diftant from Fn>;^/W, and was diicover'd by Fr/?;^/^?;JFiflier-men that were 
driven thither by Storm. But he hath fct down many things that have little 
refemblance of truth.according; to v-^hat is fince found bv credible Navic^ators- 
and therefore we cannot depend on Zeno's Difcovery. 

John de Laet accounts it a great miftake in Grotius, that as a teftimony of the 
America?is oxiginA out of ^or way J he compares their Languages. He reckons 
up fome Places to be Northward of Tanamaj which end their words with the 
fy liable L4« in ftead of Lrt>/J, hcca.u fc thc Spaniards have left out the Letter D 
at the end thereof. It is certain, that in the Northern jimerica lie Cimatlan., 
Qoatlan, Guefcolan, Artlan y Quaxutatlan,' IcatLviy Tapatlan, Cinacatlanj Tenuchitlan^ 
(jmitlan, Met::iitlan, Guatitlan^ Js^ecotitlanj Curcatatlan. '^cfidcs^ that mofl: of thefe 
Names are not of Countreys, but of Towns and Villaaes, and therefore no 
ways fitting to have the termination of Land: and it is well known that ma- 

The Voyage of two Ze- 

Kdatio Marc. Zenonis. 

The American Tongue 
is nothing lil^e the Mor- 


opirion concerning 
City Morwmbegti la 


Qhap. II. ' ; J M.E "B^l C A. 

ny 'American words end with L<3/j, which fignifie nothing lefs than Land : for 
the Mexicans fay ^uertatitlan, which (ignifies Jt the Gate helow j Ochachitla?it;^itlany 
Yet lower • TenoxtitlaUy (this City is alfo call'd from her Founder Mexis^ Mexico) 
that is, ^Jis on a ^ck. Moreover, it may not without reafon feem ftranae to 
any, that the Northern Americans have remembred but three Cities out of all 
the Teutonick Tongue, V/;^^. Lan in ftead Land. 

Concerning Groenland, through which the lS{orwegians are thought to have ^''o'*'iand when difc©^ 
traveird to ^;«mV4, Lj//Wer witneffeth^ That it was accidentally difcover'd serm. i. jmi^. Dank. 
by one Eric gander ^ Aimo 987. and planted thirteen years after. 

Olausy King of Norib^j/, plac'd two Bifliops over the new Inhabitants, as Sub* 
ftitutes to the Archbifliop ofDronthen. For four Ages they Sail'd frequently to 
Groenland'^ but fince their King was impoveriHi'd by War, they left off that 

We find not in any Author, that the Koni?e^ians which liv'd along the Sea- 
fliore, ever went to feek a Way over the inacceffible Snowy Mountains of 
Groenlandj to this our New World* 

Befides, Grotius da^nds £oy the Norw^^^idw^ as Planters, upon teftimony of the 
Mexicans themfelves, who told the Spaniards, That their Anccflors which plant- 
ed there came from the 2s[prth, firft fetling themfelves on EJiotiland, where to 
this day there are not improbable proofs by feveral remarks, that they were a 
ISlorwepan Colony. 

In the jimeman City lS[pr-umhega., live a People that fpeak the fame Language, ^he 
and obferve the fame Cuftoms with the Mexicans. 

In this by=Corner are found alfo fome AlaVards, or Longohardsy or Lombards 
as they fay. Now the Spaniards call that New Mexico becaufe laft difcover'd 
though indeed the old, cramm'd with People eight hundred years fince : for 
the Mexicans oiNeii? Mexico do not lie fo far Northerly, as to the North-weft v 
for this SMexico lies in fight o^ California ^ which is believed to border on Tartary^ 
oratleaft feparated from it by a narrow Channel. But Norumbe<Ta ( if ever 
fuch a Place was) muft, according to the V/efi-Indian Records, have been fituate 
where a part of Ne-^ France lies, now planted by the Engltjh : between which 
and New Mexico lies an almoft unmeafurable vaft Tracft of Land. Mean while 
here is not thcleaft fign of this City Nor«m^e^^ to be found : neither do the In- 
habitants dwell in Cities, but live in Tents, or moveable Villages, which 
change their Names as oft as their Governors. Moreover, the Norwegians could 
ilot get to this Norumhega by Land through Yjland and Groeiiland to EJiotiland ^ 
becaufe of the vaft Bays, and great Midland-Sea, difcover'd by the Engltfi in 
their North=weftern Difcoveries ; fo that leaving EJiotiland, it was altogether 
impoflible for them to come to Norumhega. 

Hereto may be added what the Mexicans fay of themfelves, who acknow^. 
ledge, That travelling from the North, they did not find an un=inhabited 
Countrey before them, but were forc'd to make their Way by a long and 
bloody War with the Chichimecen, a falvage People, that knew neither Laws or 

The People alfo dwelling oppofite to California ^difftt from the Cuftoms of 
the Mexicans J being divided into feveral People of contrary Conftitutionsy and 
as diifererit Languages. ' 

Grotius fcrues up his Arguments from the likenefs of the American Speech and cudom 
Cuftoms with iht Norwegian : for (fays he) there is little difference between "°""'"''' 
^^^od and hy -God yOt like God - Guaird smd JVaeijcr, that is^jFan - Iktna and Lam, 



loms and Conflitu- 
le Mexicans. 


<iA M E%1 C A. 

Chap, IL 



A defcription oF the 
firangc Beaft Ikma in 

in Bngl'ifhy Lamh j Teh and 'Beke^ a ©i-ooA or Rivulet, Both Cuftoms and Coii- 
ftitutions have alfo great refemblance. The Mexicans relate, that their Prede* 
ccflbrs onely followed Hunting ; that they divided and rcckon'd the Time, 
not by Days, but by Nights, and wafli'd their Children as foon as they were 
born in cold Water, 

They are fo much inclined to Gaming, that they venture their Liberty at itJ 
Everyone is fatisfi'd with one Wife, except fome of the Nobility, which of- 
tentimes have more. They throw up high Banks in feveral places to damni 
out the Sea 5 believe the Immortality of the Soul ^ every one eats at a peculiar 
Tabic 3 moft ^of them go naked, onely cover their Tudenda with a Cloth ; fome 
Sacrifice and eat Mans^flefli : all which, according toTacitMy Tliny, LucaUy and 
other ^man Writers, was obferv'd by the antient Germans- from whom thofe 
that inhabit between the Norwegian Mountains were extraded. 

Thefe Allegations, to make the Korivepans to be the Parents ofthcNor*^ 
them Americans, Joh?i de Laet thus contradicts : *' It no ways follows that one 
'^ People take original from the other, becaufe here and there are feveral words 
'* found, that have the fame fignification and found in divers Countreys; 
*^ much lefs when they mufl: either add, change, or diminifh feveral Letters. 
*^ Moreover, there is no fmall miftake in the compared words : for Ta^od is 
" not us'd all over jimerka ; the Eafi-Indians about the River Indm, call their 
" Idol-Temples "P^^ocijOr ^agode ■ the word Guaira is no where us'd in America^ 
" but by the TeruVtans^ and with them not fignifying a Van^ but a little Oy>en 5 
''■ neither is llama a Lamhj (For before the coming of the Spaniards thither, nei* 
*^ ther Sheep nor Lambs were ever feen in Tern) but a Wool-bearing Bead, 
*'' thus defcrib'd by Jofeph de Jcojla : 

^' llama (fays he j a four-footed Creature, furnifhes its Mafter with Meat 
" and Clothing, and fupplies the office of a Beaft for Burthens, and at no 
" charge for Hay nor Provender, well fatisfi'd with what he finds in the Ways 
'^ or Mountains. But \\\q llama's are of two forts, cither woolly, or fhort* 

<' hair'd: 

Ghap.II. ■ A M E R I C J. 

*' hair'd : the firft go by the Name facos, the other Moramoro^ beincr not much 
" lefs than a Calf, with a long Neck like a Camel, but of feveral colours • for 
^' iome are white, fome black, and others fpeckled, having an odd Look, efpe- 
*^ ciaily when they are tyM, and fland ftiU without any motion, ftarino- wicli 
**^ goggle-eyes on their Owners : Sometimes in a moody humor, upon a fud- 
^''^den taking a freak, they runup to the -top of almoU inacceflible Mountains, 
'^ where both the frantickBeaft and his Burthen are loft. The f^^coifometimes 
" like wife takes fudden Pets^ and fuftian Fits, often doing the forward Super/alt, 
'*^ tumbling over and over with their Goods, and will not be rais'd,. their moo- 
*^^dinefs continuing, with beating, nay though they cut them to pieces :. but the 
^^ beft way is to fit down by them, and wait fome hours till their humor be- 
'^ ing Ipent they rife again of their own accords. Thefe Beafls are much iur 
'^'^ clinM to a Difeafe caird Carajhe or the JM^z/^e^ of which they generally 
*' die : and becaufe the Difeafe is very catching, they ftraight bury the infect* 
^' ed alive, fothe better to preferve the reft. -, - . . . . , 

Grotlus alfo miftakes, when he compares the Mexican feh with the T>utch 
'Beke J for though many Mexican Places^, Mountains^ and Rivers, terminate ia 
feke, yet it fignifies not a Srookot <^hulet, for that they call JdauhtlL^ 

John de Laet tells alfo, That with great diligence he found a Mexican Di6tio* 
nary. Printed by the ^ipantards m Mexico, to fitiJ if there were any words in it 
which agreed with any of thofe European Languages that he uuderftood but 
found not one. 

It is the fame cafe with the Cuftoms and Conftitutions between the KorlQe- 
gtans and Northern ^wmc^wj : for what concerns Hunting, how many People 
have formerly liv'd by it ? The antient Germans, and to this day the T^rf^ry 
make it their whole buiinefs, excelling in that Art all other Nations. Befides, 
that the more ferious fort of the Mexicans many Ages fince fcorn'd to derive 
themfelves from a Hunting Anceftry, but affirm that they found the Chichimecen 
in thofe Countreys; who were great Venators, 

The accounting of Tirne by the Nights, extraiSled from the Hebrews, is ob-' 
ferv'd by divers Eaftern People : and although the Germans dipt and wafli'd. 
their Children in cold Kivers, or Braoks, fo foon as they were born, yet the 
Mexicans heyer did it, but the Mother lays the Child on the fourth day after its 
Birth, in an open place of the Houff . in the middle whereof ftands a Pot full 
of Water cover'd with Broom, in which they wafli the Infant. Neither are 
the Americans fo much add.i6ted to the Vice of Gaming as other Nations,- fo that 
Grottu s t2ixcth. them too feverely as to that point : as on the contrary, he too 
much clears them of Polygamy, whereas the Mexicans Marry as many Wives as 
they pleafe, or are able to maintain. Father Martyn ^ere^ rislates the fame of 
the Cinaloans, and other Americans j as alfo Quarterius of the Natives in ISloya Fran- 
cia, which }ie n'eareft to Norway. And what need the Americans have the Germans 
their Teachers, to make Dams and Banks againft Floods, lince Nature and 
Nec^flicy it felf inftruds it? and where are any People Co ignorant, as to 
afcribe the fame event to Men and Beafts after death ? 'Tis true, their man* 
ner of eating in A?nerica is feveral, becaufe the People do not much converie 
together : but they did not go naked ; for the Spaniards found them not onely 
neatly Habited, but had a proper Name for every thing they wore. The 
Virginians us'd long Shirts - the Floridans Skins of wild Beafts • and towards the 
North they cover'd themfelves from Head to Foot in hairy and undrefs'd 
Hydes= The facnficing of Men was in former Ages fpreading far and near 

F over 


3« Orig. GmiiUmAnti' 


Cuftoms of the 4mfTf' 

Their Ciotking,' 



'The Amefie/iH! are not 
gxtra'ited from China, 

AME%,ICA. ■ Chap.IL 

over the Woria, and how far it was pradisM here, hath been already declarM 
at large. Laftly, all the Jmericans are not guilty of eating of Man's-flefli, buc 
that falvagenefs is confined to the Southern America. 

Thus much we have (aid, to prove that the ISlonvegians had no hand in 
planting the Northern Jmerka, we fhall now proceed to enquire who planted 
the Southern Parts, from the Straights between <Panaim and ^prnhn de Dws, tp 

the Straights o^Magdlm, . 

The Peruvians, pofTeflinga large Tra^ of Land along the Coaft of the South^^ 

Sea, Grotius would thus derive from China : 

'' The fernVians,hdn^o^2, fubtile Wit,and quick of Apprehenfion, argue fuf. 
'' ficiently that they are not extracted from the more Northern Jmemans, hut ra* 
*' ther from the Chmefes, which the feveral Wrecks of Qmiefe Ships found ofi 
"thefeCoaftsfufficiently evidence: and no wonder, if curiofity or accident 
«' brought the Ch'mefes expert Navigators to this Countrey, feparated onely by. 
«' one S^'ea from them. To this we may add their Rites of Religion 5 for both, 
« worfiiip the Sun, and call their King the Son of the Sun ; they write no Let- 
Relation of Af.«fflw/>^- «t ^^^^^ ^^^^^ j^^|.g chara«5lers downwards. Mancoca^acus was a Chinefe of ftrange 
''^ Policy ■ who being informed that his Countrey-men inhabited fruitful Coun- 
'' rreys on the other fide of the South^Sea, but without Laws or Government, 
<' Sail'd over thither, and g^thcr'd the fcatter'd Multitudes in a Body, and 
"eftablifli'd an hereditary Kingdom after the Chinefe manner, to him and his 

^^ Succefibrs. 

To which yok deLaet anfwers thus : ^'^ Though the (PeruVtam excee4 the 
other Jmericans in Policy, and at the arrival of the Spaniards liv'd in a 
handfom Order of Government, yet they can no ways be compared to the 
" fliarp-wittcd, and noble-fpirited Chinefe s -^ nay, there are in no Place of ^cm 
'' found fach Artificers as thofe of Qnna, that bear the praife of all the World j 
« no where fuch manner of Buildings or Cities, nor the lead likenefs of the 
'' Chinefe Curiofities. As concerning the Wrecks found in fern, I find no ere- 
" dible Author that gives an account thereof: for certainly the Chinefes could 
"much eafier, and a nearer way have come through the Jtlanttck 5e4 to the 
'' Coafts of Jmertca, lying to the Eafl of fet'u, than fteer along the vaft, and 
*^ much greater South Sea, and endure the horrible Storms and vail Waves,' 
*' which the European Ships are fcarce able to endure, much lefs the Chinefe Vef- 
" fels, which are not fo good. The Spaniards which Sail yearly from Acupul- 
" CO to the Philippines are fenfible of the great danger which they endure, chiefly 
** by the great gufts of Wind near California, Befides, the <PeruVtans before the 
^' the arrival of the Spaniards, were utterly ignorant of great Ships, and the ufc 
" of Sails. How could they at once have forgotten that Art, which they 
'' brought with them thither, Moreover, it is eafier to Sail from ^eru to 
" China, than from China to "P^rw, becaufe the Winds under the Equinoai^l 
*' Line commonly blow Eafterly. And it is the greater wonder, that the Chi- 
" nefe Jonks accidentally by Storm fliould be driven to ^eru, becaufe they 
*' were never ftor'd with Provifions but for a fhort Voyage, whereas this ask'd 
''^nine Moneths. But if any one will fuppofe,chat they purpofely direded their 
"^Courfe thither, how came the Chmcfes toSailjuftto ^cru, and not to ISleip 
" Spam , which is much clofer to China ? why were there no Merchan- 
'^ difes of the Chmefi^s found in Tern, fince they went thither for Trade ? how 
*' came they to negled that Navigation they had once found ^ Nor is their 
I' Sun-worfliip (which was formerly pradis'd in moll Parts of the World) of 

?' any 



feliap.ll. - J M E KI C A. 

*^ any validity to derive them from Ch'inix ? But the contrary is mofi: apparent • 
/^ for the Teruyians v\7orfhip for their chief GodjF/r^coc/;rf,that is^God Almighty^ or 
^' Tin Creator of all things. , . 

*' The Chinefesj i^ Confutim ah eye-witnefs may be credited, are divided into 
*■' three Sec^ts of Religion : The hrft follow the Learn'd Trlgantiips ^ and acknow- 
^^ ledge a King of the Heavens, which muft onely be ferv'd as the Ch'mefes fole 
*^ Governor ; to which purpofe, two Temples are bulk in the Royal Cities 
" Nank'm and fekm, one Confecrate to Heaven^, and the other to the Earth. 
*« The fecond Se<a hath the name of Scieqma, and ferve the Idol Omyto. The 
*^ third nam'd Lan^u, imploy themfelves in Magickand Exorcifms, Conju-, 
^' ring up, and laying EviUSpirits, whofe horrid reprefentations, when they 
" have ftuck upon the Walls , they make an artificial and dreadful noife, as if 
*' Hell were broke loofe, and theHoufe full of Devils • fometimes alfo force 
*^ the EviUSpirits to enter into Images, from whence they receive no imper- 
^' tinent aiifwers to their queftions : Therefore, who will compare this Su-^ 
" perftition of the <PeruVtans wo.rfhipping of the Sun^ to the (^/?mf/e Religion, 
*' which do no fuch things ? , . . . 

" The Peruvians call'd their King, A Lord of the %ealm, and not The Son ofths 
^^ SuttyZS in China ' Though thcMexicans otherwife worfliip the Sun, and in their 
*'• manner of adulatiOn_, ttyVd flcntunJo QortPz^^ their Conqueror, Son of the Sun : 
*' As to what concerns the manner of writing, it is very well known^, that the 
*' Ch'mefes words are all Monofyllables , fo that they have as many Letters as 
*' Words, which they joyn fo together^, that they reckon eighty thoufand;, 
" but with teti thoufand they are able to exprefs themfelves in mod matters, 
'* Thefe Characters are contain'd in their Halpieh or Dictionary. The antienc 
^^ Chmefes us'd feventeen feveral forts of Characters in their writing, fome con=^ 
*' lifting of Serpents, that by feveral Wreathes and contortious Windings, fig- 
" nify'd feveral things ; others, of all forts of agreftick Tools belonging to 
^' Husbandry ; fome Characters of the Feathers of the Bird Funhhoar-^ others of 
*^Oyfters and Worms, or of RootS;> of Herbs, or Birds Claws, or of Turtles, 
*^ or of Herbs and Birds Feathers mingled, or of Planets, and fuch like j but 
^'^what manner of Writing or Hieroglyphick of theirs refembles chofe, 
'' who by their own teftimony know neither Pen, Paper, Ink, nor any manner 
" of Writing , but reckon the antiquity of time by ftrung Beads , which 
^f was obferv'd many ages fince among feveral Nations. 

Hitherto we have difcover'd the feveral Opinions concerning the Original of ^Origin^^^^^^^ 
the Americans, or Hrft Plantation b£ America, from all which, having receiv'd no 
clear or demonftrativefatisfaCtion, wemuft open our way to a further fcrutiny: 
But firftjWe muft needs confefs,that contradiction is not difficultjbut it is fome- 
thing of Work , when we have beaten down a well-fortifi'd Opinion , to let • 
up fomewhat in ftead thereof, to ftand a permanent and undeniable truth, 
which will be the harder , in regard the Inhabitants of this new World have 
no old Chronologies concerning their Antiquities, and firft fettling there j yet 
if we cannot go fo far abfolutely to aflert, yet fome probabilities, grounded (as 
we fuppofej upon better reafons, may give more fatisfaCtion ; for none will cemngXT^'^*^'^^'^''"* 
deny, but that the Generations of Mankind being ftrangely multiply'd after 
the Flood , they then living five times our Ages, and Wars not beginning till 
the known part of the Earth was over^ftock'd, juftling for Territories, and 
fome thruft quite out;, at laft found America • which fpreading it felf to a vaft 
cxtentj and now found almoft every where well inhabited^ may be guefs'd^ 

' - ' " V I tha?; , , 


EmbafTy to the Cham;, 

Z, C. Zo 



that it was not onely Planted from the firft, but feveral times replenifiiM ilnce 
by various Nations 5 Why may not feveral Planters, and at feveral times m.ake 
room for their Colonies, incroaching one upon another, either by force or 
nvIdLtrfcySpeonitr compaa ; as the French themfelves upon the Gauls, the I^(omdWj upon them, 
the Goths among the Spaniards, and the Saxons among the ^rittains, and the Nor- 

?na}is again upon them ? 

Several people may eafily Sail over thither, the Azores or the Canary Ifles lye 
fojthat they are ready(as if defign d)forTranrportation to^^weric^^from whence 
Jcofia made a Voyage in fifteen days. Alfo flmy gives us an account, thatthefe 
lOands lay uninhabited in his time; yet is it well known, that after ^//«/s 
time. Ruins of Buildings were found there, fignifying, they had been former- 
ly Planted; and why might not thofe ancient Inhabitants Sail thence to the 

neighboring America ? 

Tercera lying half way between Spain and America, was frequented by Navi- 
gators before theBirthofour Savior; and it feems as eafie to Sail from thence 
to America, as from the Main Land of 5pdm thither : Add this, that neceiTity 
Marr.n. ^. ReL B[p. forc'd thc Spaniards to look about them for other Countreys, for fince they 
loft their Vidorious Champion ^auctm Gapetm , they were every where bea-' 
ten, being tired out by the fhenician Forces, and that opprefTion over, fuifer'd 
as much under the (I(oman Yoke : WKercfoxc it fccm. nou flrangc, ifacon*^ 
fiderable number rcmov'd from thence , that they might live fome where elfe 
in quiet ; for which purpofe they wanted no conveniences to Rig and fet 
forth ftout and iuflicient VelTels, able to live in thofe Seas, having had long 
experience from the <?henician Voyagers, whofe Fleets Sail'd daily to and again 
in feveral Expeditions, from Cadi:^ OinA Gibraltar towards thefe Weftern Coun- 
treys : Nay, Hanno himfelf their firll Navigator that way, who gives an account 
of the Gorgonsy or the Ifles o^ Qape Verd, a good part of the way to America. 

And though ^rittain, Ireland, and the <BrttttjJ7 Orcades lay further from America^ 
' . yet fomething may be faid particularly to prove. That many Ages fince, Ex- 

peditions had been made from thence to the New World; and that the 
Inhabitants of thefe our Ifles, in former Ages, were peculiarly famous for theic 
ji..ynt-aH.c,or,ri»ia^^, skill Itt Navigation ; infomuch, that the Cretans and <Pk»/cu//^ emulous of their 
BnJlThTGm^'namt skill, and jealous of their danger, made feveral Attacques and Invafions upon 
thefe Ifles, which is the more probable , many remarks of the fhenician ^r\4 
Greek LangYiage, remaining in the denominations of the Countrey : Of which, 
take firft this account : 
A?^^:i:^^:':^. Anno 1170. When Owen Guyneth, Prince of Wales, having Raign'd long and 
''^•'""' happily in his fetled Dominions, dying, left feveral Sons, who quarrelling, 

their elder Brother, as not contented with their (hares of the Principality, nor 
to be under him, having gotten no mean Interefl:s and Claims to the whole by 
their fliruglings, fo weakned one another, that they opened a way to the loo- 
fincT of all. 

Amongft'thcfe Brothers, Madok, a Prince of a milder difpofition, weary of, 
fuch unnatural Diflentions, threw up his fliare , better contented to feek new 
D.v-d powdi^ Hi(io>ii Fortunes abroad • whereupon there were many foon perfwaded to venture 
their lives with him, where ever he would pleale to Traniport : So Rigging 
afmallFlcct, he Sail'd Weftward , fir beyond W^^zJ , where at laft he dif. 
covered an unknown and un=inhabited Countrey, but wondrous plealant, the 
Air being temperate, and the Soyl mo(t fertile : Glad of this good fuccefs (as 
the Story fays) he returning, fpreading the Fame of this his New-Found^-Land, 


Englifh i;xmc\a Sea-men^ 


Chap. II. ^ A M E%1 C /u 

which they might exchange for a barren Soyl, hattcr'd and harafs'd with an 
cndlefs Civil- War. 

No fmall number flock'd to thefe Summons, as a mod acceptable Underta-^ 
kingjfo that foon after he was able to fend forth ten good Ships^Freighted only 
with Men, Women, and Children, and all other Materials fit for a new Planta- 
tion J which not long after Landed in ^c«;^^i??2/7,a Countrey in the North o^Jmc- 
rkaj SiS Francis Lope:^de (}o?«^r^ believes, becaufe there he onely found fome re^ 
maining Tracks of Chriflianity., a People that woriliipp'd the Crofs , but 
knew no reafon why' or wherefore they ador'd that fign of our Redemption. 
Now^fome will fay, that this Worfliip of the Crofs is no argument to prove^^that 
the ^Brittijh Chriftians firfl; Planted in the North of America 5 but what will not 
time and change of place do , where Tranfplanted People keep no Records, 
fo they forget not onely Religion^ Laws, and Cuftoms, but who they were,and 
from whence they came. Oblivion firfl: mutilating, and at lafl fwallowing up 
all J of which, take this one late prefident. '^ 

Aftno 1598. The Duke De La %oche obtained leave of the Trench King, to tranf= St™ge occafionof d* u 
port a Colony of Volunteers to ISlel^ France 5 in his way he Landed fifty Men on 
the Kland X)e 5^^/(? , to reft his Paffengers, and that he might the better, and 
with more eafe explore the Countrey,and when refolv'd where to fettle;,then to 
fetch them off J who accordingly, a<; defign'd, foon afcct, returning thither, 
was met with fo violent a Storm , that not being able to Weather the lile of 
Sahky where he left his People, he loft his whole Expedition^ and was driven 
back to zFroich Harbor, where no fooner arriv'd^ he was fo highly charged, 
that he was caft into Prifon,when thofe he had left negleded upon the Ifle,were 
not once fo much as thought of j in this interim, they never expe(51:ing to hear 
more of their Captain, liv'd in a wild and miferable condition, feeding upon 
Hfli, and fometimes wild Swme, without Bread, Drink, or Salt. 

When the Baron of Lm went with Letters Patents, to be Governor ofKoVa. 
Francia, and by ftrefs of Weather in his Voyage , was forc'd to put in at Sablc^ 
where he found the remainder of La ^ches People , who being from fifty re* 
duced to twelve, having clad themfelves in Sea-Wolves Skins, they had not 
onely loft their former Fre?2c/? Civilities, but forgot in a manner their Religi- 
on, much of their Language, and what they were, being as if Metamorphos'd 
into beftial Salvages. 

And although we have already controverted the improbability of Peopling iffomedidnotcomeac- 

f 4 ■ -ii -1 r^ r r • 1 rrLl cidentally to 4wfm«. 

dnienca ^ either by accident or Storm, or let purpok; yet it may be poilibie 
that fo it might happen , for as the feveral vertues of Plants, Herbs, Precious- 
Stones, and Minerals , though ftrangely occult , and fo altogether unknown, 
that what could never be found by Art, meer chance hath brought to light, and 
their wondrous qualities, fome cafual accident hath made apparent j fo ftrange 
and remote Countreys never to be found in our Charts,or Maps, nor Regiftred 
in any Story, Seamen bound to their intended Harbors, have ftumbled on by 
chance, either Hood^wink'd by blind Mifts , or forc'd upon by pertinatious 
Weather 5 of which ^weric^ may be her own witnefs, for how was Columbus 
ftirr'd up, but by incitarions of the Journals of a Sea^Captain , dying in his 
Houfe, driven on the American Iflands by foul Weather. 

Although from the foremention'd places, and after the fame manner, ^me- fmrux wa? PeooU 

'^ £ ' ' ^ prelentjy after the riood» 

Yica might be furniOi'd with Inhabitants • fo it alfo gives us a more certain ai* 
lurance, that the Planting o^ America was not onely foon after the Flood, but 
that they came alfo thither by Land : And how ftrangely would it be againft 


Giants in Amirica. 

J M E B. I C J. • , r Chap. II: 

the Majeily and Wifdom of Divine Providence, to leave half the llniverfal 
Globe^ a World fully fupply'd with all forts of Creatures^ fit for Food and 
Service;, Plants, Herbs, and the richeft Minerals;, like a Houfe new built, 
and well furnifh'd, without a Mafter or any Inhabitant;, "pi;^. Man^ who be-^ 
ing of Celeftial Extradl;, fliould be able to acknowledge and glorifie the Crea- 
tor, by admiring the Creature in his great Works : Befides, the confus'd No- 
tions and Fables of Giants, Perpetrators of all manner of CrimeS;, and wal- 
lowing in all kind of fenfual Debaucheries, are always rcmembred among the 
Antiquities of the Americans , and that they had fome flender hints of antienc 
Truth, not onely of the Giants before the Flood;,but of thofe that foon after the 
rank fatnefs of the Earth, produced and fed to that pitch of Arrogailce, that the 
ccytjuran fratres , virg] covcuanting Brethren defied God, fortifying themfelvcs to fight him by th^ ad- 
'tS Flood acknowiedg'd Vantage of that their long congeftedPile,!Bd^f/,which in a fhort time was tranf- 


fnnary IJtsnds, by whom 


verted by the Heathen Poets into their Gi^antomachia yhca^ing^ Hills on Hills;, like 
the ^wmc^;zTraditions: From which we may conjedure,that they came thither 
in the time o^ Noah 5 for why may not any believe, when Noah liv'd three hun- 
dred years after he Landed on Mount Ararat ^ that he took care to People the 
World ? And who will make him ignorant of this New World, who living 
five hundred years before, might not improbably by his own induftry and 
the help of the former long-livM ^atriarrh^ , been well able to make a general 
Survey of the Old 5 and he could better furnifh America^ it being nearer Mount 
Ararat J than fupply Italy^ Spain, Germany, or any Northern Territories in Europe, 
To thztJmerica might be known to thefirft people af:er the Flood, nay, inhabit- 
ed by them, though fince that, the knowledge was loft. 

Tliny complaining of the Supine negligence, and ftupendious floth which 
reign'd then and long before as he had obferv'd, among all people, and in eve- 
ry place, who were fo far from making inquiry after difcoveries of Lands for 
new Pbntations, that rhey loft the old, when they had begun to fettle, though 
under the greateft ferenity of Pfeace ; The Sea by that means lying open be* 
yond what any jun(5ture of former times could be proud of. 

Yet the Fortunate,ox Canary Iflands were in the firft ages after T^fp^/;, frequented 
w^ith Vefiels, which in later times were altogether neglected, till Guillaum 'Betan* 
court, a Gentleman o^Ttcardye, brought them again to be taken notice of by a 
H*^w^« Gardens, what fj-^f]^ Trade. The Fable of the Hefberian Gardens, and the Dragon that kept the 

they fignine. Ji ■f u l 

Golden Fruit, with conftant Vigils;, is nothing but an allufior? to the Sea, which 
with Serpentine Embraces, not onely fecur'd thefe Icatter'd Ifles, but fwal-' 
lowM up feveral Adventurers that too hardy made their unhappy approaches 
for difcovery. 

Another Allegation for the Planting of America by "Land;, both whofe fides 
are wafli'd on the Eaft and Weft, by the South and Atlantick Ocean, may be 
thus probably made out : The Atlantick rowls over with almoft Fathomlefs 
WaterS;, three thoufand Leagues of Ground ; the South-Sea not much lefs,^ 
which well may be , being indeed but one continued Sea;, encompailiag, till 
mcetini? there, the llniverfal Ball ; whence fprings a more likelyhood, that 
America might be Planted from the Southern parts, from the Straights oi Magel- 
lan, and Le-Mayr, 
KeUnoieTmnAuftraU. ^cter Femaudes cU Quir xtXitts , That he and a Commander, Lodowick ^aesk 
, ^r- ■ ru Torra faw a part of the South Countrey , and in it innumerable Inhabitants. 

The Defcripuon of the i J ' ■" 

Whites, Slacks, Sallows, with long, black, curl'd. Woolly, and yellow Hair. 
They know no Walls or FortrelTcs for Defence, Laws or Kings, but are divided 


unknown South. 


DefcriptJcn oiTamrj. 

nap. II. - A M E'B^l C J. 

into Tribes; They ufe indeed Bows^ Arrows, Clubs, .ind a kind of Spears S 
Their Houfes are covered with Palm-Tree-Leaves ; their HoufiioldftufFcon- 
fifts onely of a few Earthen Pots, and fuch Trinkets ; yet they have ioms lit- 
tle skill in Weaving, and though they gonaked, pride themfelves in Neck-Laces 
and Bracelets, made of Mother of Pearl : But thefe for their Complexions and 
Conftitution of Body,Cufloms, and manners, are rather derived from the Jjm- 
ricans, than they from them, and therefore we muft feek for their Original 
from the North ; from which are but two ways , one from IJJand and Groeiu 
land, which Grotlm endeavors to provC;, but contradicted j the other out of T^r» 
tary^ which certainly was the firfl Nurfery, from whence i\\q Amerkans \NttQ 

Tartary or Tattary, fo called from the River Tatter, which runs thorow the 
Countrey Mongul into the Northern Ocean , covers a great part of the Teire- 
ilrial Globe ; the lefler Tartary makes out a confiderable part of Europe j the 
greater is Jfia, 

This great Tartary , which is a thoufand Leagues long, and fix hundred broad;^ 
reckons five chief Provinces, V i;<. the wild Tartary y inhabited by Herdfmen ; Sa^ 
gatai, of which the Metropolis is Samarcand , famous for the mighty Tamerlane 5 
next Turkefian ; then I\jtai, which the great Cham Commands j and laftly, Old 
Tartary^ accoiding cu Audi cars Coefarlenjls , the habitation o^Gog and 'Magog* 

Now we muft enquire from what Tartars the Amerkam are Extracted ' 

Mornam, ^oflettuSj Genehrardus^ ^otertis, and others are of opinion, That the ■thrknisji 
Tartars , which about the year 1228. under the Command of Zingis Cham 
overfpread the Earth like a deluge, were the Succefibrs of the ten Tribes of 7/^- 

, , . . 3\ . . • ^/T • 1 o ; T'T T- If the ^/Jwfej wete 2itf- 

r^e/, which w^erc carry d mto captivity to JJJyrta by oaima?ta:^ar, 1 he name lar- urs. 
tary, or rather Tattaria^ feems to be fi^me teftimony thereof, becaufe it fignifies 
in the Syrian or Hebrem Tongue, ^mnants or ^mainders^ as feemingly, becaufe 
thefe Tartarians were remainders of the foremention'd Tribes- nay , the Northern 
Tartary Herdfmen preferve to this day the Names Van^ Zabulon ^3,nd Na^hthali : 
Wherefore we need not to admire, why fo mzny Jews are found in ^^uj^ta^ 5"^r- 
matia, and Ltefland ; nay, the nearer to Tartary , the mote Jems there are. 

Circumcifion hath a long tiriie been x>h[ct\'d among them > before Mahomet 
brought in his new Law ; it feems, that Mahomet order'd the Circumcifion and 
other Laws, according to Mofes , to be obferv'd by the Northern people, be- 
caufe that in his time, they began to Rebel, thk fi^ they might the better be 
kept in awe by their new Religion. 

Joannes LeonclaVius relates, Th^t in Ltefland near ^iga^ he heard the wilde ^-"^ -^y^-^'"'"^^- 
Natives call'd Letti, not without greit admiration, go crying along the High- 
Ways and Fields, with a doleful voice, Jeru^ Jeru, Mafco lou : It is believ'd that 
they mourn ^otjerufalem and Damajcm -^ but by their long continuance in the 
vaft WildernefTes, they have forgot their Religion and Laws, and what elfe 
might enable to tell us who they were. Several learned Authors queftion this 
removal of the Ifraelkes out o^ Jjfyria to Tartary^ though to our Judgement their 
Arguments are too weak, to take from them of the footing they have gotten 
there-, yet neverthelefs, the Ifraelites are not to be taken for the Planters of 
America, for why elfe is not Judaifme as well found in America as in Tartary. But 
it is already (hewn, thsit America was inhabited long before the difperfion of the 

Now to fhut up all, it is evident, that the firft Planters oUmenca were not i,T:^^:^Z^^ 
Europeans fromthedilTimilitude of the People, both in their Complexions^ Lan- 
■'■■'' ^ guage.- 

But Afix- 
e>( Tartar jf. 

lartary is not parted from 
America by the Str nights of 

Teftimonies that the dme' 
mans are tartars. 


A M ERICA. Chap. IF, 

auacre and Perfons j nor Africans , becaufe that in all the far-fpreading Coun- 
crey of America^ not one l>{egro is to be found, except a few near the River M^r- 
t/?^^, in the little Territory ^dre^jf^;, which mufl: by Storm' be drove thither - 
nd chitflyout from the Gumny Coaft : So that Jjia, the Mother of all People^, onely remains 
to be Implanter of our America^ whofe Weftern Coaft, oppofue to Afia, is mors 
inhabited than to the Eaft, where it refpeits Europe. 

Moreover, Armenia, out of which, by Noah's Progeny, the whole Earth wa'5 
re-peopled , borders on Scythid-, now calPd Tartary , and Tartary faces America^ 
feparated onely by the Straights of Anian-^ though fome are of opinion^ that 
out of the South into the Frozen Sea, there is no paflage thorow thefe Straights-^ 
clfe (as we have already proved the contrary) how came all thofe Voracious 
and Poyfonous Beafts into Jmerica, if it be clearly feparated from Afia by^ 
Seft ? 

It deferves here to be related, what happened to Henry Cornellfon Schaep, and 
William 'Bykreld^ Sailing from 'Batavia to difcover the Tartarick River ^olyfange, 
but were taken and carry'd Prifoncrs to the Japan Court at Jedo j being Com- 
manded there by Order of the Councel to give an account of di Japan Map ct 
Card, which was laid before them, and contained the Provinces o^ Japan, Jm-^ 
hoina, the Molucca Iflaads, Manilha, the South-Sea, 'Borneo, Celebes, Malacca^ Tartary, 
Formofa, Corea, and the vaft and Mountainous Countrcy or Dcfart ofjejfo, fepa* 
rated from Japan by the Straights o^ Sungar-^ though toward the NorEli,it joyns ta 
Japan in the Province of Ochio -^ and beginning in forty feven degrees, luri 
North-Eafl: towards America, but they could not poflible find the Straights of 
'^nian j but on the contrary, the Promontory o£ Tartary, "Vi;^. the Province ^a- 
taya or ^{atui lay in the fame parallel with the Northern America. 

Hereto may be added , that Aftn hath no Territory any where , which may 
more eafily with numerous Colonies fupply jimerica than this part o^ Tartary, zs 
well for the vaftnefs of the Countrey, to which no other can compare, as for; 
the increafing of the Inhabitants : Who doth not admire , that according to 
Michalon Lithomver, there is fcarcc a City in Tartary that boafted lefs than a thou- 
fand Temples > and to fee Canguifta firft King o( Tartary, about the Year 1200J 
in Arms 5 and his Succeifor Hoccata following his Fathers bloody Footfteps,' 
whilft he prepar'd his Sons with three vaft Armies ? The eldeft Son, Jachis, 
March'd Weftward with thirty thoufand Horfe ; Batho drew with as great aa 
Army towards the North 5 Tagladais being the youngeft fell into the Moores 
Countrey above £gJ'j7^ Hocc^t^ himfelf March'd vi(5torioufly into the North 
Jmerica, fubdu'd great part of the ferfian Kingdom, and beat the Turks, led by, 
the General Goniata with a great Army, Anno \z^i. as Jacob flanenfis and Benem 
diBus Sarmata, two Monks, fent by Pope Innocott to Hoccata, witnefs : The great 
number of the Tartars or Scythians , may appear by the feveral people, fprcad 
far and near over Tartary ; Kny reckons Tome of them, 'vi';^, Auchetes, T^euriy G^- 
loni, Thujfagetes, Budmi, Bajilides, Agathyrji, l^omades, Anthropophagi, Hyperhoreiy 
Arimphei, Ctmmerij, Cicianthi, Georgi, Sacores, and others : What number would 
the Inhabitants make up that live in America, in Teneneuf, Virginia, Florida, New 
Spam, Guadalaiara^ Guatemala, Terra firma, Nei? Granada, Teru, Chili, (I(io de la ^lata^ 
'Brafil, Guniana, New Andalu:^ai ^ 

It will be Worth our time, to compare the likenefs between the Scythians and 
Northern Americans ; both of them are differenc'd with fpecial Marks of a more 
than ordinary and natural diftance between the Eyes, which much alters the 
whole Air of the Face, and the plumpnefs and fwelling of their Cheeks fum- 


Conftitutibns of the Jir^ 
tars and AmfricHni agree. 

Chap. II. - . A M E K I C Ji. , 

mits above the Cheek-bone ; moil of thefe are of a middle ftature, havinw 
downy Hair upon their Chin, like the Callow Feadiers of an unfledg'd Bird* 
Laftly, as the Tartars, they differ amongft themfelves in their Cuiloms, yet in 
feveral things they agree one with another , according as they arc governed by 
others, and yet other Princes,, fome powerful, and fonae weaker, according as 
every ones power be more or lefs. The Inhabitants of Lucaja bear Cq great a 
xefpe(a, and ftand fo much in awe of their Governor , that if commanded to 
leap from a Rock, and break their Necks;, they inftantly obey. 
. The fame is obferv'd by the Tartars ; the firft King Cangu'tfta Commanded 
the feven Princes of his Realm to Murder their Sons with their own Hands^ 
•which they all readily performed, ; ; o'ro, 

. In fopa'ma they live to this day like Come Tartars , without Laws or La,w- 
givers, who change their places by turns, from the great increafe of the Tlir- 
tars, the Americans no wiys diffcx, 

'Bartholomew de las Cajas writ to Charles the Fifth, That the Spaniards in few 
years, ondy on the Iflands C«^^, Hi^miola, Naco, Hondures., in Vem:^uela and 
'Rew Spain, dellroy'd above 2600,000. Men, befides the flaughter that was made 
in ^eru, Brafil, ^0 de la flata and other places, which far exceed the foremen- 
tion'd numbers. 

Polygamy is flill in ufc , totk among the Tartars and Americans j both ac* 
knov^ledge the Immortality of the Soul;, both like Cannibals, Eating and Sacri- 
ficing Mans fleni. How famous amongft the Antients was the Altar'of J)iana 
la Tauric a Qherfonefus , where feveral Men were daily Sacrificed ^ How deli- 
cate, according to SaheUicuSy did the Tartars account their DiHies , Sauc'd and 
ferv'd with humane Gore ? 

Straho relates. That the antient People account it an honourable Death to be Ofoir. i n.^. 74 
chop'd in pieces, and their flefli ferv'd up in Commons. Thofe that die by 
Age, a natural death, are defpis'd like Malefactors, and as a punifhment ac- 
cording to their Demerits;, left in the open Fields, a prey to Birds and Beails j 
fome delight in that loathforne gorging themfelves with Mens flefli, others on. 
the contrary, not onely deteft humane, but all manner of flefli : And juft fo 
the Americans are diftinguifli'd ;, for although the Carihes, 'Brafilians, the Inhabi- 
tants of Nell? Spain, l>{ew Granada, St. Martha, and others, Sacrifice and eat Men, 
yet as many abhor and deteft that odious Diet and abominable Cuftom. 

Giles Flejhr Queen Elifabeths Agent in Mufcolp relates^ That Anno 15S8. K^nach 
Morfey, Grandfon to the Governor of the Chrim Tartars^ made his entrance there 
with a Retinue of three hundred Noblemen, and two Ladies, of which one was 
the Widow of his deceafed Brother. The great Prince inform'd of their com- 
ing, fent him two llaughter'd Horfes, whofe fides and Hanches they feafted on^, , 
as we on Fallow Deer. 

Moft of the Tartars ufe no manner of Letters or Characters j in the Voyage 
made into Terjia , they firft learn'd to make Letters j juft fo it is in America-^ 
their bemoaning of the dead ends in one Moneth, both by the Tartars and Ame- 
ricans 5 with a Pcrfon of Quality , the Tartars bury a live Servant j the lame 
Cuftom is obferv'd by fome of the Americans 5 and fo much do they agree in a 
ialvage and rude life , that Merchandizing and Mechanicks are little regarded. 
Ayfon the American acknowledges the Tartars for a rude People in their Religion, 
Habits, and Dwellings, and yet in all thefe the America?: s differ but very little. 
Laftly, How common is it amongft them to worfliip the Devil? Along the ^^^-'i^-^of ^^p ^^4^^ 
River Sagadahoc, the Inhabitants are every new Moon miferably tormented by 
1 G ztx 



^ M E'B^I C A, 

Chap. 11* 

1 1 

1 1 

h !| 

iartarian Horfcs. 

an Evil Spirit call'd Tanto. In the Temples in Virginia remain yet the horrible 
Ima<^es of the Devils Okd and Me?ietto. Not a Hoiife in Mexico, but hath a pe- 
culiar Chappei, fet apart for this their fuppos'd holy, but damnable Adoration 
of the Devil. Others in Virginia believe, That there is a great and fupreme De- 
ity;, which is Everlafting, and for ever. The Tartan alfo are of the like per- 

But this Opinion Grotius hath laid a ftrong and da'ngerous Battery againft^^ 
that America could not be Peopled by the Tartars^ becaufe the Americans before 
the Spaniards coming thither^had never feen any Horfes- v^hereas the Tartars ufe 
no Beaft more;, either in Peace or War, nor can lefs want : For the Tartarian 
Forces do not only confift in Horfe ; but the Wealth of this Countrey is 
reckoned up in the numerous Breeds of Horfes, and feveral Studs of Mareis. 
Some of the Noblefs keep a thoufand Horfe ; none, though never io poor, 
but keep two or three j and Beggars there mounted crave Alms and Charity 
of the People. When they remove their Habitations, their Horfes carry their 
Provifions and Tents : If Provifioils grow iliort, they eat Mares Milk;, high 
gufled with Garlick, which fatisfies Hunger and Thiril j and the red Liquor 
which they tap warm from their VeinS;, ferves them to help Digeftion, and 
heighten their Humor, inftead of the Blood of the Grape^ our fweet Wine. 
The fwifteft RiverS;, though raging and precipitated with Land-floods, they 
dare adventure fwimming their Horfes over, hanging naked by their Manes, 
and guiding them by a flipp'd Rein whither they pleafe : To their Tails they 
tie their Saddles, and other Neceffaries, bound up in Rufhes. When a Per- 
fon of Quality prepares to crofs any River, they tie two Horfes Tail to T^ii^' 
and athwart both their Backs faften a Mat pleited of Ruflies, to fit on. When 
they are ftopp'd at any broad River, or ftanding Lake, they kill and flea their 
worfl: Horfes j then turning the Skins infide out, and well Liquoring, they 
ftretch them open with the Ribs, which ftand like the Bayles of a Tilted Wher- 
ry, and thus furnifh'd, ferves them for a Boat to carry eight Perfons. When 
they take the Field, going to War, not any but mufl:ers three Horfes ; which 
makes their Armies, when drawn out in Campain, fliew much bigger than 
indeed they are : And though many of them are kill'd in the Wars, or flain 
for Food, yet the European Tartars pay yearly forty thoufand Horfes tothe (2(«/- 
ftans '^ from whence Grotius thus argues, '^^ \i jimertca joyns to Tartary, then 
^' the Horfes which run wild at Grafs might eafily have found America them- 
'' felves, feekingto improve their Pafture, and have gone from one Countrey 
^' into the other, as it appears, that fince the Spaniards tranfported Horfes to 
^'^ America^ they are difpersM over the highefi: Mountains, out of one Province 
'"^ into the other: Or \i tht Straights of jinian run between both, x.\\tTartan 
" never were Navigators ^ and fuppofe they had been, they would not have 
^' crofs'd without Horfes, without which they knew not how to fubfifl:. To 
which we only fay thus, That although Tartary now, and in former times,' 
abounded in Horfe, yet muft we grant, that it hath been always fo ? or that 
the ancient Scythians, who we avouch firfl: planted America, had fuch frequent: 
ufe of them as the Tartars now. This may be controverted, for that thefe; 
Scythians planting there in the Non-age of Time, prefcntly after the Flood, 
the ufe of Horfes was unknown, which the Ancient Poets teftifie by their Fii- 
Oiion of Centaurs, who when firfl: feen, the Horfe and Rider were taken for 
one Creature. The like miftake the C/Hexicans had, when they faw the mount- 
ed Spaniards, a thoufand running away from one Cavalier, 


Chap.Ui. . ■• a M E Tx. I c J. : 

As to their coming thither of themfelves, it may ealily be confuted : .Who 
knows not that there is no Countrey a continued Pafture, but luxurious Vales 
feparated with inacceffible Mountains, Lakes, and vail WilderneiTes. But Da- 
ind Inoram relates, '^ That he faw fome Horfes in the Northern Jmerica^ which 
" the Mexicans, and other Conquefts of the Spaniards never heard of: Wherer 
upon we may conclude, and we fuppofc without all peradventure, That the 
Americans have abfolutely their Original from Tartary\ M^hidi bordering Jrme--, 
ma where jS[oah's Ark firft refted, hath a convenient way, though beyond the 
Jrtick Circle, through a temperate Climate betwixt Heat and Cold, to Cathay, in. 
the fame Parallel witli the neighboring ^wimc^. 





Firjl T>if cover ers of America. Chriftoplier Colonus 

his Expedition, 

Ftt Biztri Rfs GenetKi 

lib. itf. 


His Life; 

\Hriftopher Colonusy generally (though by miftake) call'd Qolumhus^ was 
born in ^rhi;^olo, a Village in the Dominion of Genoa-, near SaVona j his 
Father liv'd by Fifhing in the. Midland-Sea : So that Sebajlian Schroter, 
and others be fides him, are miftaken, faying;, Colonus was born in the City Cucu* ^ 
reum, and defcended of the Noble Family ftUftrelli : For feter !Be:^arus, Colonus 
his Countrey^maU;, gives unqueftionable Proofs of his mean Extrad; and chripih. cehnus[s^mbi 
amongft other things, That the Common-wealtb of Genoa refused to receive 
the great Legacy which Colonus left them in his Will, becaufe they fondly 
thought it a derogation to their Honor, being fo great a Republick, to cake 
any thing of Bequeft from a FiOiers Son : Yet his Majefty of Caftile thought 
othcrwife, not onely enriching him with Wealth, and a fair Revenue for his 
Difcovery of the IVefiJndies ; but alfo, though of a low derivation, rais'd him 
to great Honor, Ennobling him the firftof his Family with Dignities, Titles, 
and Efcutcheon, which rank'd him in place among his Prime Nobility, 

Colonus, whoni we (hall henceforth call Columbus, fpent his Youth near the 
Sea, where he was bufie exploring the Winds, confidering their Natures, and 
the Quarters whence they rofe, efpecially with the fetting of the Current from 
\ the Atlantick to the Mediterrane, The Weftern Winds, which often, as well as the 
Levant, blow feveral days together from the great Ocean, much amufing him, 
hinted at laft fome Notions, that there might be another World, and new Pla- 
ces to be difcover'd, beyond the fetting of the Sun ; and that the ]>le plus ultra 
fhould not be, if he could help it, the commanding Terminary of the Earth 
that way. He alfo fpent much time, being of a folid Judgment, in the Emen- 
dations of Charts and Maps, then very much improvable : And the Tortuguefe, 
who at that time had got the dart in Navigation from all other People, being 
then bufie to find a way by the South of Africa to the EafiJndies, not contented 
to go by hear^fay, he went himfelf in Perfon a Voyage with them. Soon af^ 
ter Columbus fettled himfelf in the Ifland Madera, where an Accident hapned, 
which Francis Lope^ de Gome/a relates thus : " The Mafter of a Ship, whofe 
*^^ Name and Countrey lies buried in Oblivion (though fome would have him 
^' to be of Spain, fome an Andalufian or 'B'l/cayner, and others a Tortu^uefe) Tra- 
*^' ding to the Canancs and tkmnujl^-Ijles , was furpris'd by a hideous Tempeft 

G 2 c(. ffQjYl 


Strange Accident. 





To the Fortuguefei 



A M E 5^ J C J. ChapJlI- 

^^from the Ead, which hurried hirn nolens iwkns thrcugh drc^icful Waves, 
'^ where at laft he found himfelf ingag d upon a WeRein Coaft.alcogether lui^ 
'^ known. The Storm ceafing, without making further Difcoveries, he pick'd 
'<■ his way homeward, at laft Landing in the Haven of Uadrra : All his Crew 
'' but three -and himfelf, with hardfliip, want, and the long Voyage having pe. 
'' rifii'd, himfelf dangeroufly fick, was carried into Columbus his Houie ^ where 
'M,yingonhis Death^Bed," he bequeathed to Co/z^mk^ his Maps, Journals, and 
'' other Obfervations of this his unfortunate Voyage. Columhus being by thefe 
Papers more confirmed than ever in his Opinion of a New World in the Weft, 
his Add.ers at deciarM what he verily believ'd, to the States of Genoa , but they looked upon 
him as a vain and idle Fellow ; yet Columbus full of his great Project, t^hus 
flighted and fcornfully rejeded, fate not fo down, but addrefsM himfelf to 
the King of Portugal where they wearied him, fpending long time with dila- 
tory Anfwers, to no effed - the Opinion of a whole Court of expert Naviga- 
tors having caft his Declaration out, as a Chimera oi meer Fancy. Soon after 
Columbus fending his Brother inlo England, to move the Bufinefs to King Henry 
the Seventh, he being taken Prifoner by the way, and lying long er'e his Re- 
leafe, came too late to the EngUp^ Court, prevented by the News of Chrtftophers 
return with Succefs from his intended Voyage : For mean mhih Per dmando 
' And c.y?i/;.« King; con: ^^^ lUbelU King of CaMe, having finifli'd his W^ars with the Uoors, had fur- 
c.„.gaNewwo.d. ^.^,i ^.^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ Expedition , which he cffeaed by the favor of Jlfonfo 

Mendotio and Jlfonfo QuintayHia, both great Minifters of State under Ferdinand 
^ndlfabel, and obtain d fo much at laft, that he was fent with a hundred and 
twenty Souldiers, befides Sea-men, in two Ships, and one Pinnace. Thus fup* 
Sails from c^/^ to dif ^^^^^ hc fct Sail from Cadi^ upon the Kings account the fourth of Jugufi, 
verNewCounreys. ^^^^^\^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^>^ ^^^ Canaryslflands , and from thence fleering 

South-Weft, the Wind in thirty three days fcarce varying one Point : But 
though the Weather blew fo conftant, yet the changd their Minds, 
and Storm'd quite contrary, crying. That Colu?nbus was guilty of all their 
Deaths : For (faid they, after they had loft fight of the Canaries fo many days, 
nothing appearing but Sea and Sky) Who can hope for any Succefs or happy conclufion 
offo defperate a Voyage, fo rafhly undertaken, and found now fo full of eminent danger > 
Yet Columbus bore bravely up, and weathered all their Exclamations, althougk 
they threatned no lefs than his Murder : At laft Articling, they came to this 
Agreement, That if after failing forwards three days more, no Land were dijco-ver'd, 
they fhould return : But about two a Clock the next Night, Columhus faw a glim- 
mering like Fire in the Sky, and in the Morning found himfelf clofe aboard 
a moft plcafant Coaft, where Landing with twelve Men, he ere^ed a Crofs 
cut out of a Tree. Thence he failed over to Cuba, where the Sea was fo rough, 
that he was forc'd to ftand off, fearing Rocks and Shallow Water. Soon after 
he got to the Northward of the Ifland Haytin, which he call'd Bifpaniola : Here 
hisl^eft Ship was bulged upon a Rock, on which they had all perifliM, had it 
not been flat on the top, fo that the Soldiers and the whole Crew of Sea-men 
were fav'd by the two Veifels. The Inhabitants ftark naked, feeing thefe 
Strangers, fled to the Woods ; but the Spaniards overtaking a Woman,they en^ 
tertai'n'd her with Sweet=meats and Spamf) Wine, and putting her on a white 
Shirt, fent her again to the reft of the Natives, where return d, flie told what 
good Entertainment flie had had to her Companions • whereupon divers of 
the Iflanders came aboard of the Spanuirds, m Boats made of one piece of 
Wood, where they bartered Gold for Beads, pieces of Ghfs, Knives, Shells, 



His People rebel; 

Difcoveis Hif^amoLi< 

Trades with the Natives. 


Returns to;. 
Isiiighly hoiior't?. 

nap. in. . J M E %^I C J. 4.5 

^nd other Trifles. The King of Guaccanarlllo gave teftimoriy of peculiar incli^ ^ 
xiationto the Spafiiards, helping them to Fifli up the rem.iining Goods of the 
Wreck, and informed them. That fome Rivers flowing from the tops cf high 
Mountains, wafli'd down the Gold amongO: the Sand : notwithilancling a. 
fliantre Prophecy had been told to thefe Iflanders^ namely. That bearded Mm 
out of nmote Countries jhould deftroy their Goods ^takc their Lmid^and maffacre their Chil- 
dren. He alfo told them what made them fly, and betake them to their Heels 
at the arrival of tht Spaniards, becaufe they were oftentimes dirpris'd by the 
(^annihals, who fnatch'd up all they could lay hold on : Their Boys and Strip- 
lings they gelded, cooping and cramming them up, as we our Capons, for 
peafts : The young and well-grown Men they chopp'd to pieces, faked, and 
Barrel'd up : Young Women they preferv'd for breed;, and old ones they made 
Slaves. Thefe CdWAzi^/j/^ were fo terrible to the Inhabitants of H^jfmy that a • 
thoufand of them durft not venture to engage againfl ten, but would run eve= 
ry Wa,y, difpers'd like Flocks of Sheep before the Wolf. 

Laftly, Their King permitted the Spaniards to build a Lodge or Hovel, 
wherein thirty or forty of them might (helter 5 but indeed fo taking polfefTion 
in right of the King of Spain, 

Mean while Columhus returned in fafety to SpaiUy and was receivM with great 
joy. King 'Ferdinand making him Admiral of the Sea;, and fending his Brother 
Bartholomew Governor to Haytin^ nowcall'd Hi/paniola, The Gold, Parrots, 
Mallick, Aloes, the flrange Bread Juccay\^i}io[c extracted Juyce is rank Poyfon;, 
but the Body makes good Meal;, which kneaded and bak'd, yields a fine M^-s^" 
chet and wholefom Food, they look'd upon with great delight and admirati- 
on • but two of the Natives being naked, with Gold Rings through their No- 
ies and Ears, Ornaments with them of high efteem, and iignifying their no 
mean Quality, the People old and young came in Throngs to wonder at, ne- 
ver weary of gazing upon them. But the King, encouraged by this Succefs, 
took no dilatory Courfe, but fuddenly, and before any could expevSt;, builc 
fourteen ftout Carvels, and three Frigats, and as fbon mann'd them with {SoeswithfbrenteenSnjt 
twelve hundred Soldiers, befides a great number of Artificers of all forts, w^ith ^ "^°'' ' '''^^'^^^^"*' ■' 
their Wives and Children, freighting them with Horfes, Swine, Goats, Cattel 
for Breed, all forts of European Corn to fow, Fruit-Trees and Vines to plant^ 
and fome Priefls to inflrud and convert the Natives to their Religion. 

Thefecondof September, Anno 1493. ^^^Y ^^^ ^^^^ from Cadi:^, and Anchored 
before Ferreo, the laft and furthefl of the C^?wf;)/J/I^«^i^, where they could get 
no Water;, but what dropped from the Dew hanging on Trees into Troughs. 
After that, Columhus came on the one and twentieth day amongil the Caribhy- 
IJlands, where he dropp'd Anchor before one, which he called Donimlco ; but n^f^ricdaes,st.cbr^ 
finding it defolate, fet fail further, and difcovcr'd feveral other Coails, where ' ' 
he likewife found nothing but very great Porcupines or Hedg-hogs,and fwect» 
fmelling Trees. Steering forward;, he found the Coalls of the Camiihds, which 
inhabited along the Shore in little Huts or Hovels, built round of Wood, The niKsofthso.^w^ji-;, 
and flakM about on the out^fide with long Poles, like Tali/ado's : They have 
alfo Polls within, which are fliorter, pleited and faflned together with Cot- 
ton, or long Roots of Trees, plyant like our Oliars, over which they hang 
Cloths painted with horrible Figures and flrange Rcprefentations : The Rocrs 
rife like our Canopy'd Tents, highed in the middle, covered with Palm-Tree 
Leaves to ketp offtheR.aini At the Entrances hang two Hairy Images on 
Poles, not for P^eligion fakcj but Ornament: Thdr Bed4leads being high 
' from 

^-^ --- =^— -^--r 


'■^and Guadalupe^ 

Strange Women in Ma^ 

^,6 <lA M E %I C A, ^nap. i 

from the Ground^ are fiU'd with a kind of Straw • and in long Hovels Sited 
for that purpofe they ftore their Sugar. 

Columbus landing here, found all the Ca?2?iihah fled ■ but their Houfes fuU of 
Stone Veflelsj Cruifes, Pans^, and Pots, boyling with xMens Flefli, Parrots, and 
Wild-foul J the Ranches and Sides of young Men, on Spins roafting at ths 
Firep with the Splinters of whofe broken Bones they headed their Arrows, 
This lOand by the Inhabitants called Qarucueria^ Cdumhus changed to Guadalupe^ 
becaufe the Mountains rife up with their tops not unlike Eflremadura in Spam^ 
famous therefor the wonderful Reprefentation of our Lady, as that of the 
Lady of Loretto in Italy, Thirty Women which he had taken from the neigh* 
boring Ifles_, he fent with Prefents to the fled Canibds, which the next day re- 
turning, made a great appearance near the Shore j but when thiey had gaz'd a 
while upon the Spaniards, looking (ledfaftly on one another, they fuddenly ran. 
back again, fheltring themfelves in the Covert of the Woods. Columbus think- 
ing it not worth his while to expe(5t their return, feeing their barbarous Life, 
burnt and deflroy'd all their Boats, and fpoiling whatever he could, failed to 

The released Women in Guadalupe , that came back again, informed the Spani- 
ardSyThsLt Matanino was an Ifle onely inhabited by Women, which at accuflom'd 
times row'd over to thefe Cannibals, where a while they drove a Trade and 
Commerce of Love, the Product of which, if Girls, they kept • but the Boys 
they fent over to their Fathers. They live in Caves, the Mouths and Entrances 
of which they maintain and ftoutly make good with their Bowe, fhooting 
Arrows as thick as Hail at the approach of Men, after their impregnating by 
the Cannibals, 

From hence the Fleet pafs'd by feveral other fruitful Iflands, Columbus giving 
them the Names of Montferatto^^dondoy St. Martin, Santa (/«;<,, formerly by the 
Inhabitants call'd Jyaya, On this laft liland he landed thirty Men, who took 
four Women, which held out their Hands before them;, as if Petitioners that 
begg'd Quarter, or praying, and then conceal'd themfelves in Ambufcade, the 
better to furprize more 5 when by chance they fpied an hdian Canoo at Sea, 
Rema.kabk paffage of with cight Men , and as many Women j whereupon thofe in Ambufcade 
made a Signal to the next Ship, which immediately fent off fome Boats well 
Mann'd 5 but before they drew near them, or expected an On^^fet, one of the 
Spaniards was kiird,and another wounded with their Arrows j amongft whom 
a Woman, to whom all the reft fliew'd greatefl Refpe6t and Reverence, aim'd 
very exactly. Their barbed Shafts were poyfon'd j whereupon the Spaniards 
enraged, ftemm'd the Qanoo, and overfetting,row'd quite over j which little or 
nothing avail'd ; for they all fwam ^ and though feparated, (hot their Arrows 
at them, as if the Boat had been a But. At laft the Indians got upon a blind 
Rock;, covered with Shoie Water, which gave them frefh Courage j but the 
Spaniards having more aid fent them from the Fleet, took them all Prifoners 5 
but the Queens Son being wounded in the Scuffle, and dying foon after, was 
iaivagcaefs of the /-sir- throwu ovcrboard. Thc Prifouers bcing brought befote Co//^?«^K^, foam'd at 
the Mouth for raping madnefs j and being afterwards carried to Caflile, fo re* 
tain'd their fierce and falvage Nature, that they fcar'd away and frighted the 
fafc Beholders. 

Mean while the S|;rtmy7? Fleet proceeded on their Voyage, between feveral 
Iflands, to Hifpnmola,oi which fome appear defolate and barren, others green 
and Woody • the fraall Vefiels failing clofe under the Shore, and the o;reat ones 



Chap- III. 

A M E%I C A. 

Cdumhus coJnes to Ui' 

{landing further off at Sea, which was very turbulent, and beat exceedincrly 
againft the Shole Rocks. The l(\2Lnd J^unchejna, Qlumhiis caWd St. Johns to 
which belonged fome of the Women fent forth in Guadalupe^ who informed 
them, That 'Burkhema was well inhabited by a kind and hofpitable People 
- who when the Cannibals landed there fought them, and if Conquerors were 
fo much exafperated with their inhumane Batbarifms, that they feiz'd on them 
like MaftifFs open^mouth'd, and tore them piece-meal with their Teeth • yet 
themfelves abhorring the Cuftom of eating Mens Flelh. Here the Spaniards 
found oncly a large Houfe^ furrounded with twelve lelTer ones, all deferted,- 
for the Inhabitants with their King Chtafichio were then retired into the cool 
and more fheltring Woods, from the mid-day Heat. All this the Indians told 
him, which he brought back with him from Spain. Coming to an Anchor at 
Hi/panioUj he fent one of the Indiatts afiiore, that he might tell what brave 
things he had feen in the Spanifi Court 5 but the remaining three took the ad- 
vantage of the following Night, and leaping over»board, fwam to Shore. Buc 
this Accident he not much regarded, trufting to have a fufficient Account from 
his eight and thirty Spaniards which he had left in the Fort upon the Ifland ; 
and the more, becaufe King Guaccanarillo's brother, in fign of Friendfliip, had 
prefented him with two Golden Images : But all thefe Conjeauresfail'd him, 
fb that hearing nothing, he landed, where he found the Spanijh Garrifon utterly Finds the %«i4r^,flain^ 
deftroy'd, and the Royal Fort burnt down to the Ground, and lying in a heap 

ofAflies, Then they fired feveral Guns, to give notice, that if any of them .7. 

had conceard themfelves^ and lay sculkingin the Woods, or otherwife, they 
fhould difcover themfelves, and come to the fuccour of their Friends : But all / 
in vain, for none came j for as they were afterwards informed, the Inhabitants 
had flain them, becaufe of their infupportable behavior, infolently commit- 
ting Robberies, Rapes, and Murders : Hereupon he fent Meffengers to the 
King Guaccanarilloj to inquire why they had fired his Fort, and what they had 
done with his Men, who brought him this Return, That over that mighty 
Ifland were many Princes, of which two being provok'd by the reports of the 
Strangers that were entertained in the Ifland, came marching upon them, each 
with their Armies J but that he endeavored what he could, and came with a 
Power to aflifl: the Strangers 5 yet all he got for his Kindnefs, was a Wound in 
his Leg, which had been fo fore and troublefom, that forced him to keep his 
Bed, and no lefs than feven Concubines to attend him, and drefs the Wound ; 
But he tald his Tale fo ill, and feign'd his Lamenefs worfe, that SthiUm^ one 
of the Meflen^ersfent by Columbus, lifting up the Coverlet, faw that he ail'd 
nothing, which foon confirmed his doubt, that he was confederated with the 
left, and alike guilty of the Slaughter. At lafl: Guaccanarillo being defir'd, came 
in Perfon to Columbm^ in whofe prefence he held a long Difcourfe with an In- 
dian Woman, which they had brought from the Ifland of Santa Cru^, there 
Chriflined by the Name of Catharine : At length Guaccanarillo was difmifs'd, and 
the Night following this Catharine, with feven more of the Indian Women, 
leap'd over-board, and fwom almofl: a League to Shore, fo aoina thence du 
rectly to their King Guaccanarillo. This Accident gave more fufpicion to Co» 
lumbm, who thereupon fent three hundred Men, commanded by Mdchior^ Hoi- 
eda, and Goryalano, to march through the Ifland three feveral ways, and with 
fpecial Commiffion to fecure as their Prifoner Guaccanarillo, Melchtor difcover'd 
a wide River, full of Reaches and winding Bays, gliding between high Hills 
covered with Woods^ refounding with the ecchoing noifes of harmonious 


_ His Difcourfe with the 
King GHaccmarilh, 

J M E R I C J. 

CHap. Ill: 

tolumhus builds a City. 

Birds and difemboguin'g his Waters, enlarg'd by two otlier Rivers, [into the 
Sea, fo making a convenient Harbor for Ships. Here a hundred of the Ifland* 
erS;, well Arnn/d after their manner^, met them, crying aloud, We are no Canni:^ 
bals, but Taynos, that is, a Teoj)le more civil than they are crticL The Sj}a?iiards mz- 
kingSignsof Peace, the Trtjwoi approached;, and joyn'd their Forces in a friend- 
ly manner. Near the place of this Meeting appear'd a Houfe built in an Ovai 
fafhiott;, being thirty tvi^o Paces in the Circumference, the Roof curioufly 
pleited of divers colour'd Ruflies, round about which ftood thirty lefler Dwel» 
liners. Meanwhile, in his March Ho/Wd difcover'd a River that defcended 
from a high Mountain, where the Inhabitants gather'd much Gold after this 
st/ange gathering of Gold, manner : They dig a Hole about two Foot deep j then taking up their left^- 
Hand full of Sand, with their right Hand they cull out the precious Ingots,' 
which little accounting of, as they gather'd, they dealt away to the S^^wii/rJj*- 
Mofl: of the Pieces were as big as Peafe^ yet fome fo large, that they weighed 
-Dttusi.-DiOsUisL^vo.y jiine Ounces, ^eter Martyr ^ Councellor to the Emperor Charles^ tells us. That 
he hath feen of them in the 5/?dwi/7? Court, that were brought over thither by 
Cohmhus, Moreover, Hoieda was inform'd here. That this Gold-River took 
its Original in the Province belonging to Qacicm Caunaboa, fignifying, The ^in^ 
of the Golden Talace. 

Mean time Columbus fele£ted a piece of Ground on a rifing Hill;, on the 
North part of the Ifle, where he intended to build a City, becaufc clofe by 
the Hill on one fide rifcs a Mountain;, pregnant with Stone and Chalk J on the 
other, a Plain, fo exceeding fruitful and pleafant, that the Sun fcarce fhines 
upon a more delightful and fertile Soil, which they found afterwards by ex- 
perience. Here Melons are fet and ripe in thirty fix days ; Corn, in two 
Strange fruitfuinefs there. j^Qj^ths • twice a Year the Trces and Plants bring forth their feveral Pro- 
duds ; the Vines come to maturity, and are loaden with Clufters of Grapes, in 
two Years, and Sugar^Canes grow as thick as a Mans Arm in fifteen days. Oa 
this pleafant Soil, accommodated with a convenient Haven, Columbm after- 
wards built the City Ifahella, fortified With Walls and Trenches againft all In- 
vafions, over which he made his Brother !Brfrr/;o/o7?2CK>Co/«wi^wj firfl: Governor. 

Mean while the Admiral Columbus himfelf march'd up into the Countrey 
with three hundred Men, in quefl: of the Gold Mines. Seventy two Leagues 
the Valley CtbaVa lies difliant from Ifabella, to which Columbus pafs'd over fwift 
Currents and high Mountains;, where he built a Fort, which he call'd St, Tho* 
ma^ J and exchanged with the Inhabitants Toys and Trifles, for Pieces and In- 
gots of Gold, which the Inhabitants, as before-mention'd, found in the Sand 
of their Rivers : And befides, they informed him. That about half a days 
Journey further, greater Quantities of Gold were to be found, in a browner 
colour'd Soil : Whereupon Luxanus, one of his Officers, was fent with a fijf- 
ficient Party thither, who march'd through a delightful way, cool with fhady 
Boughs, and pleafant with the profpec^ of fpacious Meadows, where they 
mowM Grafs for their Horfes, which in four days time grew up again higher 
than our talleft Wheat. 
Goes TO Sea to difcovcr Mcan timc Columbus being returned with great Riches to his new City IfabeU 
la, went foon after by Sea , with three Veflels , to difcover new Countreys 
more remote 5 which his Defign fell out alfo fuccefsfuUy 5 for he fell firft up- 
on Jamaica^ where he found more ftout Oppofition than elfewhere, by the Na- 
tives, at his Landings but finding themlelves over-power'd , they came to 
Agreement, and accepting an amicable Compofure, prelcntly ftruck up a 


new Countrc/s. 

Ch^ip. III. 

J ME T^I C J. 


Peace. From thence putting to Sea, lie next difcoverM Cuha, which failing 
round about, he found alfo to be an Ifland j where Landing in a convenienc 
Harbor, on each fenc'd with a high and jutting Rock, he efpied two little Ho- 
vels wherein was abundance of Fifli, befides two great Snakes or Serpents, 
each having eight Feet, fpitted, and ready to be laid to the Fire to be roafted 5 
but neither Man, Woman, nor Child to be feen, they being gone with part of 
the Fifh they had drefs'd, into the adjacent Woods ^ whither the Spaniards 
following, fa w hanging by fmall Strings, on the Branches of Trees, abundance 
of Snakes, fome of which had their Mouths tied together, others their Tongue 
and Teech pullM out. Hence marching on, a little beyond they faw a Com- 
pany of the Nacives,which they judg d to be about feventy Men,covering the 
top or fummit of a Hill , to whom the Spaniards made Signs , and to entice 
them near, fliew'd feveral of their gawdy Trifles ; but in vain, till at lail one 
adventurM,defcending from the Hill,to whom one of the Natives (viho in the 
firft Voyage that the Admiral made, was taken from the Ifland Guanaha'mi near 
Cuba, carried to Spain, and there Chrifl:ncd) call'.d aloud, telling him they need 
not fear, they fliould have no harm done them j which faid, they came down 
all together, and informed them. That they were fent by their King to catch 
Fifli for another King, which was with him at Dinner • and if they had not 
eaten the Serpents, they gave them many thanks • for they were provided for 
the fecond Courfe, and very fcarce to be got, being a greater Dainty than any 

Columbus from hence proceeding; on further Weftward, difcovcr'd a fruit- Dircove« not without 

■t "^ 1 r Tl'7- great Accidents, fevcroi 

ful Coaft, verging the Mouth of a River, whole Water runs boylmg hot mto New coumreys, 
the Seae Somewhat further he faw very llrange Fiflies, efpecially the Guaican, 
not unlike an Eel, but with an extraordinary great Head, over which hangs a 
Skin like a Bag. This Fifh is the Natives Fifher • for having a Line or hand*^ 
fom Cord faftned about him, fo foon as a Turtel^ or any other of his Prey, 
comes above Water, they give him Line ^ whereupon the Cuakafi^likc an Ar- 




diRurbanc: in 

a M E\I C A. Chap. III. 

row out: of a Bowe, flioots towards the other Fifii, and then gatherincr the 
Mouth of the Bag on his Head like a Purfe^net holds them fo fait, that h'e lets 
not loofe till hal'd up out of the Water. 

Here the Spaniards having Din'd on delicate Fifli, went on ftill WeRward 
and came to an uninhabited Ifle, but well florM with Gecfe, Pelicans, and ugly- 
Dogs that could not bark. Here they came amongftfo many Shoals, that the 
Keels of their Ships raked upon the Ground almoft forty Leagues together 
the Water thick and white like Milk. Laftly,they came again into deep Water' 
and Landed at the Foot of a high Mountairi, on the Ifland Cuba j where they 
found two Springs of very fweet Water. A Mufqueteer going into the Woods 
whilfl the reft fiU'd their Veffels with Water and cut Wood, he fpied a tall 
Man in a Coat like a white Fryer's Frock j behind whom came two more, and 
foon after thirty more foUow'd, all alike Habited : the Mufqueteer running 
away, they beckned him to ftay, but he march'doff 5 and informing Columhm 
of his Adventure, he fent a Party well ArmM to fee farther into the Countrey ;' 
but they neither faw nor heard any Men, onely found on the other fide of the 
Wood a great Plain, but fo overgrown with deep Grafs, that it was impoiTible 
to get through : The next day he fent out twenty five more, which found no- 
thing elfe than the Prints of the Steps of great Beafts and Lyons, and alfo 
abundance of large Grapes, which hung on the Branches of Vines, clafpino- 
about the Bodies of the great Trees. 

Hence Qolumhm again putting to Sea, and Sailing Wefterly, found a Shore 
overflowed with Water, and abounding with Pearl-Mufsles, and after that the 
whole Countrey full of Mountains, whofe tops fmoaked. By this time the 
Fleet was much damnified by the Shole-water jwhere, as wc mention'd before 
they often ftruck, and their Keels rak'd upon the Ground 5 fo that having 
fprung feveral Leaks, and their Provifions growing mouldy with the Damp, 
they were forced to return ; and Tacking about they ran againft Turtles,whick 
lay as thick in the Sea as if they had been fow n. 

Columhps noXv on his return home, and Landing once more on Cuba^ found 
an antient Man Hark naked, who fpeaking to him {Vidacus interpreted, the 
Language in fomepart agreeing with that o£ Hifpaniola) to this effed : 

lou haye to all adiniration come to fee this Cou?itrey from another World, 7?iy adVice to 
you is, That you hurt 7ione -Jor the Souls of e^^il-doers go to dark places : ^ut on the co?i- 
trary, they fiall enjoy the heighth of all Tleafures that are Friends to feace. i 

Columbus reply'd. That he came a Scourge for the cruel Cannibals, hut a Shield to 
proteB the (jutet and well-meaning Indians, 

After this, returning to Hiipaniola, much contrary to his expedation, he 
found all things which he had Tetled there turn d topfie-turvy : for firft the 
Governors at Ifabcllajzngkd, and were at private contentions amongft them- 
felves, a.nd the ^enedtfiine Monk ^oilus tind Teter Margarites vjcxt returned -to 
Spam, there to make their complaints at Court : and bcfides, the Spaniards had 
dealt very inhumanely with the Nativcs,by their frequent Rapes, Thefts, and 
Murders 5 wherefore the Indians, not unjuftly incens'd, deftroy'd all the Spant. 
rfrJf they found ftragling in any part without. the Lines of their Fortification. 
Caunnhoa alfd lay about the Fort St. Thomas, and clofely befieged Ho/eJ^ ; but 
receiving intelligence' of Co/m^w/s arrival, he broke up his Siege, and marched 
from thence, but foon after was taken Prifoncr by the Spaniards, Mean while 
upon^De%n(aPlothorfeo'fthewikii;) the Natives of H/7>/;^.W.z had neither 
Tiird or Sbw'd die Ground, or us'd Ac^riculture the year before, contriving' 



Chap. III. \ A M E 'B^I C A 

by vVant of Piovifions (not confidering themfelves) to flarve out the Spaniards 5 
but the mifchief fell upon the Contrivers : for fo great a Famine hapned^, thac 
rpreading over the whole Countrey, in a few Moneths fifty thoufand were 
ftarv'd to death 5 but the Spaniards made a faving, though hard fhifc with their 
own (lore, then, though too late, the Iflanders repented of their folly, for they 
faw the Spaniards making an advantage of their mifery, not onely built more 
Houfes in their City Jfahella, but preparM their Weather-beaten VcfTels, with 
which Sailing to the Gold Mountains of Cipangi on the Hill, whence fprung 
feveral Fountains, they rais'd the Caftle of the Conception. Great benefit they 
icap'd by this Fort, to which they carry'd daily abundance of Amber, Brim* 
^ ftone, mix'd Ore of Silver and Gold,and fBr^;^i/e-wood,befides great ftore of 
Gold : and they might have gotten ten times more,had they not been fo much 
inclined toflothfulnefs, and minding other vain pleafiires : yet notwithfland- 
ing all, the Fleet carry'd that year above one thoufand two hundred pound 
weight of Gold to 5]?di'«. 

In the mean while the Natives complained to Cohmhus of the Spanijh Soldi- Spaniards tyismiteti'ic; 
crs, which under pretence to feek for Gold, committed many infiifferable Out* 
rages j therefore they defirM that they might be retained in their Forts, and not 
ftragglc fo much abroad, and they would willingly bring them every three 
Moneths a certain weight of Cotton, Amber, !Br4;^^7e-wood, and Gold, more 
than equivalent to what they fiiatch'd j but Columbus (whofe Soldiers, not- 
withftanding his feverity, and ufing Martial Law upon fi^me of them for 
their Crimes, and proud with their fiiccefsj yet prevailed at laft, that they 
confented thereto ; but the Inhabitants never performed their promife, who 
being almofl: famifli'd, had much to do to preferve themfelves alive, fpending 
their time in picking Sallads* 

Whilft the Bufinefs remained in this ill pofture, or rather con^nfion, Cihanusy 
Brother to the imprifon'd (}i«?2^^o^, raised an Army of five thoufand Men: 
the Spaniards J divided into five Companies, march'd to meet him j and their 
Enemies being naked, and having no other Arms than Bowes, Arrows, and 
Clubs, after fome little refiftance, were foon diHipated and put to flight, but 
overtaken by the SpaniJJ? Horfe,many of them were taken Prifoners,and others 
forc'd to skulk and hide themfelves on the tops of Mountains. 

Shortly after this Battel hapned a Huricane, mix'd with Thurider-claps, 
' renting great pieces from the Rocks, and the Wind blowing out of the Eaflr, 
threw down Houfes and Trees, fome of which were carry'd a vafl heighth in- 
to the Air ; three Ships that rode in the Harbor, broke their new Cables, and 
iplit againft the Rocks. The Spaniards expected nought elfe, but that with this 
exceffive Temped the Day of Judgment v/as at hand. And on the other fide, 
the Iflanders afcribed this raging of Heavens to the Spaniards wickednefs. This 
Storm pafl:,and the Air fctUd ^Columbus gave ordet for the building of two new 
5hips there, with which in March , Anno 1495. he returned to Spain 5 where in 
CMcdina del Campo he gave an account at the Court about the difcover'd Coun^ 
treys 5 where alfo Sentence was pafs'd on feveral Spaniards, and chiefly con=» 
cerning the ^enediHine Monk 'BoiluSj who outof meer malice pafs'd by him at 
Mafs with the Hofl:, while he gave it to others, without any diilin(^ion. 
Then he gave a further account, that his Brother Bartholomew? had found, fixty 
•Leagues beyond Ifabella, feveral deep Pits, the uppermoft Ground of which 
Sifted, produced abundance of Gold. Moreover, that he had built the Caftle 
Jurea there in three Moneths time with little trouMe : but becaufe Provifions 


Jheir Conquefi, 

Horible TenipefU 

A reniarkablc paffug^ 
concerning Banhtlomm 



A M E %^I C A. 

Chap. III. 

King in Hi^^ 

grew fcarce there, he found himfelf neceflitated to remove, but left ten Men in 
the Garrifon, and had fent three hundred of the Iflanders with their Governors 
to S^ain. He alfo built the Caftle Dom'mko, on the South-fide of HiSpaniola 5 
from whence he had traveird into the Countrey to the River Naiha: where, 
upon this Shore the King 'Beuchto Jnacauchoa Encamp'd himfelf againft the Nat* 
bans, to bring them, befidesfeveral other People, under his fubjedion. That 
Bartholomew demanded Tribute of Jtiacauchoa, which he immediately promis'd 
to pay, and disbanded his Forces, condua:ing !B4rt/;o/om^ji? above thirty Leagues 
on his Way, along a Path on both fides Town with Hemp, and planted with 
rereption of a Cotton-Trecs, to his Palace Xaraqua, in the Weft o( Hispaniola, where he was 
uipanwi^. received in great ftate : Thirty of the Kings Wives walk'd before, carrying in 

their Hands Boughs of Palm-trees, and both Sung and Danc'dvery ftrangely ;' 
behind thefe came a confiderable number of naked Virgins, very handfom; at 
Ui}: Bartholomew entring the Palace with the King, found a Table furnifli'd with 
all manner of Dainties, and a very courteous Entertainment. The next day 
walking forth to a large Plain,and looking about he faw two Parties that deep* 
ly engag d in Fight behind a Hill, with great flaughter on both fides, and had 
not he defir'd that they might be parted,there had been much more Blood flied. 
After he had been feveral days friendly entertained, he returned to the Forts 
Jfahella, Sperancia, Catharma, St. Jago,Turrita, Conception, and Dominko-^ where he 
found above three hundred Spamoi-ds ftarv'd of hunger, befides many that were 


At that time Cuarlomxius having been opprefs'd by the Spaniards ^ and a long 
time watching for an opportunity, now thinking he had found it, rais'd an 
Army offifceen thoufand Men, with which he was rcfolv'd to try his fortune 
againft Co/«?«i>«j 5 who privately receiving intelligence thereof, fell upon him 
foonafuddenandunexpededly, that he fpoilM his Defign, and took all his 
Commanders Prifoners: But to oblige the Inhabitants, who begg'd for their 
King, Columbus Ca him at liberty j, advifing him to be careful of raifing a War 










uumhut Sails the third 
to Hijfanioltt. 

iDefcription of the City 


Chap. III. / A M E X.I C J, n 

againft him any more. But he not being able to endure the oppreillons of 
(l{olilmHsXmene:^,^S^dnljh Commzn^tx, fled to the wild G^umos, defcended 
from the Canibals, and living on fteep Mountains : Of thefe he defir'd aid 
againft the 5p^m^r^^, and obtained not onely their Promife, butfomeMen. 
With which he robbM and pillagd the Countrey round about, and whatSp^. 
nkrds he met with he kill'd, and with his Men did eat, as if a Venifon Feaft. 
Mean while Xtmem;^ made himfelf Leader of feventy Rebels, which like raging 
blood-hounds fell upon the Natives after a terrible manner. 

Whililall things were thus in diforder at Ht^pamola, the Admiral Clmfto^her ^::^!:i^;!^ ^' 
Columbus fet Sail a third time with eight Ships from the Haven ^anameda, in 
the Year 1498. To fliun the Fmzc/? Pyrates, which watched for the Indian 
Treafures, he direfted his Courfe to Madera, a fruitful Ifland of Corn, Wine, 
Sugar, Wax, and Cattel, defolate till Anno 1420. Here coming to an Anchor, 
he fent fix Ships away to HiJ^aniola, which himfelf afterwards followed with 
the remaining two, fleering by the Flemljh iQands, or Acores, firfl: fo call'd 
from the Flemings, the firft Planters : Here he dropt Anchor before the City 
Angraon the Ille Tenera, which is fixteen Leagues in circumference, and very ^^Defi:ripuon of the city 
Mountain-ous ^ the tops whereof are like Spires, and abound with Grapes : the 
Plain Countrey produces great (lore of Corn,but it will not keep above twelve 
Moneths. The Ground is oftentinnes terribly ftiaken by Earthquakes, and 
between feveral fulphurous Places, both Flames and Smoak afcend up to the 
Sky. Near the City Angra is a Fountain which turns Wood into Stone. The 
"Winds in this Place blow fo fierce and ftrong, that they not onely beat down 
Houfes, but wear out Iron, and all manner of Stone-work. In Jngra the chief 
Commander of all the Flemip? Ifles hath his Refidence. The City, furround- 
ed by fteep Rocks, lies towards the Sea like a Crefcent, or Half^Moon j for 
at both ends thereof the Mountains extend with deep Points into the 
Oceaii. The uppermoft part towards the Weft ftands likewife fortifi'd by 
a high Rock, as alfo by another on the Eaft : on both are continual Watches 
kept; whereof thofe on the firft can diicover Ships fifteen Leagues off at 
' Sea;, coming either from the £^/ or If ^/.W/M; and on the other;, all thofe that 
cotne from Europe : When they fee above fifteen Sail, they put out the Kings 

great Flag upon the top of all the Rock. 

ThisCity of ^w^r^ is divided into feveral Streets: the Governor and Arch- 

bifiiop live each in a ftately Palace j five handfom Churches are no fmall orna- 
ment to it • the Sea before it abounds with Fifli, but are not to be taken in 
X)gcew^er, by reafon of the turbulent Waves. 

Chriftofhr Columhm having refrefh'd at Jngra, SailM along the African Coaft 
between the He^miei : under the Equinoctial he was fo miferably tormented 
by the Heat, that his Veftels feem'd to burn , the Hoops fprung'from the 
Casks, fo that the Water run about the Hold ^ and they could expea nothing 
but de'ath from the infufferable Heat, and want of Water : eight days they 
had endur'd this hardfliip, when they met with a frefli Gale out of the South- 
Eaft, fo that they made great Way towards the Weft. On the laft o^July he dif^ 
cover'd three high Mountains • and approaching near the Shore, he fmelt as in 
a Pofie,all the fweet breathings of fragrant Flowers commix'd, and at laft faw 
a convenient Haven, where going afliore he found cultivated Grounds, and 
fteps of Beafts, but not a Man appeared : the next day they fpy'd a Boat with 
twenty young Men come rowing from the Shore into the Ocean. The Admi^ 
ial hard them in vain to come aboard, for they made the greater haft afhore, 



Abundance of Pcail. 


AME%JS^A, Chap. III. 

ftiU looking about continually with great admiration on the Ships : whereup- 
on he commanded themto beat their Drums, and found their Trumpets, that 
they might by that means entice them aboard • but they rather taking ic as a 
fignofWar, made themfelves ready for refiftance : mean while the S^amarh 
overtook the Indian Boat, into which they threw a Hat, and other trifles j the 
Iflanders amaz'd thereat, made figns to them to row afliore j but foon 'after 
they fled. 

O^wte proceeding on his Journey came to P^m, where he found a Fifli- 
ers Pink loaden with Oyftcrs 5 which opening and taking out the Meat, were 
found full of Pearls, which becaufe of their abundance were not regarded 
there 5 for a broken Difli and a rufly Knife, th zSfamarh had four long Strings 
of Pearl, - 

From thence anchoring in the River of C«m^72^, feveral naked Men came 
aboard, adorn d with Golden Armlets, and Strings of Pearl, Thefc inform'd 
him, that they gather^ their Gold from the Mountains and Rivers, and caught 
their Pearl-oyfters in the adjacent Seas. Some of the Spaniards were nobly 
cntertain'd by the King and his Son, who leading them into their Palace, pla- 
ced them on Benches of Ebony-wood, curioufly wrought, and on a fudden fe- 
veral Servants came in with variety of Dainties, and welLtafted Wine. But 
becaufe Provifions grew fcarce amongftthe Sea-men, and their Meat tainted, 
CQlumhw thought it convenient to leave the PearUtrade till fome better opportu! 
nity. Then fcttingforward,the farther he wentjthefliallower he found the Sea 
infomuch that his Ship fcarce had Water enough to fwim. This inconveni- 
ence was followed by a fecondjfor the Sea being full of Weeds and Grafs,fcarce 
fuffer'd any PafTage. A River thirty Yards deep, and twenty Leagues broad, 
came rufiiing out betwixt two Shores into this Sea with fuch force, that the 
coumhus is la great Waves wcnt high Hkc Mountaius, which mzdcColumhus judge himfelf in the 
greateft danger imaginable, and withall Tack about ; fo that he came on the 
eight and twentieth of JuguJ} Anno 14^8. to an Anchor before Hij^aniola, where 
all things were ftill in a fad confufion, as we before related. 

^oldanm Ximenes refusM to follow Chnflopher Columhm's, order and writ Let- 
ters to the King of Spain ^m which he exceedingly afperfed both the Admiral Co- 
/«^«kj and his Brother J who were not backward in giving an account quite 
contrary by their Letters, of the horrid Villanies perpetrated by this Xwienes, 
and dcfirM aid, that fo great an Oifender might receive condign punifliment. 
Mean while the Ci^umo's came marching down with fix thoufand Men, which 
^artholomeiP went to meet with eighty Foot and fome few Horfe : The Indians 
which he was to encounter with, rather feeming like Furies than Men, for all 
of them were daub'd over with black fmuts on their bare Skins from Head to 
Foot, and their hard Hair plcited in terrible, not in Lovelocks, hung playing, 
or dangling over their Shoulders. When the Spaniards in their March draw- 
ing up, to a River where it was bed fordable, had no fooner left the Bank, and 
taken the Water, endeavoring to wade over, but the Salvages rufli'd forth out 
of the Woods, and letflye a fliowre of Arrows, that had they not been provi- 
ded with Shields and Targets, to keep off fuch a deadly Storm, fo thick they 
flew, audio wellaim'd, moft of them had perifli'd there: but having re- 
cover^ the oppofite Bank, the Enemy play'd all hid, and in a thought fiiel-.- 
ter'd themfelves under the proteaion of the Woods J where the Conqueror 
purfuing/ound the Service very difficult and dangerous, for their Arm"es,cfpeci^ 
ally their Shields, flopping and intangUng them as in a Net, among the Oirub. 

Koldanus Ximenes op- 
pof;s Columbus. 

Strange Iniiansl 



<tA M E R I C A 

by a nd twining Branches ; whicK they palling, rigled themfclves^ and mad^ 
thei r way, like cjiielling Spaniels following their Game^ and ftili ga wling them 
with their Arrows : whereupon they left their vain piirfuit, marching another 
way to intercept Mayohanexius ^ who with eight thoufand Ctquano's were then 
coming down againft them ; which prov'd a harder task than was expected : 
for e'rche could reduce him and his ftubborn Party, he fpent three ^4oneths in 
the Service. 

S E C T. I I I. 

Ut the great and worthy Service of thefetwo excellent Brothers deferving 
rather Statues and Trophies of cverlafting Honor, Monuments never to be 
demolifh'd,in their due praife, who had found out after fo many baffled Ages^ 
a new World, richer, and not much lefs than the old, by the afperfing calum- 
niations of one malicious Pcrfon, loft his whole Intereft and Credit in the 
Spanijh Court J quite out of favour witb his Prince, who by his infinuations 
had hinted fo much the matter of Gain among the Courtiers, that every one 
fludied no lefs than to gee a Commiflion, and fo going a Commander to the 
Indies y make up his Mouth, and become fuddenly rich. Firft Francifco 'BomhadilU 
prevailing, was fent with full Commiflion to Cnccced Columbus in H'tj^anlola - 
where no fooner Landing, but he exercisM the extremity of his^Authority^, and 
feizing the Admiral and his Brotherjfetter'd their Hands and Feet,5,nd put them 
aboard on two feveral Ships for Sj^a'm : where no fooner arriv'd,, but the King, 
not altogether forgetting former Services;, commanded them to be unmana» 
cled, and waited on^, not as Prifoners, with a civil Retinue to his Court j 
where they were well entertained three years. But they being adive Perfons^, 
weary of lo long repofe, got a fecond Grant to make farther difcoveries;, and 
fet forth the ninth o^Majy Anno 1504. with four Sail well appointed from 
Cad'tT;^^ and had a fair Paflage from thence to Hijpaniola, where begun the Storm. 
{or 'Bombadillaj who had by the Kings CommilHon fo evil treated Columbus and 
his Brother, as aforementioned, would not fufferhim, though reconciled to 
the King;, fo much as to Land, and there refrefh themfelves and their Men ; fo 
he was fdrc'd to fteer on to the Iflands Guamixa and Feragua,, where a Huri- 
cane, or fudden ftrefs of Weather funk two of his Veflels 5 the other two flan* 
ding off to Seaefcap'd bilging, but fo fhatter'd and leaky, having alio fliipp'd 
abundance of Water, they vvere refolv'd to put in at J^miijc^ j where weary 
with the long Voyage, and hatter'd with the Tempeft, many of his Sea-men, 
fpent with ficknefs, after their Landing, died. To thefe his fufferings frorri 
Wind and Weather, and his Enemies abroad, a greater and inteftine mifchief 
hapned : Francifco Torefio, one of his chief Commanders, ablolutely rebell'dj 
and deferring him, with another Party of his Sea-men went into Hijpaniola: 
which the Iflanders obferving, refolv'd to famifh him, keeping from him both 
Water and all other Provifions 5 which had not Columbus ftav'd off by a hand- 
fom Invention, they had compleated their Delign, which was this : He told 
them that he was the offspring of the Moon, and if they refus'd to fupply 
his want, the Moon, in vindication of her Son, would familli them, by fpoil- 
ing what e're they had planted or fow'd j and that this would prove true they 
-fiiould know by a fign,that on fuch aNight,fhe rifing in her full glory ,{liould 
firft look red, and afterwards by degrees lole a great part of her light 5 which 
indeedfo hapned, being Ecelips'd, as he could well prognofticate • and after 
thatj they being ignorant of the caufc;, fuppli'd him with all Neceifaries. 


Hatli very bad fucccfi in 
his fourth Expedition. 


Fights with Porrjitii. 


^ M E'B^i c a: 

Chap. Ill, 

But Torcfio, not able to endure the Sea with his fmall Boats, rcfolv'd to fur* 
prize one of the Ships that lay hz^ott Jamaica j but Columbus fo much preventer, 
him;, that meeting him in his return, after a hot difpute made him his Prifoner. 
But thus ended not his misfortunes 5 for the Veflels which he fought in foon 
after funk;, and no fhip to be found in Jamaica totranfporthim thence. Laftly, 
he agreed with fome hdian Fifhermen, to carry VidacoMendo^a to St. Dominica, 
that there he might hire two Veflels to carry him back to Spain : which De- 
iign taking effed, he arrived there in fafety : where after he had refrefh'd him- 
feifat the Spajiif? Court, after his fo long and unfortunate a Voyage he fell 
fickp and died on the eighth o^ May \^o6. 

Mean while, the Affairs o^ HtJ^aniola grew more out of order : for 'Bomha- 
dtlLi joyning with Xime?ies, refolvM to hoard up a huge Treafure of Gold, 
though with the infinite oppreflion of the Natives : of which King Ferdinand 
having intelligence^, fent lN(/c/;o/^ 0/^«J^ thither wath thirty Sail • who being 
nominated Vice-Roy, anchored in forty days before Hifpamoho No fooner 
arrived, but Bomhadilla and Ximenes fled^ leaving their vafi: Treafure, amount- 
ing to ten hundred thoufand Ducats - which guarded with four hundred ^S/?^- 
niards in twenty four Ships was fent to Spain : but fo it hapned;, that they were 
all fwallowed up in the main OceaO;, none knowfitg to this day in what La- 
titude they were lojd. 

Sect. VI. 

Defcription oiCmiatt/t. 

Pietro Alponfo Nigno his Voyage. 

'Tyietro ISligno, encouraged by fome of thofe that had been with Columhus 2Lt the 
-^ Ides of Pearl;, Rigg'd out a Ship at his own charge, with fpecial order in his 
CommiiTion;, that he fliould not touch on any Coaft within fifty Leagues of 
any Place Columbus had formerly difcover'd. But he little obferv'd his Orders, 
and what he was commanded j for Sailing into the Haven Curiana, he bartered 
Shells, Needles, Glafs, and fuchlike Trifles, for abundance of Pearls,which the 
Iflanders brought aboard, for he himfelf having but thirty Men, durftnot ven* 
ture afhore. Twenty days this bartering Trade continued. Orient Pearls for 
Toys 5 but finding at laft, that they were a civil arvd hofpitable People, he 
Landed, where they entertain'd him in Hovels built t>f Wood, and cover'd 
with Palm^^Leaves j before their Doors lay great Hills of Oyfter-fhells, the 
Fifli being eaten, and the Pearls us'd for an ornament j Conies, Hares, Phea- 
fants. Pigeons, Geefe, Ducks;, Deer, and wild Swine, are their ufual Food • 
and their Bread is made of the Roots of Trees. Moreover,C«nijnrf abounds with 
thick and fliady Woods, which reibund in the night with the cries and roar- 
ings of wild Beafts : but though they are terrible fierce and voracious, yet the 
Natives floutly venture in amongft the thickeft of them , arm'd onely with 
Bowes and Arrows. The Inhabitancs are of Complexion tawny, their Hair 
long and curl'd j their Teeth they keep white with an Herb, which they con- 
tinually hold betwixt their Lips. The Women perform their bufinefs of 
Husbandry, Ploughing and Sowing. The Men are Soldiers, following the 
bufineis of War : but in Peace their Exercifes are Hunting and Dancing. 
They keep annual Fairs, where from all Parts of the Countrcy they bring their 
Commodities to buy and barter. They have their Gold from Cauchieta, fix 
days Sail Wefiward from G/ri^?;^. 


I 1 

Chap. III. 



Thither N(^«5 next diredcd his coiiiTe, .inci came to r.n Anchor there oti 
the fii'ft of OHoher^ Anno 1500. The Inhabitants entred aboard wichoiit the leaft 
fliinefs, or fear of danger, and brought with them to barter, Gold, Civet- 
Cats,«Parrots, and Cotton. 

Thefe People, though fo civil, are extreamly jealous of their Wives : for 
when a Spaniard made addrefs to one of them, and coming fomething clofe, 
her Husband ftept in fuddenly between, and feem'd to forbid the Banns. But 
coafling onward along the Shore from thence to another Ifie, he found Na- 
tives far more wild and falvage : for two thoufand in a Body well Arm'd, 
flood ready to intercept their Landing 5 -wherefore he thought it his fafcH: 
courfe to Tack about, and return to Cur tana whence he came. 

In his Way not far from thence, he fell amongft eighteen of the Cannibals 
BoatS;, which according to their cuftom had been a Vlan-flealing, and now 
were fo hardy, that fetting upon the Spanip? Sh'ii^, they fuddenly clapt him 
aboard with their Caiioos on all fides 5 but being beaten back by the terror of 
•their Guns, they foon retirM : yet the Spaniards took one of the Boats with 
two Men, all the reft faving themfelves by fwimming. One of the two Men 
lay bound Hand and Foot, who told them, that he was to have been kiird the 
next day and ^aten, as he faw his Companions, with whofe Flefli they ban- 
quetting kept a jovial Feaft. Nig?io unbinding the Prifoner, gave him leave 
to do what he pleased with the taken Cannibal, who falling upon hira^ cudo^el'd 
and whipped him to death. 

Then l>li^no in his Way to Curiana touch'd upon the Coafl: of Tarla, where 
he found a ftrange kind of Salt, which the Sea in tempeftuous Weather cads on 
the Shore, which afterwards hardens by the Sun. This Salt muft be taken up 
before any Rain fall, elfe it melts and foaks away into the Ground ■ yet fome- 
times grows fo hard as a Stone, infomuch that they make Pots and other Vef- 
fels of itj which the 'P^n^?u barter for foreign Commodities, 

JSljgno not making here any ftay, returned a fecond time to Curiana, where 
he fpent twenty days in pleafant Paflimes, being Lodg'd in a Noble-mans 
Houfe, at whofe Door was fix'd a Cannibals Head, as a Trophy of his Vi^' 
d:ory. He faw there alfo the dead Bodies of divers eminent Pcrfons fet drying 
at a Fire, fo hardned to be fet amongft their Idols. 

At length Nigno fet Sail homewards, and carried with him an invaluable 
Treafure in Pearls to Spain : but by the way fell out with his Sea-men^ 
becaufe he kept moft of the Purchafe to himfelf, and would not give them 
their fhares, nay more than that, kept back the fifth part from the King j 
whereupon being complain'd of by Verdinando de Vega, Governor of Gallicia^ 
he was put in Prifon, andatiaft fent to the Court, where the Pearls were 
declared free Prize;, becaufe NirV;zo had bartered for them ^t Curiana, contrary 
to the Kings Orders, not to touch at any Coaft, within fifty Leagues of what 
Columhm had difcover'd. But fihce he had noway regarded, thofe Commands 
to preferve that Pearl-Trade, King F^rJmW fent Governors to Qm ana, who 
in his Name iliould look after, and employ Men for the catching the PearU 
Oyfters. Thefe, accompanied with a coniiderable number of Soldiers, befides 
fix Monks, forc'd the Inhabitants to furnifli them with abundance of Pearl : 
which oppreiTion grew to fuch a heighth, that one Morning a great Party of 
them confpiring together^ fell fuddenly upon them, moft of them being mafla- 
cred : after they had a while iniiiltingly triumphed over the dead Bodies, and 
fini(Ii'd,as they thought, their good work (Feailing on rh.:ir Flefli at a joyful 

I Banquet) 

m[^no Fijhts with the 

ScrariCTe Salt. 

Strange Corps, 

=Z\:(jKff pu; in Prifon. 

Ciuel dealings in Curi- 



^ M E%,I C A 

Chap. Ill, 

Banquet) tKofe few that efcap*d Sail'd to the Ifland Dominic^ the Gover- 
nor of which Didacus Columbus J Son to the famous Chrijlophery being incensM, 
immediately fent Captain Ocam^o with three hundred Men to Curiana ; where 
in his firO: iiiry^ without diftindion of Sex or Age, he flew all he met with.' 
But becaufe they themfelves could not follow the rich Oyfter^catching, he 
fparM fomc for that purpofe^, whom he commanded to build twenty five lit- 
tle HoufeSj or Hovels,on the Shore, which he call'd ]>{e^ Toledo, After this they 
went on afrefh in their Pearl-fifliing. 

S E C T. V- 


The Voyage of Vincent Agnes Pinzon. 

He firll of December y Anno 1499. ^^^^^^^ ^ini^on fet Sail with four VefTels 
out of the Haven falos : he had been Commander of a Ship under 
Columbus in his firll Expedition, by which means he got great experience in 
Navigation. When he came a little beyond the Hejperides, he was furpfis'd by 
a great Storm, which in three days drove him before a plainCoaftj where 
Landing, he found nothing but the Footfteps of Men ; and in the night he 
faw great FireS;, fuch as are generally made in Camps ^ about day-break twen- 
ty Spani.irds marchM thither, whom thirty two MeU;, arm'd with Bowes and 
■ Arrows, made ready to encounter j but as they approached, the 5'^rt?2i,:irJj prof* 
fer'dthem Peace, but they refufed allCompofition j yet having faced onean* 
other a while, they retreated without fighting. 

After this Tin:<;vn difcover'd a wide, but fhallow River"; where Landing, on 

a Hill he met a great company of Americans : He, to invite them 10 Trade, 

threw them a Shell 5 in return for which they call him a lump of Gold j which 

E«to» * flran-c R-bt. whcu the Spaniard wtnt to take up they all fell upon him- and indeed he 

could not have defended himfelf long, had not tome of his Company quickly 




Chap. IIL 

J M E 1^1 C A 


come ill to his fpeedy refcuejwhich occafioa'd a bloody Conflia;»whereinrevee 
ral Spaniards vvcrc wounded, eight kiird,and one of their fmall Boats funk • for 
the Americans fought fo valiantly , that they purfu d the S^antfh Ships into the Sea. 
fin:^n being at laft freed of thefe AflailantS;, got into a frefli-water Sea, caus'd 
by the confluence of many Rivers falling in there : from hence he got fight of 
the ^arUn Coaft, and with admiration beheld a Tree which fixteen Men could 
not compafs : Between thefe Trees he fawas ftrange a Monfter, the foremoft 
part refembling a Fox, the hinder a Monkey, the Feet were like a Mans, with 
Ears like an Owl j under whofe Belly hung a great Bag,in which it carry'd the 
Young, which they drop not, nor forfake till they can feed themfelves. Tin:^on 
caught one of them with three Young, which died in the Voyage, but the 
Dam he prefented alive in Granada to the King. 

This Captain having Sail'd fix hundred Leagues along the Harlan Coaft;, 
in a great Temped two of his Carvils in his view were overfet, their Keels 
turn'd upward ; the third driven from her Anchor, and the fourth fo fliaken, 
and full of Leaks, that ready to fink they ran her afliore to fave their lives ; and 
though he cfcaped himfelf the danger of drowning, then beifig afliore, yet he 
was no ways freed from far greater inconveniences 5 for he faw nothing but 
death either for want of Provifions , or barbaroufnefs of the Inhabitants : 
whereupon they refolv'd to free themfelves of their miferies by felf-flaughter, 
killing one another ^ but fome better advifed to fpend their Lives like Qbrlfii- 
4ins upon the unbelieving Salvages : Whilft they were in this defperate condi^* 
tion, the Storm ceafed, and Providence prefented their fafety^ the Ship driving 
in before the Wind 3 at which every one taking frefli courage, they mended 
the two fhatter'd Ships as well as they could ; wherein venturing to Sea, and 
fetting Sail, they came on the laft of Se^tmher^ Anno 1500* mio iht S^anljl) 
Haven ^alos. ' 



A remarkable B^aft. 

Great Storm. 

S E C T« 

Chap. II B 

The manner of the Inha 
bitants in Parin, 

The Expedition of Americus Vefputius. 

A yfericm Vej^utius a Florentine ^ Commanded four Ships, fitted out at Kino- 
•^ ^ Ferdinand's Charge, fetSail the twentieth o^May^ Anno 145)7. and refrefh- 
ing at the Canaries, from thence he fleer'd to Taria-^ where he fo much gain'd 
upon the Inhabitants, that for Pins, Bells, Looking^glafles, and other Trifles, 
they daily brought aboard in Barter great ftore of Gold, thebeftof Mer- 

Thefe People, both Men and Women go ftark naked, not fo much as co- 
vering their Tudenda j their Complexion fwarthy 5 they fhave off all their Hair, 
onely fome Women leave a Tuft on their Heads. From their Faces, being 
broad and flat, one may judge them to be derived from T^rt^ry j they much ex- 
ceed the Europeatis in Running and Swimming, infomuch that the Women of- 
tentimes without any Boats, or floating pieces of Timber, venture two or 
three Leagues into the Sea ; they have fo great skill in Shooting, that they 
exceed almofl: all other Nations, having Arrows headed with fliarp Fifli-^ 
bones • they alfo ufe Lances and Clubs. The Women follow the Men in the 
Wars, and ferve in ftead of Horfes to carry Ammunition and other Necefla- 
ries J to which Labor they are fo us*d, that they will bear on their Shoulders 
forty, nay fifty Leagues together, fiich Luggage, as three Spaniards are fcarce 
Th;irfirangeCuftoms. able to lift from the Gfouud. They acknowledge no Commander or Supe- 
rior either in Wars or Government j they keep up old Feuds, fighting with an 
inveterate hatred againft their Neighbors, upon ancient fcores and revenges, 
ftiU kept in memory of their Relations flain in former Battels j and alfo ftill 
creating frefh animofities upon their Lofles in later Engagements. Their 
Language is fmooth and pleafing, being fpoken with a kind of lifping, and 
abfolutely different from the neighboring Nations. When they eat they fie 
upon the Ground, and fleeping lie in Hammocks, each end whereof being fan- 
ned to a Poftj underneath they kindle a Fire 5 over them they hang Fifli-nets 
and Hooks, Fifh-baskets and Calahapes. When they have occafion to eafe Na- 
ture by evacuation, they retire into fome private Place ; but the Women think 
itnoimmodefty to make Water, even in theprefence of flrange Men. They 
obferve not fingle Matrimony 5 for every Man takes as many Women as he 
pleafes, under bonds of Wedlock fuch and fo Height, that he turns them off at 
his pleafure : and Women take the fame liberty in cafheering their Husbands 
when not pleafing them. They bring forth Children with little or no pain, 
and wafli them in a River fo foon as born j which done they return to their 
ufual work and bufinefs. When they are incens'd againfl; their Husbands, they 
revenge themfelves by poyfoning their Children. Their Houfes arc built in 
the fafhion of a Houfe-clock, with a Roof rais'd from the Wall upon four Pil- 
lars like the Bell, and covered with Palm^Leaves 5 fome of which are To big, 
that they afford room for fix hundred Men : every feventh or eighth year they 
remove, becaufe (as they fay) the Air is oftentimes infeded by Mens Breaths, 
by their long continuance in one place. Their Riches confifl: in Feathers of 
divers colours. Strings of Fiili-bones interminolcd with green and v^hite 
Beads, with which they adorn their Heads, Arms, Legs, Ears, and Cheeks : 
Gold and Pearls they make little account of • and as to Trade and Commerce 



A M E R. I'C J, 


with other Peopk, they know not what belongs to it. Their greatefl Friend- 
iliip confids in projiitoting their Daughters or Wives to one another. Their 
Dead they bury- in moill: Grounds^ and put with thenn both Meat and Drink 
into the Graves : When any Perfon grows very weak by lingring Sicknefs, 
they carry the Difeafed into a neighboring Wood, where they lay him in a Silk 
Hammock, tied between two Trees ^ then dancing the whole day about him^ 
at nicrht they fet Bread and Water enough by him to lafl: four days,and then de- 
parting look np more after him, who thus neglected feldomefcape : but if fo 
it happen that one recover;, all his Relations for the future honour him as a 
ood. When any one falls into a Fever, his Friends immediately bathe him in . • 

cold Water, and afterwards fet him before a great Fire, then drive him before 
them till he falls down almoft breathlcfs, and at laft put him to Bed. They 
neither Let blood in the Arms nor Feet, but in dieir Sides and Calves of their 
Legs. Sometime they faffc four days together, which they fuppofe a great 
means to preferve their Health. Their Bread conlifls of a fort of Fruit called 
Jncha^ Chambi, or Igname, Laftly, no Lyon devours his Prey with more voraci- 
ous eagernefs, than they their taken Enemies. 

r^ypwfi^^ being fully informed concerning the Situation of "P^ri^, weighed' 
Anchor, and on thefixth day after entred a convenient Harbor, where going 
afliore,he found twenty Houfes built in the middle of a Lake on great Pofts •^b^;^,7J^^;fS'^^^''§' 
every Houfe had a Draw-bridge, over which they pafs'd from one to the other. 
So foon as the Inhabitants fet eye on the Spaniardsy they immediately drew up 
their Bridges : yet fome of them in twelve little Canoos came towards the Spa- 
«i/^ Ships, but amaz'd to fee their Looms fo big, durft not, though hal'd with 
figns, to come aboard, but hailed away to a high Mountain j yet feem'd to iig« 
nifie that they would return, as indeed they did, bringing fixteen Maids along 
with them, of which they put four into a ^^^wi//? Boat, themfelves in the inte= 
rim rowing between the Ships from one to another, fhewing all tokens of 
friendfliip, when on a fudden a Company of old Women came running to the smnge Fight. 
Shore, and tearing the Hair from their Heads, made a terrible noife and excla= 
mation, expreffing the greateft forrow they could poflible : whereupon the 
four Indian Maids fuddenly leap'd over^board, and the Men (liot abundance of 
Arrows out of their Boats at the Ships ; nay, fome of them fwimming under , 
Water, endeavored to fink the Cock-boats which were made faft behind their 
Ships. Upon this fudden Onfet the Spaniards making ufe of their Guns, quick- 
ly leffen'd the number of the Affailants, infomuch that they fled to the Shore j 
yet five of them being overtaken, were carry'd Priloners aboard. 

Vefputius obferving thefe their mifdemcaning Carriages , judg'd it no way- 
convenient to flay any longer among fiach barbarous and deceitful Salvages : 
but having weighed Anchor, and Sailed eighty Leagues along the Coaft, he 
ran into another convenient Haven, whofe Shore fwarm'd with People, which 
on a fudden running away, hid themfelvcs in a neighboring Wood. 

Here the Spaniards Landing were amazed, when in their Huts they fa w p J^'g" Foo^d""^'^^ ^'^^' 
Snakes and Serpents roailing before a Fire, whereof one had Wings, and ano= 
ther whofe Mouth was tied together with a Rope, flared with open eyes in a 
frightful manner. 

Here they left feveral Trifles to entice the fled Natives to correfpond with 
them. And this their Defign prov'd fuccefsful ; for the next day the Americans 
came aboard without the leafl: fear, and offer'd to fliew their hofpitable kind- 
nefsto the Spaniards^ if they pleas'd to travel three days Journey with them up 




A M E "B^t C A, 

'Chap. II' 



into the Countrey, telling them, they had onely vaisM thofe few Huts by the 
Sea^fide for a fmall time whilll they Fifli'd in thofe Parts. 
The remarkable recepti- About twenty of the S^^wW*^^ Well Arm'd reiolvM to undertake the Jour* 

on of twenty thice , ,, tt-iIw-^I 1t»- L in- 

t^rds. ney ^ and travellmg over Hills^ Dales, and Rivers, they came at lait mto a 

ViUacre confiiHngof nineoftheforemention'dHoufes, but mightily peopled • 
where they were in a wonderful manner received by their glad welcomes, by 
DancincT, Singing, Hunting, and other joyful Acclamations, prefenting their 
Wives and Daughters, as the chiefeft part of their hofpitality, to carefs the 
Strangers at their pleafure. The news wis no fooner fprcad, but the adjacent 
ViUacres came in throngs to gaze upon, and falute the Strangers, inviting them 
alfo to their Towns. The Spaniards taking it in good part , fpent nine days 
amona them, highly treated with all manner of jollities, but cfpecially at their 
choice with the varieties o^Venus : from thence then returaing to their Fleet, 
accompanied with thoufands of the Natives,every one carrying Prefents to the 
Admiral Ve/putius ; of whom as many as they could at once receive, they enter- 
taining aboard, then difmifs'd them, and admitted others ; but the Guns going 
off, they fuddenly leap'd from the Decks, and div'd like Ducks under Water : 
But afterwards being inform'd, that fuch thunder-claps were fent them from 
Heaven to deftioy their Enemies, they were fomewhat better fatisfi'd, and 
caird the Spaniards, Charahi, that is, JVife Men, 

This Ifland lying in the Mexican Bay, in twenty Degrees of Northern Lati- 
tude, Vefputius left on his Starboard, and Sail'd along a Meandring Coafl 
(which he always kept in fight) eight hundred and fixty Leagues, and at lafi 
entred a Haven, the like whereof he had not feen before. Here he fpent a 
Moneth in repairing his Ships, to which the Inhabitants freely gave their afli- 
flance j and among other things complainM, that a falvagc People came yearly 
thither from an Illand about a hundred Leagues diftant, who fell upon them 
with horrible rage, and whomfoever they took they eat, but firft inflivSted all 
manner of tortures upon them, fparing none, but together murthering aged 
People and fucking Infants j wherefore they crav'd afliftance to be reveng'd, 
which \^ t\\t Spaniards would grant, they would follow the Fleet with their vw 
Boats. Vefputtus promised his aid to deftroy fuch a blood- thirfty People • an(t# 
to affure them that he would perform his Word, he ordered fcven of them to 
go in Qamos before and fhcw them the Way. On the feventh day they came 
to an Anchor before the Ifland By , where the Shore was guarded with naked 
Men, whofe Bodies being ftrong and brawny, were painted, and their Arms, 
Legs, and Head, adorn'd with divers coloured Plumes, having not onely ofFen- 
' five Weapons, as Bowes, Arrows, and Launces, but alfo defenfive, huge Tar- 

gets, and fquare Shields. So foon as they judg'd the approaching Spaniards to 
ruei Fight with the be withiu Tcach, they fliot a great flight of Arrows at them j but Fejputius lying 
clofe along the Shore with his Ships, fiiM upon them with Chain^fliot, which 
did crreat execution : yet notwithftanding about forty Spaniards leaping afhore 
out of their Boats, found themlelves in no imall danger j for the Cannibals 
upon the found of Horns flocking together, fo prefs'd upon them that they 
were forc'd to lay afide their Guns, and fall to Blows, and had not timely af- 
fiilance come to them, they had undoubtedly been all flain : two hours the 
Vi6lory was doubtful on whofe fide it would fall 5 yet at lafl the Cannibals 
quieting the Field, left the Spaniards Victors ; who the next day purfu'd their 
aotten Vidory with fuch fuccei^s, that they drove their Enemies before them, 
burnt their Villages and Boacs, and carry'd two hundred and two and twenty 


A c 



cii^ip- in. 

A M E %J C A. 

Vef^uthix fecond Expedi* 

of chcm'Priroiiers to S'^iun , where they falely arrived the 15. oiKoycmherj Anno 


This cTood [ncct^s fo encourag'd Fejput'ms, that having ftay'd fcarce fcvtn. 
Moneths afliore , he obtaining the Command over fix Ships, with which he 
fet Sail from Cadi;^, and touching upon the Qinaries , Scecr'd from thence 
Southerly ; and having Sail'd five hundred Leagues, he diicover'd a Countrey 
overflowed and made Marifliy by great Rivers, and abounding with Trees^, but 
faw no fitrn of aity Inhabitants • yet not long after, coming before an Ifland, he 
took a Boat with two Prifoners , newly guelt , and fent as a Prefent to fead 
the G/wiW^, which refused to Treat on any other account whatfoever 5 where- 
fore he Sail'd eighty Leagues forward along the Shore of an unknown Ifland^ 
where he Barter'd for fome Gold, and got five hundred Pearls for one fingle 
Shell . thefe Pearls^ the Inhabitants faid were not found there, but taken from 
their Neighboring Enemies , which liv'd Weilward, and had abundance of 


Nothincr worthy of remark happened in this Voyage, onely the ftrange con== stnpge conftkution ofa 

O / -L-J- 1 •?! falvage people. 

ftitutions of a wild People, living on a barren Ifte, deferve to be mentioned. 

About their Necks hung two hollow Vcflels , the one full of white ftamp'd , 
Worts, and Herbs 5 and the other, full of Grafs, which they greedily cram'd 
into their Mouths, feeding like Cattel 5 then a Stick wetted with Spittle, they 
put into the bruis'd Herbs ^ taking upon the end of it, as upon the point of a 
Knife fome of the bruis'd to their Mouths^which (as if chawing the Cud) turn- 
ing therein,then taking out again, and ftrowing more of the fame Herbs out of 
the Veflel upon it, fwallow'd it down. No frcOi Water was to be had amongft 
them, but what they gathered from the Dew in great Leaves : Neither had 
they any Houfes, but dwelt under great Trees, and fed on dry'd Fifii. 

The next remark in this Voyage, was the difcovery of an Ifland not far from s^nge adremure of n.v.e 

. : JO' J Spitmards, meeting with 

the former, where he found the Footfleps of a Gigantick People, upon v/hich g-eatcmts. 

nine Spaniards went a League to fearch the Countrey , where they faw five ■ 

great Huts^ Handing in a fpacious Valley , and in them two old , and three 

young Women , each of them being twice as tall as an ordinary Man: The 

old ones invited the Spaniards to eat , who when they were fat down, confulc- 

i ; ing how they might take and carry one of thefe GiantelTes to Spain , there to 

V-ihew her for Money, thirty fix Giants came in to them, ( never did the Sun 

lliine on a more terrible People) which fo amaz'd the Spaniards, that their Hair 

feem'd to ftand an end at the fear thereof: Every Giant was arm'd wirha 

Bow and Arrows, and a Club : They wondering at the nine ftrangers, flood 

talkincT very earneftly one to another , which gave the Spaniards time. to think 

of making their efcape 5 fome judg'd it convenient to difcharge their Gunsupa 

on them^ and in the Smoke to run away ; others thought, that it would be bet* 

ter to take a milder courfe, which they all agreed on j and taking their leave, 

went out of the Hut, but were followed by the Giants, who kept a Stones caft 

behind them, and went failer or flower , as the Spaniards flacken'd or mended 

their pace • who at lafl: oettintr to the Shore, and from thence into their Boats 

they fuddenly put off; but the Giants then purfu'd them with eager ipeed, all 

of them leaping into the Water , and Swimming, fhot abundance of Arrows 

after them ; but frighted by the Thunder of two great Guns that were dif- 

charged from the Ships, returned afliore, and fled into the neighboring 









Veshntiiis at lafr began to conGder of returning home, his ?rovi(ions be^iri- 
ning to grow fcarce , and his Sea.raen fain:, having continu'd m the Equi^no^ 
dial heats a whole year ; wherefore he direded his coiirfe towards SMin^ 
in his Voyage, driving along the Coail an advantagious Trade , by barterine- 
Dercriptionofthcpaan- Shells and Gkfs for Pearls. The Inhabitants prefented him with Oyfters, of 
which fome inclosM one hundred and thirty Pearls ; when they attain to their 
full growth^ they fail out of the Shells themfelves, but thofe that ftick, decay. 
So upon the tenth of iS(^ovemher, the Fleet came fafe to an Anchor before (^adi:^, 

^,r^/>«.«, third Expedi- After which, r^^i^^fir^ retired to 5m7, with intent to fettle himfelf there, buc 
he had not long repos'd , when Emanuel King of Portugal fent for him to Liihon 
and gave him the Command of three Ships, to difcovernew Countreys . be- 
tween the Cmaries and Jfncd, they pafs'd thorow fo many Fifhes (not unlike a 
Bream ) that in an hours time they loaded their Boats with them • this Fifli 
hath a round thin Scale, fharp Teeth, Stones in their Brains or Foreheads, a 
(harp pointed Heart, a Bladder full of Wind, red Tail and Fins, feeds on Sea 
Weeds, Gurnets and Oyfters, and is of a delicious Taile. 

From thence, five degrees Southward of the Equinox, he found a naked 
People on the top of a high Rock, that beckon d the Spaniards to come towards 
them . upon w^Lich, two of them refolv'd to venture thither, having order not 

.-wom^'"'^''^^'""'^'"''" ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ above five days : The firft incounter they had was of fome 
Women, who offer'd their bodies to proftitution ; but a Youth, as if aifrighted 
with fome fudden danger, came running amongfl: theni;, whom, whilft they 
flood gazing upon, and wondering at, an old Woman with a great Club, run- 
ning down the Hill overtook, and knock'd him down dead upon the ground-' 
which done, the Women that were making Court to the Spaniards , took him 
by the Heels^ and dragg'd up the Hill, where foon after they faw him chop'd 
in pieces, BroyPd, and eaten : They alfo made figns to the Spaiiiardsy that they 
would devour them alfo in the fame manner. The Shore- was crouded with 
Men , which fliowrM upon them feveral flights of Arrows j wherefore they 
thought it befl to Weigh Anchor, fo taking Aboard their two Men, and having 
Saird 150. Leagues, they got fight of the Coaft of !Brafde, along which he Sail'd 
Southerly to fifty two Degrees , where three 'Brafilians came Aboard of their 
own accord , and were eafily perfwaded to go with him to Portugal 5 but the 
Weather growing very bad, arid the Cold intollerable, the Storms fwelling 
the Waves into the bignefs of Mountains , Vej^utim left the Coaft des ^atagoms, 
and the Streights, afterwards call'd Magellan, behind him, burnt one of his Ships 
before Cape Sierra Uona, and brought two fafe to Liihon, 

.^vvrM- fourth Exped.- ^is fourth Expedition happened. May 10. Anno 1503. at which tiijie he 
Steer'd direaly with fix Sail to Sierra Leona, and approaching the Coaft, could 
not come to an Anchor, becaufe of the ftrong eddying Currents : Three De- 
grees beyond the Equinox appeared a rifing Hland , two Leagues long, and 
one broad, deftitute of Inhabitants • his beft Ship being fi^ hundi-ed Tun, fplic 
hefe againft a Rock, and nothing of her was faved, but the Sea-men : ButT?- 
^putim Rowing afliore with a Boat , found a convenient Haven, with abun- 
"t-SpiJers^andDrngons. daucc of fwcct Water, high Trces, Sca-Spidcrs, and horrible Dragons, which 
have a fliarp Head, round fiery Eyes, and wide Mouths, Winers not unlike a 
Bats, a fpeckled Breaft, curl'd Tail, blew Back, and two Bags like a drawn ' 
Satehel TrianguLir , were under their Bellies : No lefs ftrange are the Sea- 
Spiders, by their hard Feet, long upper Teeth, two long Sheers or Pinchers, 
and double Belly J between the Head and the Belly lies a blnck Skin, with 



.J M E%^I C J. 


which they darken the Water ; when any one goes to take them in the night, 
they make a great fliadow; they feed on Fifli , the Female lays little white 
Eggs, not unlike ordinary Haii-ftones. 

rejputtm hiving left this defolate Ifle, three hundred Leagues a Stern, entered 
a Haven, to which he gave the name of St. Jbdy, where he ftay'd two Months, 
expeding the return of thofe which he had fent into the Countrey ^ but feeing' 
it in vain to wait any longer, he proceeded on his Journey, and Sailing in be- 
tween the ^^re//w, mthtKivcx Curubaho, he built a ftrong Fort, GarrifonM it 
with twenty four Men, twelve pieces 6f Ordnance, and ProVifions for fix 
Moneths : Five Moneths Fejj^utm had fpent in the building this Caftk; when 
he return 'd home with one Ship, laden with ^rafll Wood, where approaching 
Lisbon , beyond all expedation , the Inhabitants of the City ran to Congratut 
late his happy return.^ And from this Jmencm Ve^utms, the Ne-^ World is to this 
day caird /^/«mc4. ~~~~~/^:-~ r' -- 

-Sect. VH. 

The Expedition of Alphonfo, Fogeda, Diego Nicuefa, Ancifus , and Roderick 
Colmenares. - *; 

^mncus Ve^utlus was fcarce fitted out in Lisbon, when Fogeda fet Sail with 
three hundred Men from_ ^eata , the chiefeft Haven of Htjpamola , to the 
laand Codego, inhabited by Naked People, but of comely Perfonage, and withal 
expert and mod excellent Archers : Here he found a very ftrange Tree, ,wo„derfuiT.eeonc...,.: 
which bears a Fruit not unpleafing to the Palate , yet deadly Poyfon, and be- 
jiQcs , whoever chances to fleep under their fiiadow , loofe both their under^ 
Itanding and Eye=(ight , and never attain to their former Sences , except they 
take fome Opiates, as dangerous, and fo by long fleep, recover. 

Here Vogeda fct upon a poor Village near the Sea=IIde, where without mercy ^^^^-^^ cruelty and defim: 




Chap. I II > 


Strange accident. 

Jmifui efcapes great dan- 

he piru them all to the Sword, except a few Youths which were onefy laved, 
that they might inform Fo^eda, what was become of the flain and taken S^ani- 
ayds i Who told him, that" according to their Cuilom, they had Roafledthe 
dead, and alio their living Prifoners, and feafted on their Flefli. Here having 
burnt the Houfes , and fifting the Afhes, Ntc^fa found fome Gold. But now 
they began to be diftrefsM for Provifions 5 for prevention of which, jS[tcuefa 
had given order to Ancifus, Marfiial in Btjpamola, that he fhould follow with- 
a Ship of ViauaU for the Army to Qdega, But he being kept back by incon- 
venieticies, mo^Il of the Spaniards were famiili'd, fo that the three hundred Men 
which Code^a brought from HtJ^anlola , were reduced to fixty. And he was al- 
ready under.Sail to Hifpamola, when Jnci/us Anchor^ in the Haven of Codegoos, 
and fent fome Men afhore to mend his Boat , and fetch freOi Water, which 
whilft they were doing; the Natives came flocking about them : Three days 
they facM one another, ufing no Hoftility , when at lafl a Spaniard that under- 
ftood the Qodegan Tongue , adventuring to fetch Water, he was immediately 
encompaffed ; when fpeakingto them, and informing them in their own Lan= 
guage, That he v/asnoneofFogf^^ or 2v(ic«e/^ People, which not long fince 
had committed fo great flaughter, they left him, and the rather, becaufe he 
told them, that Anctfus would take revenge on them, if they did any wrong to 
him. Thus quieted, they brought all forts of Provifions Aboard. Mean while, 
Ancifus Saird to the Main Continent Wr^^^, where in the Mouth of a Haven he 
ran his Veflel a-ground,which was bilg d; the Sea-men taking fom e Arms along 
with them, fav'd their lives by fwimming afliore ; where, their firft fuftenance 
they found was ftore of Peaches and Cherries, which was a great refrefliment 
in thole hot Countreys,butyet had undoubtedly been ftarv'd, but that in fearch- 
ing the Wood for Fruits, they found Wild^Swine, which preferv'd their lives; 
yet they were not free from apparent danger , having to deal with a Salvage 
People, into whofe hands they were fo unfortunately caft by Shipwrackj how- 
ever Jnctfm fet a good face on the bufinefs, marching with a hundred Men up 
into the Countrey, where fome of the Urahanners from an ambufcade unawares, 
with their Arrows wounded feveral of his Men, hereupon they retreated to 
the Shore of the River Dana, whither alfo they had brought the fmall Boats, 
fav'd from the Wreck 5 where whilft they were in confultation howtoretura 
to H(/?^.imo/4, the Inhabitants having mufter'dthemfelves, and making a Body 
offive hundred Men, fet upon them , who after a ftiarp Conflid, made them 
retreat, and at laft to flie, whom Ancifus purfuing, found in a Thicket of Canes 
or Reeds a great Treafure of Gold. Mean while , :^tcuefa Sail'd to the plen- 
tiful Golden Countrey Ter^^M^ with three Ships , of which he loft two, the 
one Commanded by Lupus de Olana, and the other by Teter Umbria Olana, which 
was ftranded in the Kiycx Feragua, which gives name to the whole Ifland, but 
he built a new CarVil, whereas°that o^ Lupus Olana was bilg d among the Rocks. 
Little better fuccefs had ?s[tcuefa, whofe Ship over-turning with a Tempeft, he 
with a few of his Men made land upon Fcragua, where he rang d up and down 
in amiferable condition, on a barren, and in a manner defolate Shore feventy 
days : All that time, finding no other Food than W^ild Roots, who wandring 
up and down, at laft met with Olana, a little before caft away on the fame Ifle, 
whom he fecurM, becaufe he prefum'd to ufurp the Title, and be prime Com- 
mander of that Countrey. Upon which, the Spaniards being divided, fome 
(ov Ancifus, fome for Olana, the difference more and more encreafing, would not 
be reconcird, till the Famine ovcr^powering, mafter'd both, fo that not being 



Chap. III. - AME%J.CA. 

able to handle their Arms ;,^he Salvages flew them at their pleafure ;> by this 
means in a fhort time , of feven hundred eighty five, remained fcarce ninety ; 
yet did not all this mifery work any thing upon the ambitious humor oiVaf* 
(lues "Hunne-;^^ who rebelling againfl: ^ncifus^ fplit that fmall remainder of Men, 
and with the help of thofe he had drawn over to his Party , made himfelf Go- 
vernor o^liraha, not poflible to be long enjoy'd without fpecdy fupply, which 
foon after they received j for Colmmares Sailing from Hijp aniol a vjith Provifions, f»/«««<»mExpediuon, 
arriv'd there the 15. of OHober, ^mio 15 10. having been tofs'd twenty three days 
at Sea : then making into the River Gaira , to furnifli himfelf with frelli Wa- 
ter, he loll forty feven Men j for whilft they were filling their Casks^, feven 
hundred of the Salvages came down upon them, and with their Poyfon'd 
Arrows wounded and kill'd mod of them. Colmenarcs came in a good time to His flrange reception.^ 
the remainder under Jncifus Command , being in danger of death for want of 
Provifions, and finding the factions that were among them about Superiority, 
he thought it fit, confulting with fome of the chiefeft of them, to find out Ni- 
cue/a, who was indeed the Governor that had the Grant from the King : This 
agreed, Colmenares went to fearch, and at lafl: lighted upon him, building a For- 
trefs againft the alfaults of the Enemies on the Promontory. Mormor, he was 
glad to find him, but griev'd to fee the mifery and hardfhip they endur'd,nloft 
of his Men being kill'd, partly by the exceffive HeatS;, partly by Famine, and 
partly by the cruelty of the Natives, fo that he had onely fixty remaining, and 
thofe many of them alfo fick and weak. ^ 

Colmenares having delivered his Meifage, ISljcuefahxokc up his Quarters, and 
fleighting the Fort^, went with him, but both himfelf and his Men were op- 
posed from Landing hy "Hunne:^-^ wherefore ISljcuefa was neccflitated to Steer 
for HiJpaniola 'j whom, or what became of him was never known. 

Nunne:^ hsLVin^ thus quitted himiclf of Nicuef ay and now, more than ever, 
wanting Provifion, he refolv'd to take out his own Commiffion at large, and 
fetting up for himfelf, make no dilcrimination of Perfons, Spaniards, or Na* 
lives, but to make out his Fortune. * 

And firll, he fell upon Careta King of Qka, whom he took Prifoner, Plunder^ 
ing him of all his Treafurc and Provifions j yet this fufficed not long, for foon 
after. King Concha invading Careta, ]S[un?ie-^ took hold of that opportunity, and x 

pretending to a/fifl: Careta , being well recruited with his Forces^ fet upon Con- 
cha, who immediately fled, and left all to the fpoil of his Enemies. 

This News fo amaz'd Cowogr«y,another King, that he profFer'd Peace j where- 
upon Nunnesi going thither, was nobly entertained in his Palace, being one hun- 
dred and fifty Paces long, and eighty broad, the. Floors Pav'd with Stone, and 
the Roofs Vaulted, his Cellars were fl:or'd with Wine, made of the Root J^«cc.i^ 
./^ey , and Mais-^ the Privy-Chamber was hung round with dead bodies_, 
Mummy'd artificially with Lent Fires, and were the Corpfes of Qomogrus Ance- 
ftors , and others of the Royal Blood, and neareft Relations, of whom fome 
dy'd at leaft four hundred years before j each of thcfe fafl:en d by Cordage 
made of Reeds^, were Habited in Cotton, richly adorn'd with Pearls and Gold. 
Mean while , a Hurricane happening , terrible with Thunder and Lightning, 
and hideous Gufl:s , fwell'd and fo enrag'd the Sea , that breaking its bounds^ 
over^^running, drown'd the whole Champaiuj thus the hopes of a fruitful Har- 
yefl: being utterly loft, -they fuffer'd under a great Famine. 

The Spaniards which Encamp'd near the River Daria, on Uraha, perceivincr 
this, and knowing they had no manner of fupply from Hi^amola^ and having 

K % already 

Remarkable Pallac£ of 
King Cgmogrus, 


A M E K 


A flrange Pallace built on 

Taming the low Land 
into a Sea. 


Chap. IIL 

alrea-c^y Pilbg d the Neighboring Kings , that they had nothing left. Nunne:^ 
marchingthirty Leagues up the River, Plundered the Village, of which D^^- 
^d/^tf was King, where he found an unvaluable quantity of Gold, but little or 
no Provifion. Here were many Flitter Mice, or Bats, bigger than Turtle 
Doves, whofe biting was mortal , unlefs immediately wafh'd with Salt Wa- 
ter, according to the information of the Prifoners. 

Now as N/#w^;<,Hr^^^Pillag'd towards the South, fo did Qolmenares , fetting 
up alfo for himfelf, make prize of all , to the EaR with fixty Men , Rowing 
againft the Stream up the River Dana, above twelve Leagues, where he found 
in feveral Villages and Hamlets, and at KingTwrl^i^s Palace, abundance, both 
of Provifion and Gold ; from thence he Marched to the mighty Province Abe- 
7iamchei, which though making fome refiftance, at laPc they fubdu'd. 

And the neighboring King Ahtheiba narrowly efcap'd the like fortune, whofe 
Pallacc was built on the tops of Trees, Plafli'd, and Pleited together. Timber 
Beams lying athwart ; neceflity forcing them to choofe fuch high Habitations, 
partly, to avoid the Inundations of Rivers, fwoln above their bounds by fudden 
and almofl affiduous Showres from the Mountains ; and partly, to be free 
from the excurfions of fculking Robbers ; alfo being better able to defend 
themfelves in thefe Caftles in the Air, and alfo fecur'd by their heighth from 
their Shot , being above the reach of their Indian Arrows : The bodies of the 
Trees downwards, upon which the Houfes are built,are generally twenty four 
Fathom thick , fo that they cannot eafily be cut down , nor fired ; but Cohne' 
nares againft thefe, as they fuppos'd, impregnable Forts, having made a Galle- 
ry with feveral great Hurdles^ fet his Men to work under that fafeguard, with 
Axes on the Tree whereon Ahlheihas Houfe ftood , who feeing his imminent 
danger, wondring at this new manner of Storming, came down, promifing 
to furnifli him with Gold out of the neighboring Mountains, notwithftand- 
ingit would be with the danger of his Life j becaufe the Qannihds generally 
kill thofe that adventur'd to dig in the Mines : To this promife , Colmenares 
■h'?\otonthespa,ihrds, hearkcuM, and having fet him at liberty, for the performance,he in ftead there- 
rangeiy icovcr , ^^^ ^^ ^^^ couttary, ftirr'd up, and joyn'd with all the Conquered Kings, to 
deftroy him and his Men : Nor were they flack to have executed their defign, 
five thoufand of them being already drawn together at the Village T/nV/;i, the 
appointed place of Rendezvous, and fo privately carry'd, that undoubtedly it 
had been effeded, if not happily difcover'd by this accident. 

T<[unne:^, amongft his other Slavefles , had one exceeding beautiful , on 
which he was much Enamoured, and fhe likewife feem'd to bear as great 
an affedion towards him, which flie manifefted , by declaring the fecret to 
Hunm:^ which her Brother had imparted to her , being an intended gene- 
ral Maffacre the night following, that fo fhe might the better make her ef- 
cape the day before j yet fo much fhe prefer'd the fafety of her Lover, before 
the liberty of her Native Countrey , that (lie difcover'd the Plot. Islunne:^ not 
lleeping on this advice, on a fudden fet fo fiercely upon the Confpirators, that 
he utterly broke their defign j yet the Feuds and Contefts for Superiority fiiill 
continued amongft them , which look'd with fo bad a Face to the ruine of all, 
that news thereof arriving in Sj^ain, it was judged fit to fend for Colmenares, and 
John Quicedo to the Court, there to render an account of all their Tranfadions, 
Both going Aboard a fmall Veflfel, were by Storm driven on the Coaft ofCuba, 
where they were inform'd from a Prifoner, that ValdiVia and Zamudw, driven 
afliore by Ship wrack , and not able to defend themfelves , were furpriz'd by 

Chap. III. 


the Natives, kill'd and eaten 5 that VogZiU driven up and down along the 
Coaft, had loft moft of his People by hunger^ and other hardfliip, and him- 
felf with much ado getting to Hi^aniola, dy'd as foon as Landed of the Wound 
which he received by a Poyfonous Arrow, near the River Daria. 

But much happier was Ancifus, who foon after Fo^eda coming to Cuha, found ^''"^'" ^''>'2«* 
a King, who fufferM himfelf to be Chriilen'd, and call'd Commendator ; and 
building a Church, Confecratcd it to the Virgin J%r;; ; in it he ereded an ,HcV4";a^^'i^^'Tn^'h; 
Image of Clay, refembling a Woman, which he clothed in a Cotton Gar- ifl^ndc^^^, 
ment - round about were plac'd Pots with Meat and Water, according to their 
old Idolatrous fafliion, otherwife, they believ'd their Idols would devour the , 

Souls of the Dead, and this, though Chriftians, they did not forget. 

Kay further, when he went to War, he carry'd the Image of the Virgin Mary 
with him in the Front of his Army, often faying, Ave Maria 5 and this was the 
end of that Voyage : But afterwards Ancifus complained againft Fafcus Nunne:^ 
in the Spanijh Court, where he received a Sentence very prejudicial to him, Coh 
?MeM4m and (2«iceJo had alfo Audience there ;, whereupon matters being fettled^ 
a firm Government was eftablifli'd in Kr<2^^. 

Sect. VIII. 

.Peter Arias his Expedition, and remarkahh Tajfa^es ofYaCcus Nunnez. * 

PEter Arias Knight, accompany'd with his Wifc^ Elii^aheth ^oadilla, fct Sail 
Anno 1514. but furpriz'd by a violent Storm, loft two Ships, and returned 
to Spain , yet not long after began his Voyage afrefli ^ notwithftanding he had 
lately had fuch bad fuccefs, and heard of the great hardfliip which Ntcuefa fuf- -Kr/.«./«fuirers hunger: 
fer'd, having not onely kept himfelf alive a confiderable time by feeding on 
flefli of Dogs, and other fuch like Creatures • a great Frog being fold in Vera- 
^«^ for a lump of Gold, 

But Fafchm Nunne:^informd o^ Arias arrival , the chief Governor o^Uraha, 
afterwards call'd Neil? Andaluzia, minding to inrich himfelf before he fliould de- 
pofehim, and hearing that feveral Gold Mines lay Southward from I^r^^^, 
raarch'4 thither with a hundred and ninety Men, thorow great Rivers, Thick- 
ets, and Woods full of Wild Beafts, deep Vallies, and broad Rivers, not with* 
out many hazards and difficulties. In the Mountainous Territory Quarequanj, 
the Inhabitants ingag'd him valiantly, with Bows, Arrows, Clubs, Woodden 
Swords, Pikes and Launces, but frighted with the meer report of their Mui- 
quets, like flocks of wild Fowl , dilTipated and fled , but not fo faft, but that 
fix hundred of them fell by the hands of the Spaniards, or were worry'd by their 
Doo-s,train'd up on purpofe for the American Wars. Soon after,coming into the Dcssm'dinthc wars; 
Palace, there fate his Brother drefs'd up in Womens Apparel, whom the King 
kept to abufe, as if a Concubine ■ whereof Nunne:^ being informed, in detefta- 
tion of Sodomy, fet the Dogs upon him, who fuddenly tore him in pieces. Sodomy hombjypunifh'd. 
Amongft the flain were found feveral Ne<7roesj which fuffering Shipwrack had 
been caft on the Jmerican Shore, and maintained a continual War with the Qua- 
raquanen, Co that it feem'd the Slacks which were found dead amongft them 
were their Slaves : Yet ISlunne^ was forc'd to leave a confiderable number of 
his Men here, who being half ftarv'd, and quite tired out, were nor able to 
follow him ; but with the remaining party he marched on;, and at laft came to ^,^,f2:h^ss^' 
the high Mountains, from whence he faw the great South^Seaj and going thi- 
ther' ^ 

A M E'B^I C J. 

Chap. III. 


I I' 


ther, was met by King Chi apes, leading an Army of thirty thoufand Men; 
which great Body ftood not long to make refiftance , being terrifi'd with the 
Vollyes of Shot, whofe Report the ccchoing Valleys prefented to their Ears, 
\ double and trebble : And that which moft amazM and difanimated them in 
the rout, were the Dogs, who fiercely purfu'd and feiz'd the flyers, tearing 
away great morfels of FleOi. After the Battel, the Conqueror proffer'd Peace, 
which was agreed on, upon the delivery of feveral great Prefents of Gold. Af- 
ter that, Chkpesxht King, accompany'd with Hunm:^ the %«i/7? Commander, 
and March'd with him over a broad River to Qociuera, where at firft fomc For- 
ces made refiftance, but were routed 5 whereupon, they alfo fuddenly ftruck 
• up a Peace, upon conditions, that the Prince, nam'd alfo Coquera, {hould return 
isin great danger on the him a crreat quantity of Gold. Here he found a handfome Bay running up ia 
crooked Reaches, above fixty Leagues, which Numie^c^Wd St. Wdael, being 
fprinkled with Iflands, and treacherous with hidden Rocks. There Kunne^^ 
(though diffwaded by Qnapes, becaufe he knew the South^Sea at that time be- 
ing the three laft Moneths of the Year, was exceeding turbulent, that no Veifel 
could hardly live in it, yet) ventured with nine Indian Boats, and eighty Men 
from the Shore into the Offin-^ where, notwithftanding the high rolling of the 
Waves, he got to an uninhabited iHand, on which, being neceffitated to ftay a 
night, the Tide flow'd fo much , according to the property of the South-Sea, 
that tiie higheft Ground thereon, lay almoft covered with Water, every one of 
the Spaniards having enough to do to fave themfelves from being wafh'd away. 
Day approaching, difcover'd a iecond inconveniency , for the Indian Canoos ei- 
ther were extremely Leaky, or elfe fo fhatteiM, that they were unfit for fervice; 
yet notwithftanding all this, they ventur'd to return, rather choofing to be de- 
voured in the Waves , than die of that hunger, whofe mifery they had fuffici- 
ently tafted, during the fmall time they had been out. Not long after, Nmne^ 
Conquered the King Tamaccm in a Field Battel , who thereupon purchased his 
Peace with great Prefents of Gold and Pearl. He alfo fliew'd the Spaniards an 
^ Illand 

iing ic was the 

illand, whofe fpiring tops were fcen from the Main Land, which io abor.ndc'-l 
in Pearls,, that in no place were either iTsore or fairer to be found : But th^ 
King who liv'd on it was exceeding powcrfuL 

N/<?2«f;<, immediately refolv'd to Sail thither, notwithftandi 
middle of Oftoher^ when the South^Eaft Winds make fuch a turbulent and hoi- . . 

low Sea, as m.any times wafli'd away Trees and pieces of Rocks : Befides, the 
Weather was more terrible, by continual Lightning and gi'eat Thunder-Claps- 
the Nights very cold, the Days exceeding hot 5 yet all thefe difficulties could 
hot prevail, for Nunne:^ would not (lay to expe*5l fairer Weather, but went on, 
and comincr thither, he faw how the Indians Fifli for Pearls^, which was Divine Manner of pifiiuig for 


for Oyfters j but the Weather being rough and foul, they durfl not venture for 
the beft which lay far from the Shore. 

But 2^«?/??^;<, leaving his lick and weary'd Men with Chia^es y March'd quite i^«K«^t: returns, 
another way back than he came ; and croiling a great River, was receiv'd by 
Prince Teaocha^ who furnifli'd him with Gold, Pearls, Provilions, and Guides, 
which carry'd his Luggage and Goods. 

facra, a great Oppreflbr of all his Neighbors, hearing of the approach of 
ISlunm^y fled, but terrifi'd with threats, returned with three other PrinceS;» 
which were all fo Deformed, that more horrible Monfters were never [ptn^ ' 

fcarce any part about them refembling thofe of a Man : The Guides which i''?f^'t a tyrannous King, 

111 -iir TO ■ 1 ^ r > 1 t i -tl ir>. ?r his horribk death, 

Teaocha had provided ior the opaniard delir d that he might be put to Death, for 
the Cruelties which he had long committed J whofe Requed being granted, he 
with the other three Princes, were given as a Breakfaft to the S'^^wyZ? Doggs. 
Mean while, the Spaniards were in danger to have perilli'd for want of Water • 
yet at laft, in a Thicket of Brambles, they found a fmall Brook, but none of the 
M/d?zi durfl venture to go to it, for fear of Tygers, and other WildBeafls- 
relating, That the Tygers took many people in the nights out of their Huts, if 
they were not careful in making faft their Doors. 

John Ledefma had himfelf eaten part of a Tyger, which for fix Moneths tos^e* ^ stnngerchtia-.ofaTyi 
ther, had every night feafled on Mans flefli, or Beafts, which they caught in this 
mianner : In the Path along which he pafs'd, coming out cf his Den to feek for 
Prey, a deep Pic was diggM, and covered very fleightly on the top, into which 
the Tyger fell 5 yet though taken, fo fiercely withftood the Pikes, Darts, and 
Stones thrown at him , that every one. was amaz'd to fee the fury of the Beaft, 
After that they fought for the Female , but found onely two young ones with- 
out a Dam, which taking along with them, they put Iron Collars about their 
Necks, intending to carry them to Spain j but feeing no likely hood of breed* 
ing them up , they brought them back again , purpofing to fetch them away 
when grovN^n fomewhat older, and accordingly coming afterwards to look for 
them, they found the Den empty , fo that it was fuppofed they had been de-^ 
vour'd by their Dam. 

In the Province o^ 'Bo?ionia7naj the Spaniards inrich'd themfelves with Chains, Mmnezkvthsvhnrnc^/ 
and Breail-Plates of Gold, which in great plenty hung on the Walls in every ml°Lbit°"'"''^' ^"'"' '^" 
Houfe : At the River Comogrm^ they difcharg'd Tf^oc/w's Guides, and made ufe 
of Cofog^ and (}Vi;^d, two Governors of a barren Tra(!^ of Land, full of Hills ' 
and Mountains, which they left on their right Hand, and wandred three days 
over a Morajfe^ in which they often funk to their Knees. 

In all thefe Travels, Visual wa3 fo fcarce that they were much weakened 
by their wants - and though they took frefh courage when they got footing on 
King 'Buchehua's Jurifdidion, yet they found nothing but empty Hu.tS; and the 

, ■- ' like. 

PeUr Ar'tiU his Voyage, 
and Fight in the Haven 

Strange Houfes and 
Houfhold-fluff. ^ 

U'hu ufe ihe Anm'icaui 
make of the Root Mani't- 

^ M E^I C J. Chap. 

like \n the Coiintrey o^ Chiorijus, both having a little before been pillaa'd by 
their more powerful neighboring Enemies. But although they could not fur* 
nifii Nunne;^ with Provifions, they prefented him with weighty Inaots of Gold : 
but this rich Metal not able to purchafe the lead morfel of Bread, drove them 
into a great ftrait j and indeed they had without doubt been all famiOied 
had not focchoroj a, ^nothtv King, fed them forty days together with flamp'd 
Roots. Thusrefrefli'd, and inftigated by Tocchoroja, they broke by nicrht in 
Tuhummas Palace ;, and- took him Prifoner with eighty Concubines, who 
fearing to be put to death;, gave an incredible Treafure of Gold to purchafe 
his Pvanfom. 

Nunne^ thus enriched came at laft to his People which he had left on the 
River Varia, where two Ships fent from Hi^aniola rode at an Anchor. 

Whilfl: things were thus carry'd mAmertcay Teter Arias Sail'd with fifteen 
Ships, Manned with fifteen hundred Men/ to New Andalufia, by the Iflands 
Martinina, Guadalupe^ and Galanta, all in America : a confiderable time he Sailed 
through the Sea overgrown with Weeds. Afterwards anchoring ii^ the Haven 
St. Martha^ he received a great repulfe from the Natives, who no ways daunted 
at the bignefs of the Ships, waded up to their Breafls in the Sea, and fhot many- 
great flights of poifonous Arrows at the Spaniards ^ of whom tw^o being wound- 
ed immediately died. Jria^ fending ibmeof his Men afhore, they found ma- 
ny Boats lying full of Nets^, made of tough Weeds^, and Ropes pleited of 
Ruflies. - 

In the Haven St. JMartha, being three Leagues wide, are abundance of Fifh, 
which may be Cccn. under Water twenty Fathom deep. 

But now the Spaniards that were afhore breaking into the Houfes, and, taking 
Women and Children Prifoners , the Americans prepar'd for another Fight, 
which at the beginning was very fierce 5 but at laft they were forc'd to quit the 

Their Houfes and Furniture in them are worthy of obfervation : their Cie- 
lings being covered with Shells ftrung on fmall Thred, which make a pleafing 
noife, when mov'd by the leaft breath of Wind. The Walls are hung with fine 
Stuffs^ woven full of Imagery, as Cranes, Lyons, Tygers, and fome Figures of 
Men ; the Floors are cover'd with parti-colour'd Mats, made of Sea-Reeds, 
and feveral tough Roots 5 and their Carpets befet\vith Pearl add alfo a great 
beauty to their Rooms. 

In the Valleys the Spaniards found feveral precious Jems, as Saphires, Jaf- 
per, Emeralds, and great pieces of Amber, and in fome Huts, Baskets, and 
Chefts full of dry 'd Locufts^ and Crabs, 

Here alfo grows the Root Yuca,a.s alfo on feveral other Weft-Indian Coafts, of 
which they make their beft Bread, and is call'd in Hifpaniola and Angola, luca - 
by the ^rafilians, Mandiha and Mandihoka -^ by tht Mexicans, Qu_auhca?notU : it 
grows with a thick or midling Body, according to the fruitfulnefs or barren- 
nefs of the Soil j the Leaves are like thofe of a Tulip, and have fmall Flowers 
and Seed, but no ways ufeful • the Root, not unlike Horfe-Raddifli, hath a 
milky Juice, which fwells it exceedingly • the Sprigs, which in the eighth and. 
tenth Moneth ilioot out of the Root, ferve for new Plants 5 and if at any time 
it happen, that either by a moift Seafon, or by Worms, or Pifmircs, the Plant 
is fpoiTd, then it occafions fuch an inconvenience amongft the Inhabitants, 
that half of them in that year die of Famine. ^<>. 

The Leaves of the Maudihoka ferve them for Sallads. Out of the Root, 


Chap. III. 

A M E '.Z^ I C J, 



which they lay foaking five days in Water, they make Meal> which the ^ortu,^ 
^uefe ca\\ Farina frefcay hut the Americans, 'Vipeha. yioxeoYer:,Mandihoka fcrves 
them to make Bread, which they bake over the Fire ; and mix'd with Water, 
Pepper, and the Flour ISlhamhi^ makes an excellent Pudding, by them call'd 
liMingaude Carima^ no lefs pleafing to the taftc than wholfom Food : and with 
Orange*Flour, Water, and Sugar, it makes that excellent Julep Ttpioca. The 
Powder of Mandihoha ^ut into a Wound, cures very fpeedily. It is very plea- 
fant to fee the Americans eat this Bread j for they tofs it by handfuls at a pretty 
diftance from their Mouthes without letting fall the leaft Crum. Laftly, it 
requires great art and trouble to make the Mandihoka fit for Bread : firft they 
muft peel off the Shell, then put into a Mill turn'd by two Indians it falls, 
being Ground, into a fquare Trough. The Juice proceeding from it is mortal, 
if eaten when raw, but wholfom if boil'd : the Meal they put in a Prefs, and 
when all the moifture is drawn from it, they ftrow it in an Oven to dry. But 
the wild Mandihoka y by thofe that live on the Sea-fhore calPd Cuacu Mandiiha, 
and up in the Countrey, Cuquacucuremia^ differs both in fliape and goodnefs 
from the firft. 

But to return to our matter : Arias coming to an Anchor in the River Daria] 
was cheerfully received by Nunm^-^ his firft Bufinefs which he undertook was 
the building of three Forts, to fecure the Paflages to the 5o«t/; iSe^ j to which 
purpofe Joannes Aiora received the Command over four hundred Workmen, 
Moreover, ^nWtook great diflike in the Place call'd Maria Antiqua, which the 
Spaniards were forc'd by neceflity firft to Plant in : it lay in a deep Valley be- 
tween high Mountains, fo that it not oncly wanted the benefit of the rifing and 
fetting of the Sun, but when in or near the Meridian, it fhinM down upon 
them, and fcorch'd all their Plants^ and the tepifi'd Moraffy Grounds about 
the fame infeded the Air, and the Water which they took up to wafh their 
Houfes, immediately bred Frogs, the River Daria overflowed the Grounds 
with his muddy Water three Leagues diftance from the Sea 5 the Paftage thither 

L alio 

Arias's Exploits ia Xm 


'• il 

Af^ran^e Accident. 

Remarkable Trees. 

Remail-able Journey of 
Moralii to the South Sen. 

alfo was very troublefom, becaufe of the uneven Ways ; and befldes, the Ty- 
lers and Lyons devour'd many People and Cattel. 

The firft Night that Jrtcvs lay in Maria Jntifia, the Houfe wherein his Chi» 
ruvgion Lodg d was fir'd with Lightning, who running out with his Wife, be- 
ingl^oth fcorched by the Flames, faw a veiy great Crocodile, which fnatch-^ 
ing^ up his Dog ran away with him towards the River. 

"^The neighboring Territory Coiba produced Trees, whofe Timber usM for 
Shipping never breeds Worms, becaufe of its acerbity ^ whereas on the con- 
trary, all other VeiTels in that Countrey are very fubjed to that inconvenience. 
Here alfo grow thofe famous Plague*Trees, whofe very Leaves, if but falling 
upon one, are like Gods Arrows, mortal,and immediately kill, unlefs the Place 
whereon they light be ftraightway anointed with failing Spittle : and the Coi- 
henfers fay, that they know another poyfonous Wood, which they ufe to de- 

ftroy their Enemies withall. 

Whilft Anas was confulting about the beforemention d Affairs, he fent feve- 
ralComandersto divers Places, to take a furvey, and give him an account of 
their Return of all their Difcoveries. Amongft others G^j^er Mor^/^ was ordered 
to march towards the South Sea, to confirm the Peace which N«««^;^ had begun 
with the Kings Chlapes and tumaccM ; and chiefly to go to the Pearl-Ifland w^ith 
fixty Men, which m«w^;<. was forced to leave, being ftrefs'd by tempeftuous 
Weather. Chhpes and Tumaccm were according to their promife, to prepare an 
Army ready for his affiftance againft his coming - which indeed they per. 
formed, fo that they wanted nothing but Veffels, for the biggeft of theirs could 
not carry above three or four Men ■ yet they undertaking their Enterprife, 
Landed feventy Men on thelfland ^ upon which the Inhabitants under their 
Kings Condud ran to meet the new Landed Forces, and crying out aloud 
Gua:^^ayara, Gua:^^ayara, they ran in amongft the Mufqueteers with their wood, 
den Swords j but the report of the Guns, mix'd with Fire, Smoak, and Bullets, 
foon amaz'd them : the King flying, thought by alarm to raife all the Iflan- 
ders ; but they being informM, that no People whatfoever could withfl:and the 
fire-fpitting People, made Articles of agreement with Uoralis, and Conditioned 
to deliver a hundred pound weight of the choicefi: Pearls to the ufe of the King 
oUaftile . and as a teftimony of his Friendfhip he was Chriften d feter Arias, 
from the Governors Name of Neji^^wJ^/wy?^. 

How great the Treafure was which J^or^/w brought from the Pearl Ifland 
may app'ear by one of the Pearls, for which Pope Leo the tenth gave forty 
forur thoufand Ducats to a Venetian Merchant. 

Amonga the Commanders which were fent out by Arias, was alfo Johan* 

> nes Solifm, who Sailing fix hundred Leagues Southerly, along the Coaft of the 

Carihbies, beyond C^pe St. Auguflim, he found the Inhabitants of femamhuck to 

be no lefs cruel than, fubtile • for being invited afliore, he with fome of 

sotifu^ bis mifcrabie his Mcn Row'd thither, where no fooner Landing, but were all kill'd and 

*"''; eaten in the fight of the other Sea-men aboard ; at which b'eing amaz'd they 

weighed Anchor, and SailM away. Freighted onely \n\\.\v Srafih Wood, to 


Afo in an unhappy hour did Johannes Tont^m put fome of his Laundreffes 
afhore on the Ifland 6W.^//^p.'?, to wafh fome Linnen for him; for the Iflan- 
derscoming on a fudden out of the Woods fjrpviz'd them, and forthwith kil- 
ling without mercy, cut them in pieces, and c:irbonadoing, eat their broil'd 
riefh hot from the Coals, \^h\k Gonfalm 'Ba.Ujociii^ Sail'd with eighty Men 


Strange Pearl] 

Chap. IIL 

A M E%1 C A. 


Strange Slaves, 


Wefterlyjand having gone fixty Leagues he went afiiorc,and fpent fome days in 
vairi,to Court the J^mericans to a friendly correfpondency ; which whililhe was 
doing, he was recruited with fifty Men from Varia, Commanded by Lodowick 
Mlrcado : fo both agreed together to travel over the Mountains to the South Sea. 

The Governor Juana, whofe Jurifdidions abound in Gold, flying with mofl 
part of his Treafure, was never heard of, onely they took fome of his Slaves, 
whofe Faces were ftrangely Carv'd with fliarp Fifh^bones, the Wounds 
fiird with red and black Powder, which fo difcolour'd the Flefli that it could 
never be got out. After that they traveird through the Wildernefs five days 
together, being onely met by ^ovnzlndians carrying M^i;^, who fignifi'd to them^ 
that King Teri^uete liv'd along the Sea-fhore, and up into the Countrey the 
blind Tofo^zog^ ; of both which they got an unvaluable Treafure of Gold. Great Boew, 
Amongft other Pieces of that rich Metal was one which weighed two pound. 

Taracuraxzis'dmthh Expedition eighteen thoufand weight of Gold : and 
little lefs did they takeout of the Territories belonging to the Princes 'p4«^« 
jiomey Tahoj-y Chcru, and Scoria : The Prifoners ferv'd them in ftead of Horfes, 
they not being able to carry all the Gold themfelves, the meaneft Soldier having 
above three thoufand Pounds Sterling for his fliare. 

They were now got to Tan:<ias Kingdom, not without leaving fad remarks ^ij^l^'^^^"^^^^ ^^^ ^^*' 
of their avarice and cruelties. When 'P^W^^ furrounding this Party thus loaden 
with Gold, Charged -fo fiercely, that atthe firft Alfault feventy of them were 
ilain . thofe few that efcap'd brought the tidings of their fad misfortune to 
^eter Ario/S. AmongO: thole that efcaping returned, was Vrdncifcus Delapuente, 
whofe obfervations concerning catching Parrots and wild Fowl, we will 
briefly relate, the digrefHon being but fhort. 

The hdian where the Parrots are mofl frequent climbs into a Tree, and ^ ^''^'^^^ waytocatch 

.... Parrots. 

chattering like them, with his Voice imitating their Notes, allures his fellow* 
prater to draw near, and fuffer him to take them in his Hands. But more 
belongs to the taking of wild Fowl, as GQcfc, Ducks, Swans, and the like : 
From the bottom of their Handing Pools and Lakes in that Countrey grow 
Weeds, which fpreading upon the Water ripen, and rotcing breed Water- . 
Hies, Spiders, and Frogs, upon which the Fowls feed. Near thefe Pools in 
the Gardens grow Cabbages as high as Trees, which often dropping into the 
Water ferve the Birds both for Nefts and Food : but the skilful Fowler finds 
it his bed way to take one of thefe Cabbages, and making it hollow in the 
middle, claps it on his Head like a Helmet, then going into the Water up to 
his Chin, and paffing foftly along in fuch manner, that nothing is feen but the 
floating Cabbage, and coming near the Birds, he takes them one after another 
by the Legs, and puts them into a Bag ty'd about his middle for that purpofe. 

But what is more worthy obfervation is the American Bird Toucan Xochitena- 
chate^ having a flefhy Bill, like a Mouth full of Teeth, which continually opens 
and fhuts to draw Breath, having no Noftrils 5 the Back, Neck, and Wings, 
are black, the Bread yellow like Gold, the Belly and end of the Tail of a 
Vermillion colour. 

This Bird Toucan feeds for the mod part on Pepper, which tarries not longT 
with them, but muted almod as foon as fivallowed : which Pepper thus eva- 
cuated the Natives value above their common, becaule the unpleafing fharp 
' acidity, or biting quality is thereby much mitigated. 

But to return : Whild the Expeditions under the Command of Teter Ari^s 
had fuch bad fuccefs, Ai^i<J himfelf and Fafchus Kunne^hzpned to gI a ill : Nun- 

L 1 ne:^ 

Sirange 'Biid'^eucaH. 

' g Evacuated Pepper. 



J M E R I C J. Chap. IIL 

who fince his difcovery of the South Sea was held in fome repute 2t the 
Spmif^ Court, had built four Ships on the Shore of the fame Ocean, to make 
farther iofpedions along the Coafts thereof : but being commanded to come 
to^n^^ the Governor, he was committed to Prifon, and accufed of highTrea- 
fon, as if he had intentions to fettle himfelf in 9eru, and abfolutely to have left 
T^aria: all which though he difownM, and utterly denied with great protefta- 
tions when brought to a Trial, and no witnefs to affirm the contrary, yet was 
by ^riin's fpecial Order Beheaded. 

Not long after which Lupus Sofa, Governor of the Cdnajy Iflands, was fent to 
fucceed Jna6 in Kew Jndalufia, 

Sect. IX. 

The Expeditions of Francifco Fernandez, Lupus Caizedus, Chriftophero 
Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez, and Juan Grifalva. 



Sutel7 City. 


( '■ t 

Ernande:^, Cai^eduSy a.nd Morantes^ antient Planters in C«^4, obtained a Licence 
from the Governor VkgoVdafcjues^ to Rig out three Ships with a hundred 
and ten Men to difcover new Lands. : Velajques thought fit to add one more 
to their number upon the Kings account j which Truft he committed to Igni^ 
me:^ : all of them confulted with the experienced Navigator Antonto Alamines, 
Six days the Fleet had been at Sea, when they difcover'd Land, which by a 
Original oF the Name miftakc was callM Jucatan, becaufe the Inhabitants being ask'd what was the 
Name of the Coaft, sin^vjer'd Jucatan ; which, as the Spaniards were afterwards 
informed, fignifi'd. We under fiand you not. 

"Upon the Shore they found a City, whofe Stone Buildings, with ftately 
Fronts and high Turrets, fhew'd mod magnificently. Eernande^ called this 
City for its wonderful bignefs, Cairo^ from the Egyptian Metropolis, famous 
through the World. 

The Spaniards coming to Land were courteoufly received, and condu(5ted in- 
to the City ; the neatnefs of whole Market-places , and exadnefs of their 
Streets, they beheld with admiration • as alfo the coilly Stuff Garments both 
of Men and Women : but their wonder increased when they beheld very arti- 
ficial Crofles, concerning which upon inquiry they related. That a Man more 
glorious than the Sun, being bufie in ereding the CrolTes, died. But thefe 
People, though fo courteous and civil at hrll, feem'd in kw days to be weary 
of their company j which the Spaniards obferving founded a Retreat, and Sail- 
ing Wefterly, proceeded on their intended Defign, and foon after anchored 
before Campechium 5 the King of which conduced Fernandez and Morantes, with 
fome others, into the City, confiding of three thoufand Houfes. In his Palace 
they were entertain'd with all manner of Fowl roafted : After which refrefli- 
ment they furvey'd the City ; in which, amongfl: other curious Buildings, was 
Remarkable imas«^and a high, but fquatc Theatre of Marble, on which flood the Image of a Man, on 
^'''""^""^'' all corners affaultedby four wild Beafts, which were of a no lefs ftrange than 

horrible fliape. Not far from this Image they faw a Serpent fafliion'd up of 
Chalk and little Stones, whofe coylM up Tail was forty fcven Foot long, and 
of a proportionable thicknefs. This Serpent, iprinkled with Mens Blood yet 
warm, feem'd to prey upon a Marble Lyon : both thefe were inclosM with a 
Stone Rail, within which Malei'adors were daily executed. BlcodyBows and 
Arrows broke in fmall pieces lay between the Bones and dc^d Bodies. Ignigue^ 


Campechium a City. 


Chap. III. 

A M E%J. C A. 


Spaniards Hain. 

Migixiy Ifland CofnimU- 

caird the King Lci:^cirus\ becaufe he difcOVer'd his Gountrey on St. ha^arm^s 

Making no long flay here, they returned to their Ship, and weighing An- 
chor Sail'd fifty Leagues more Weflerly, the Fleet got fight of Mo/coho^ in the MtfcohiCkj: 
Territory y^^«^m7;, whofe King afTaulted the 5^4«/VJf with fo much fury, that 
two and twenty of them were flain, and fcarce one efcap'd which was not 
wounded : wherefore they returned with bad fuccefs to Cuba, Yet Velafques 
no ways difcourag'd thereat, not long after fitted out four VefTels, Manning 
them with three hundred Men under the Command o^ Juan Grifalva and Ala* 
mines t, who having Sailed feventy Leagues, difcover'd the fruitful Ifland Cofumella-^ 
ajong whofe Shore ftood fair Stone Edifices, intermixed with Temples, whofe 
Steeples appcar'd above the Houfes. Grifalva being led lip into one of thefc 
Steeples by a Prieft;, faw at a diftance off at Sea the Territory Jucatan : and in 
the Place where they were,there were fpacious Halls, full of Marble and Stone 
Images of deformed Men and Beads, which with a murmuring noife, and 
burning of incenfe they religioufly worfhip. The Spaniards call'd this Ifland 
SAnEia Cru:^* 

Sailing from hence they direded their Courfe to Campechimn , where the 
year before they had been fo civilly treated j where arriving, and without any 
fear coming afhore, they found the Qw/?ec/?mw2j quite of another humor than 
they were the former year^ telling them. They would not fuffer any Strangers 
to beamongfl: them^ and placing a burning Torch between theirs and the Spa- 
rufy Forc-es, thrcatned5That if they did not depart in quiet;, they would force 
them: which accordingly they endeavored, making a fierce Onfet upon the 
Spaniards 'y who being now come under their Battlements, when they faw their 
advantage, pour'd what they had kept as a refcrve, whole Volleys of fmail 
Shot amongfi: them; which ftruck fo much terror, that they all ran away, 
flijfting for themfelves, an«l crowding into the City. 

The Spaniards found afterwards Jucatan to be but a ^cninfuUy and came' be* 

Spaniards fight wita Ae 



J M E%^I C J. 

Chap. III. 



fore a River which fell with fo ftrong a Current into the Mixican Sea, that it 
retained its fweetnefs for the fpace of two Leagues. 

Strange paffages on Td^ This Rivcr, flowiugout of thc Province Tabafco, wascallM G/tfalva : upon 
wKofe Banks ftood above fix thoufand Americans - and in the Water appeared a 
hundred Boats with Armed Men^ which Row'd aboard the Spanijh Ships. 
The Interpreters oUuha, whofe Language agrees for the moft part with thc 
Tahafcers, prevailed fo much, that the King himfelf came to thc chief Com- 
mander Grifaha, and bartering with him, gave him as much Gold as his Iron 
Helmet, Breaftplate, and other Armor weighed. 

sacrifie-ipnd. g^^j^ ^f^g^ ^^^^y Landed on the Ipnd of Sacrifice, fo call'd from the horrid 

Sacrifices VA^hich the Inhabitants made daily. 

Exceeding horrible sa- Amongft Other ftrauge Images^ there ftood a great Lyon of Marble, feem- 
ing almoft decollated with a great gafli ; into which Wound they pour'd hu- 
mane Blood warm, which was received into a Stone Trough fet for that pur- 
pofe underneath ; then the Figureof a Man CarvMin Alabafter, bowing for. 
ward, as if looking into the Trough upon the Blood. Thofe which were 
facrificed were Prifoners taken on the neighboring Coafts, whom bringing 
before their Idols, they ripping open make no farther infpedion, but onely 
to whip out the Heart • with which having fmear'd the Lips of their Idols, they 
throw it into the Fire : the Heads and Corps they let lie unburi'd 5 whofe flefliy 
parts^ efpecially their Cheeks, they feaft upon. 

MaUcH-ijiand. 'pj^^ j^^^t Ifland is inhabited by Women • to which Annually their Neigh- 

bors go, pretending merry kindnefs, but upon amorous inclinations: and 
Plough and Till their Ground, "and Weed their Gardens. 

rmendimum a Ci£y. 'j^^ chief City of Tabafco is fojitcnchianumj and contains above fifteen hun* 
dred Houfes, all built of Stone hardned with baking after their manner ; 
which in fome Places, befides their Turrets and Temples, yield a pleafant Pro-- 
fped at a great diftance. Fourteen eminent Town»more did the Spaniards alfo 

fee in Tabafco, 


\i\ mS^ 





A.. (J Jf r) kN\ u 4^ A Wli I nKi 




Chap. III. 

A M E%1 C A. 


When in converling with them they obfervM their ftrange manner of Seal. s.a„ge making of ob, 
ing their Bargains and Contrads one with another, they were amaz'd for not ^'^''"""'' 
ufing Waxjthey ufually SealM their Compads with their own Blood,common- 
ly drawn with a Stone Knife, either from their Tongue, Hand, or Arms. 

Their Priefls live (ingle,and if found to be Unchaft, are puniflit with Death«' 
An Adulterefs is fold for a Slave : Unmarry'd People may not frequently con- 
verfe with Marry'd : Thirty five days in the year makes their lewf, in which 
theyabftain notonely from Flefh, but Fifli alfo, feeding onely upon Roots 
and Herbs. In this place the Spaniards were received in great ftate, Canopy 'd 
with green Palm-Tree-Branches, and in like manner conduced aboard again, 
not without many Prefents, vt;^, the Effigies of a Man curioufly wrought in 
Gold, wherewith they return'd to Cuba. 

Sect. IX. 

TheExpeditionoflcexdmmdMig^g^lhn, commonly caWdM3Lgdime, 

T He Bi(hoi^ 'BartholomeTif de rafts, living a confiderable time in Hilhaniola Bi'^opf'»/^f"aJefreacon. 
• ^L /^- /7\ • • 1 • ■ r fini 1 , ^ Ji > cerning the Pearl catching, 

m the <^ity JJommtcoy bemg intorm d of the abundance of Pearls which ' 
were caught before Cubagua , and the unfupportable cruelty of the Spaniards 
there undetOcainpus, us'd againft the Inhabitants, went to Spain, with a defign 
to obtain of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, the Government over Cumana and 
Cuhagua, under pretence, to draw the ignorant Natives from their Idolatry, to 
Chriftianity j which his requefl: was efpecially promoted by Wtlliam o^ IS^ajfaw^ 
the Emperors prime Favorite ; fo that having his Letters Patents granted to 
that purpofe, he took Ship, and arrivM with three hundred S^^wi/^ Gentlemen 
X)£ Quality in O^^^ : And that they might have the greater rcfpca Oiown to 
them there, they had each a Red Crofs given them, fuch as the Knights of 
Calatra-va generally wear. Yet little did Ocampm^ the old Governor of Cumana, 
regard either them or their Authority ., for in ftead of receiving and fulsmit- 
ting, he kept the Bifliop de Qafis out by force of Arms ; who then made com- 
plaint to the Vtce^^oy of the WefiJndies in Hifpamola, and in the mean time, put ' ^ 
his Grg;o into a new Store=houfe. 

But whilft he made his AddrelTes, Ocampm having fufficiently inrich'd him- 
felf departed, which incouragd the Cww^jww, who already were incens'd, and 
weary of their former fuffermgs, to venture on a defign, whereby they might 
revenge themfelvcs of the Spaniards, which their undertaking proved fo fuccefs- 
ful, that very few cfcap'd the Maflacre : Of which, de Qafts being inform^;, 
and much difcontented thereat , betook himfelf to a Dominican Cloyfter in Ki* 

Yet not long after, the Cumaners paid dear for that (laughter, for one Cajieilio,«.: 
though not without fevcral Engagements, with various fuccefs, lading forty '"'"" 
days together, having at laft utterly vanquifli'd them , put to an ignominious 
Death, Hanging up feventy of their Princes, and to them of meaner quality, 
fii'ewing as little mercy. ' 

As little fuccefs had Lodowick Lampamano, fent out by fome Spanijh Merchants, 
with Letters Patents from the Emperor to Fifh for Pearl, before the fame G^^- 

^«^ J to which purpofe he carry'd peculiar Nets and other neceffaries with him. 

But the Cubaguan Spaniards unanimoufly withftood him j fo that not being able ^'''«M«''«« difcontented. 

to effed his defign, over.po werM with a Melancbolly Diilemper that broke his 

Heart, he dy'd. j^ 


MagtUanHS Expedition, 

how u happtn'd. 

Strange '^Giant. 

Streighis of MitgeUati^ 
how found. 


A M E^B^I C J. Chap. III. 

In the interim, while thefe fcarce confiderable Voyages turn'd to fo fmall 
account, Verdtnand CMagagiianus (for To ^eter M?rf)r calls him, and not K^^?//^- 
ms, which herein deferves to be credited, becaufe they were intimately ac- 
quainted, and great friendfliip between them,) undertook to Sail round about 
the World ^ the occafion of which we will here relate at large : 

This Ulgctglianm, or MagelUnus, a Gentleman of Portugal', having performed 
things of grc^t importance for his King, in Africa, although with no lefs trou- 
ble than Charge, defirM an addition of half a Ducket a Moneth added to his 
Annual Penfion'; an inconfiderable Sum to make a Requeft for, yet though fo 
little, was as niggardly denyM: Whereupon, highly incenfed, he fludy'd no 
little 'revenge; to which effea, foon after an opportumty was prefented, by- 
means of Fr^?ici/c^ ^^^^^"^ ' who writ from Teniata to him, that he ftiould 
fpeedily come thither, which he foon after did upon this account : 

Pope Jlexander the Sixth, having fixtTerminaries between the Kings o^ Ca- 
jTtk and (Portugal, both bufie at that time in discovering new Countreys , Or- 
derM, That G/i/e iliould poffefs all the Coafls lying to the Weft of the chief 
Meridian, and Portugal to the Eaft : By vertue of this partition, the rich Spicy 
Molucca iQands fell abfolutely to the Tortuguefe : Now Magellan^ perfwadcd 
Charles the Fifth, that they might be Sail'd to with a Wefterly Courfe^and there- 
fore belong d to Cajlile j Which advice, Charles the Fifth confidering, and ap- 
proving, Rigg'd out five Ships, with which Magellanm fet Sail from SeVtl, the, 
ttnt\io^ Augufl, Anno 1519. five Moneths he ply'd up and down the Coaft in- 
habited by the Tatagones , where he found none but one fingle Perfon , or ra- 
ther a Monfter, a Giant ten Foot high, who coming Aboard his Ship, devoured 
a great Hamper full of Biskets, and at one Draught drunk up nine Pottels of 
Water. He alfo faw feveral Trees which had been Hew'n with Axes, and Crof- 
fes made on the tops of them. Whilft he lay in that Harbor, which was call'd 
St. Julian, he Cafliier'd his Vice-Admiral, John Carthagena, with his Father Con- 
fefibr, and fparing their lives , fet them afliore , and there left them to feek 
their Fortunes, though they had ConfpirM to Murther him. 

Magellanm from thence Sailing afterwards Southerly along >imV^, to forty 
two Degrees Southern Latitude, was engag d with the eddyings of a very 
ftrong Current, which driving one of the Ships into a Bay, fplit againft a 
blind Rock, but the Men being fav'd in their Boat, were driven farther and 
farther into'a Channel , between high and Snowy Mountains ; whereupon he 
immediately judg d (as the famous Negromancer (^derick Talerns had often 
told him) that there was the PafTage, through which the Northern Ocean 
flow'd into the Southern ; wherefore he refolutely adventur'd to Sail into 
thofe Sraights, which in fome places narrow, and in others broad, is an hun- 
dred and twenty Leagues long, and full of fmall Ifles and dangerous Rocks. - 
Whilft he ftill Sail'd on, the Ship call'd Antonio, Tacking about, return'd to 


But Magellanm enter'd the great South-Sea with three Sail, on the 25. of Oao» 
her, where the Sea-men fuflferM extremely by cxceffive Heat, Drought, and Fa- 
mine, three Moneths and twenty Days, without fight of Land : And now, 
their Shooes, and the Leather which coverM their Shields, began alio to grow 
fcarce ( which before had been counted a Dainty ) when they diicover'd two 
Iflands lying two hundred Leagues diftance one from another, yet both Defo- 
late and Barren , wherefore they were call'd the Unfortunate Ifes : After that, 
they came amongft a areat number of Iflands, whofe Inhabitants were much 

■ DC? incluVd 


, Chap. III. A M E R.1 C A. Si 

inclin'd to Thievery 5 for which caufe they Denominated them Ladronesj the 
chiefeft Ifland called Borneo, hath two hundred fifty four Leagues in Circum- 
ference, whereon a Tree grows, whofe Leaves when fain off, feem to be alive 
and creep like Worms. The King of this Ifland entertained the Spaniards very 
courteoufly, two Elephants bringing his Prefents to them on the Shore, out of 
a City confining of twenty thoufand Houfes. 

Near iBor?ieo are two lefler Iflands,caird,^w^o and MatanfThc King ofZubo free. 
ly fubmitted himfelf to the Spaniards, and Magellanus leaving his Fleet at Anchor Ma^eiiannsii^n: 
in the Haven,went with his own and other Indian Boats,and attended with fome 
■of the Zuhenjers to Matan^SNhtxc fetting a Village on Fire,he carryM great Riches 
from thence : This not fatisfying , he refolv'd within eight days to fet upon 
the Royal Head=City J but the King in his own Defence, Encountering with 
Ma^elhmm^ flew him, and feven Spaniards more, befides twenty two dangeroufly 
wounded ; thofe which efcap'd by flight, got to Zubo^ where being invited to 'S'/*"'^^/ murdered, 
Dinner by the King, they were all of them (in fl:ead of a fecond Courfe) Mur- . 

ther'd at Table. The occalion of this was out of Revenge, becaufc the Spaniards 
Kad falln too foul upon their Women and Maids, Devirginating, and forcing 
them to their Pleafure, than which rudenefs nothing was among them more 
Detefl:ablc. The Sea-men weakned by thefe Misfortunes j, were neceffitated to 
burn their third Ship, calFd, St. Ja^o. but Sailing to the Molucco Iflands with 
the other two, they Freighted them both with Cloves; with which the Ship tri- 
nitM Sail'd to 2>{eit>-Spain through the South. Sea, and the Ft^oria, Commanded ^j,^" ^""^ "^ '^^ y^y^ge 
by John Sehafttan dc Lano went the fame way which the Tortuguefe us'd, and fo to °"" ^"'°' ' 
St, Lucar de ^arrameda, near Sivile, where he came to Anchor with his Ship and 
eighteen Men. . ' , 

S E C T. X. 

Ferdinando Cortez his Voyage, 

A Lthough feveral Expeditions of the Spaniards to y^?;2mV^ proved very un^ 
fuccefsful at the firfl, yet they ftill undertook them afrefh, and with re- 
newing Courage : Ferdinando Sottus, though he Landed five hundred Men in ^««^"«^ity. 
Florida, yet brought no Treafure from thence, onely he cut off the Hands of 
fifteen Princes, becaufe they would not difcover their Mines of Gold. 

Yet far worfe fuccefs had ^amphilus ]S[arVae:^^ who loft both his Fleet and wi^^i-abieendofjffiir^^t. 
Men, faving onely ten out of fix hundred; in the River Talma, and they alfo af^ 
terwards dy'd there, or eat one another to fatisfie their raging Hunger. ' 

But much better was the fortune of Ferdinando Corte^, Sailing from Spain to ^"^^''-^^ t^i^ Voyage; 
America, in the Year 1515?. who having the Command given him over ten flout 
Ships, and three Frigats with five hundred Foot , and an additional Force of 
fixteen Horfe, rais'd by the new Spanifl^ Inhabitants on Cuba ^ with which For- 
ces Landing on the Ifland Co^mnelia , he prohibited Humane Sacrifice to their 
Idols, and Eredred a Crofs with the Image of the Virgin Mary, in one of their 
Temples, and releas'd Hieronimus Jquilaris, after a feven years Slavery, having Reixiarkabiedeiiverx. 
fufferM Ship wrack with Valdma ■ at which time fome that lav'd themfelves in 
the Boat, were by the Current in thirty days driven to Jucatan, in which time 
feven dy'd of Hunger ■ the reft going ailiore, were no fooner Landed, but Sa. 
crific'd by the Natives to their Gods or Zemes. Among the fix that remain d.yec 
left alive, and to be offer'd after the fame manner the next day, was this J.;/«= 
larts, who with his Companions, breaking Prifon, in the following night fled 


5«a^e Battel. 

-' A M E %,! C J. Chap. 

to a Neighboring Prince their Enemy , and one that maintain'd a continual War 

againft tkefe Cannibals. 

Here Corte;^ fent Articles of Peace to Taxmarus the King of the Countrey, but 
he neighting his proffer, came down upon him into the Field with forty thou- 
fand Men, "drawn from the City <^otanchanmi , which contain d above twenty 
thoufand HoufeSjall built of Stone : And indeed the Sj^anwds had here feen their 
lafl day, had not Com;<. drawn by a Teeming advantage the Enemies under his 
Canon ' and fent his fmall Party of Horfe to attend the motion of the Rear ; 
when fo Toon as they had fir'd their Canon, making great Execution, the 
Front routed, and the Rear terrific with the noife and fmoke of the Guns, they 
alfo broke, being at the fame inftant Charg d with the Horfe , which were fo 
terrible to them that never faw Horfes, nor fuch Service on Horfeback before, 
that in a fhort time the whole Body of fo great an Army was utterly diffipated, 

p«.^..«,.acuy. and the triumphing Conquerors took polfeflion of the empty City Totanchanum, 
where Solacing, they ftaid a whole Moneth. Then from hence they Sail'd to 
Colvaca, where, upon the requefl o'fthe Natives, they fettled a Colony. Amongft 
the Prefents which were there given to the Spaniards , were fome of their 

c^fo^^Boote, ofwhat o^n Volumes , Books , whofe Leaves were made of the innermoft Rind of a 

^Sr^'''^''^^^^^'^'Tree, andakindof Pafte, made of their Meal , glewM together j the Cha- 

raaers ftood at fome diftance one after another, rang d like our Chr'tft^Crofs %gw, 

or jiy (By C^ 

Here Corte:^ was amaz d to behold their ftately Temples, the Floors whereof 
were cover'd with Embroyder'd Tapeftry, befet with Precious Stones, to 
which great multitudes flock'd, being very zealous to perform their Devoti- 

When their Seed is put into the Ground, or come to its full growth, they of- 
fer young Children to their Zeme:^, richly Cloth'd, having been fatten'd fome 
Weeks before : When they want Children they kill their Slaves, and in de- 
fault of them, they pacific them with Dogs. 

The FtBims that go to be Sacrificed, they Worfhip with all Adoration, Bow- 
ing and Congying before them. 

Their Zeal in this their Idol-Worfliip may appear from a flrange Cuftom, 
obferv'd by them when they enter their Temple, vi^. they either draw Blood 
out of their Tongues, Lips, Ears, Breaft, Knees, or Palm of their Hands,which 
they throw into the Air, fuppofing thereby to be pardonM by their indulgent 

In the City Zempoal, Corte^ found five Slaves, who being kept clofe Prifon. 
ers, weretobeSacrific'dthenextdayj but he releafing them , did upon the 
importunate requeft of the Quines, or Priefts, and promifes of great ranfoms, 
and their telling of him that the Zemc^v!Ou\d fpoil all their Seed and Plants 
chat year, if they did not go on with theie Offerings, reftor'd the Prifoners 
again - who, though the enjoyments of all happineifcs in the other World were 
promis'd them by their Pnefl, and great alTurance given thereof j yet they 
were not forward, but returnM, unwilling to fuffer, though by fo gainful a Sa- 

At the Zeme^ Feet hung abundance of Mens Bones bundled up together, and 
under them were Written the Names of their Enemies , whofe FleOi had been 

cither Sacrificed or eaten. 

Twelve Leagues beyond Zempoal, Cortc^hmh^ new City near the River 
G/ifaha, and calL'd it Fera Cru:^, which Vic^o fdafques refented fo ill, it being 


S&'Ange SxaiBccs^ 

Strsuge Idol-Worfclp. 

ZcK^paii a City. 

'£iimz worwlcrfiil IdoliJ 

Chap. III. zA\ M E R I C J. 

^one withouc his knowleclge,that he petition'd the Gt?imcil o^ Qiha to give Scti« 
tence of Death againft the Founder : But whilll: Corte-;^ expected an anfvver 
from the EmbaiTadors (which were fent to the Spanijly Court to give accounc 
'of the necelTity of building a City there) he travelled eighty Leagues WePccrly.. 
The Ze?npoale?ifers accompanied him in great Troops, hoping by that means 
to fhake off the yoke of the mighty King CMontci^ma, againfl whom they were 
then defign'd. Qorte:^ coming into the Territory of Smcuchimdar ^ Was in the 
Name of Monte:^uma, by one of his Princes, courteoufly entertaio'd in a grcac 
Village, fcituate on a fteep Mountain, without any Path or Way leading to it^ 
but by tw^o hicrh Ladders. Slncuchmalar lies furrounded with Hills, whole 
tops feem to touch the Clouds. Coming down from the Village, they tra- 
vell'd through a barren and cold Valley, where they fuffer'd fuch great Incon^ 
veniences by want of Provifions and Water, and exceeding coldnefs of the 
Weather, that many of them perifli'd. After that, they afcended a plcafanc 
Hill, on whofe fummit flood a Ghappel, with a handfom Steeple, and hedg d 
about with great heaps of Wood, brought thither by the Inhabitants for the 
ufe of their Sacrifices. At the foot of this Mountain was a fruitful Valley- 
watcr'd by a pleafant River, on whofe Banks a certain Prince nam'd Cacatami- 
?zw^ had a Palace, built of Stone, and containing many Pvooms,and convenient 
Lodgings. Somewhat higher to the Land, appear'd more of the like Stru- 
dures, which were z\\ under Monte^^umas Jurifdidion ; but the neighboring 
Countrey TUxcalla , whofe Inhabitants were famous for their Valor, would 
never receive any Laws from Monte;^uma. 

Corte;^no fooner fet footing in this Countrey, but he was fet upon by a thoii«' 
fand of the Inhabitants,who at the firft Aflaolt kill'd two of the Spanijl? Horfe, 
yet after this bold Charge, the Aflailants fled, and on the next day delir'd 
Peace; whereupon the »Sp^m^r(i5 march'd quietly into the Countrey, when a 
confus'd Company ,or Forlorn=Hope, making a horrible Noife, fet upon them^^ 
but after a flight Skirmifli, they fled t6 their Main Body, which immediately 
drawing up, being at leaft a hundred thoufand, hemm'd in the handful of S^4« 
niards, and fo were ready to fwallow them, leaving them no Angle to efcape ato 
Thus invironed, they were aflailed on every fide, fighting till Sun-fet, and 
had undoubtedly been utterly deflroy'd, had not Corte:^ plyM his fix Pieces of 
Cannon, difcharging continually Volley after Volley upon them ; and though 
the Execution was very much, yet the Sound and report of their Ordinance 
was more terrible to them that were out of the reach of the Bullet, and made 
more to the gaining fo great a Vi(aory, Eear conquering more than Slaughter 5 
fo that by the Evening, defpairing either of their Safety or better Fortune, the 
■whole Army disbanding fled : But the purfuing Conquerors firing five of 
their Villages, remain d Maflers of the Field • yet they, though thus totally 
routed, taking frefli Courage (a wonderful thing !) reinforcd them, and fee 
upon the Spd?zi/7p Camp, with no lefs than 150000 Fighting Men : Yet not:» 
withftanding fo vaft an Army, CGyte:^fo well ordered his fmall parcel of Men, 
and fo valiantly led on upon all Advantages, that he in like m.anner defeated 
this, as they thought, Invincible Preparation. Thus flefhM with fo much Blood 
of the Natives , he raged every where, giving no Quarter where-ever he 

Mean while Quefitangd^ a neighboring Prince, having alfo raifed an Army 
with which he defign'd, being aflifted by darknefs, craftily to fall into the %^ 
msh Quarters by Nighty fubtilly diflembling , fenc Embaffadors the day be* 

' fore. 

€orur,Yih Exploitsi 

Rcmaii-able Wai 



^ M EV^I C J. ' CKap. 

foie, with feveral PrefentS;, and Overtures of Peace, which indeed were onely 
Spies, to take notice where they might beft break in upon them 5 which Cor- 
r£;^rniftrufting, and foon being informed of the whole Defign, he cut off the 
Spies Hands, fo fending them back to Quefttangal with Defiance : Hereupon the 
Indians immediately fetting forward, took advantage of the enfuing Night, 
and with great fury fell upon the Spaniards, who preacquainted with the De- 
fign, were in fo good a pofture to receive them, that not able to endure fuch 
hot Service, they quickly retreated, and utterly gave over the Enterprizc : But 
Corte:^ as much encouraged by thefe Viftorics, purfu'd them, and the fame 
Night SrormM Tlaxcalla, a City containing above twenty thoufand Houfes, 
which in few Hours he carried. This City was curiouOy built, of bak'd 
Stones, and a place of great Trade • infomuch that the Market-places fwaxm'd 
with Buyers and Sellers, bartering one with another all manner ofProvifi- 
ons, asFifli, Flefh, and Bread, alfo Plumes of Feathers, Pearls, imbroyder'd 
Tapeftry, Chalk, Stones, Timber, and Herbs. 

Twenty days Corte:^ flaid here to rcfrefti his Army, and then march'd to the 
neighboring City Chiurutical^ with the Auxiliary Forces of the Tlaxcallans, to 
the number of above a hundred thoufand • they told him, That the People of 
Chiurutical had barricado'd up their Streets, laid upon the tops of their Houfes 
great heaps of Scones, that their upper Rooms were cramm'd with Archers, 
and all r'"! ags made ready both for Offence and Defence ; which Advertifement 
iie net much hearkned to,becaufehe was condu»5ted into the City with all their 
Sta? e=Formalities of Singing and Tabering upon their Tamhoes ^^nd every where 
courteoufly entertam'd. 

Mean while Uonte^^ma had raised a great Army, which were in their ad- 
vance, not onely to the defence of his Border, but to furprize them them while 
they ftaid in that City, the Townfmen having invited him thither to their re- 
fcue and his own defence, had not the Plot been accidentally difcover'd by a 
Chirutecan Woman, who giving advice to one of her Friends that followed Cor^ 
te:^^ that he fhould immediately make his efcape, becaufe that all the Strangers 
would be deftroy'd within few Hours, who came and informed Com;<. there- 
of ; whereupon he defir'd all the Magiftrates of the City to come and fpeaic 
Strange Martwi Affairs, with him, who no fooner entred the Hall where he was, but his Men by 
Command immediately (hot them to death, which terrible Rumor fpreading, 
and alarm'd with the report of the Executing Mufquets, the City was fuddenly 
in an Uproar, gathering thither Arm'd from all Places, and began a fliarp 
Conflia, which lafted ^ivt Hours ; but then wearied out, and defpairing of 
Succefs, loofing their Courage, they defir'd a Ceffation, and at laft coacluded 
Peace with the Spaniards. 

This News of his difcover'd Intention, fo flartled Monte:^mna, that he fup- 
pos'd it better to defift, and procure the Favor of Corte:^ by Prefents j where- 
fore he fcnt him 15000 Cotton Habits, trim'd up very richly, ten great Char* 
gers of Gold, and fome Veffels of Wine, defiring him for a while to forbear 
his Intentions of marching to Tenujlltan his Chief City, and that he would in 
the mean while treat with him for an Accommodation. But Corte^, though 
he accepted of the Prefents, yet neverthelefs held his Refolution of marching 

Eight Leagues [i-om Tcnufiitan hefaw the double-fpired Mountain 'Popoc^ff- 
pcque, fo caird from the Smoke which continually afcends from its top 5 for 
^opoca fignifies J Smoh^ and Tt'pcqne, A Motmtain, The Smoke rifes upright^and 


A Plot flrangely difco- 
Ter'd. ' 

Now MtMueil 

Wonderful fvlcuntajn Pfl- 

Ghap. III. 

A M E K I C A. 


with fo mucK ftrength, that by the greateft Wind it deviates not one ,ot from 
mounting upwards in a direft Line, to whofe forked Head «n S^.m^rJ. le- 
folv-d to climb; but having got fcarce half way up, they were fore d tore- 
turn, the Alhes lying knee-deep ; yet at laft two more refolute conquer d all 
thofe Difficultips, and got to the top, where the mouth of the Cave, as they 
gueffed, meafur'd four Miles in Circumference : The fhaking of the Moun- 
tain, and roaring of the Flames, frequently burfting forth, fo much terrified 
them, that they ftaid not long there ; for, as we faid, the Ground not onely 
trembled under them, but the Fiery Gulphejefted great Stones, which falling 
down on all fides of the Mountain, rolled to the bottom ; and without doubt 
they had there periQi'd, had they not fpeedily run to a hollow neighboring 
Hill, from whence they came at length to the reft of their Company, where 
they were admir'd by the hidims for their undaunted Refolution, and prelent- 
ed with feveral rich Gifts. Thefe Mtans had a Tradition, That for wicked 
Princes, and fuch as had not govern d the People well, this was the To^kf ap-^ 
pointed for their Torments. j i • 

Cortex being got through the poor Territory of the Gmzazin^^rs, and having 
fuffer'd great Cold upon the Mountains, difcover'd Amaquamua, the chief City 
of the Province Chidco, feated in a great Lake, to which he row'd in a kind of 
Boats, by the Inhabitants call'd Acdcs. Pafling from thence, he was courte- 
ouflyreceiv'd ir^I^ta^d.^a, another City, which boafts above eight thoufand 
Stone Buildings, befides admirable Palaces, with fpacious Rooms, delighthil 
Gardens, and Ponds full of Fini,and almoft covet'd with Fowl ; from whence 
a Wall or Cawfe^way of a great breadth, that crofs'd over both Land and Wa- 
ter, led from IztamUf^ to r.nufttUn. This Cawfe-way hath many Bridges, 
which are drawn up in time of War, under which the Water runs out of a 
Salt Lake into a FreOi, that ebbs and flows, although lying between high 
Mountains, and feventy Leagues from the Sea. 

On both fides this Walt, being tea Leagues in length, appears three great 

\A Towns, 

Refolution of two Sftt- 

Strange Cities in Ameri~ 


'A very ftrangs Cawf- 


A M E ^I C A Chap. Ill; 

Towns, V/^. Mefiqunlifm^o, Cohaca?ia^ and yuichilahufco^ all Populous^ and vvelU 

How thty make Salt. 

Qohacana is fupplied by the Salt Lake, to its no fmall benefit and inriching; 
for the Water being by Pipes conveyed into the City, in all the Places and Ci- 
flerns for its reception makes a Scuni;, which being coagulated by the Sun, and 
after boyl'd, becomes Salt;, with which they drive a great Trade j for no Salt 
being to be had in any place but here, all Foreign Merchants come thither for 

Corte^ being in his March within a League and a half of Tenuftltan, Mo?ite:^u^ 
ma, preceded with a thoufand of his Noblef^ , came to meet and falute him 
all of them rather like Pilgrims, bare*footed, and congying, kiffing their richt 
Hands, with which thty firft kifs'd the Ground : After thenl appear'd Monte- 
. :^uma himfelf, who put a Chain of Gold, imbofs'd with Pearls, about Corte;^ 
his Neck, and immediately conduced him to the City, where having entred, 
Ki„Vr««'^'^'' '^ ^"^ ^^^"§ ^o"^^ i^to ^^e ^^hce,Moftte:^u?na plac'd Corte^ on a Golden Throne' 
and furrendred up his Right to his Catholick Majcfly of ^puiftj in the prefence 
of all his Peers, to their no fmall amazement. 

But whilft all things had a good face, and went on thus fairly beyond their 
expearations, Cor^e;^ was informed. That King Coako^oca had a Defign on the 
new City Vera Crux, and had treacheroufly murder'd two of the Garrifon 
and wounded two more : Whereupon Corff;<^ having fuch fair beginnings, who 
had fwallowM already in his Hopes the whole Empire and Wealth belonging 
to Monte:^umay laid hold of this Occafion, pretejidingTrcafon, and breach of 
Contra<ft; wherefore he put M'onte;^umaundci!: Cuftody, notwithftanding he 
had clear'd himfelf of the Confpiracy, by bringing Coakopoca, with his Sons 
and fifteen of his Peers, Prifoners to Temfiitan^ who by the command of Cor- 
f^;^fufFer'd a lingering death, being all burnt with Green Wood. But in vain 
did Monte^ma think to reconcile himfelf with Corte;^, fince all he did could 
render no manner of fatisfadion j however he continued to oblige him by 
freOi Favors, whofe Relation we will be more particular in, as meriting the 

Monte;^mas Grandees feem'd to be much difontented, becaufe he had with- 
out the leaft refiftance orconfideration fetlcd a handful of Strangers to domi- 
neer over his whole Dominions, by which his weakncfs and pufillanimity,he 
was now a Prifoner, like a common Malefactor, who had formerly governed 
fo mighty Territories. Amongfl feveral Princes which fecm'd thus to be 
concerned, was Catu?}ia:^m Goyevaor: of the Province H?co/V4r^«, who had he 
not been furpriz'd and attaqu'd the Night before by the information and dif- 
covery of Montezuma himfelf, he would have hazarded the ruine of all 
Q>rte:^ his SucceflTes : But now Fortune ftill daily more fmil'd, giving won- 
derful Advantages to the Spaniards j Silver and Gold continually flow- 
ing like Rivers from all Quarters , that their onely trouble and puzzle 
was where and how to difpofe it : but yet for all this, they were not free 
from jealoufie, that Monte:^uma's Forces might fwallow theirs, though he 
was fecur'd ; of which you may judge by the vallnefs of his Imperial City 
aiStJS:!?"/;''^''' ^'^^^ft'^tan, feated in the Province of Mexico, where a Salt Lake mixes its Wa- 
ters with a frefli River, both which in circumference contain, as we faid, fe- 
venty Leagues, and diftant from the Main Land five or fix Miles - the Water 
about it continually cover'd with fmall Boats rowing up and down. It hath 
four Stone , befidcs Draw-Bridges in feveral Places, and flrengthned with 



''I" /' 

h. \ ' 


■ \ 

::*>A':, \.J! 

B . lem^io Ja. Orare 

% . Il^^iardino del S . 
■E . Kfohxzi MS. 
G . 21t juefbjiiuru ConJucone 
Iac0f4a, iieUa. Ctta. ^^ 


'.uaos , what manner of 

Stately Ttmpk. 

Horrible Imagej. 

Grandeur of the King;. 
in tetiuflnati,^ 

Srranre Garcten-houres.. 



Cuaos , what manner of 

Chap. III. . J M E'KI C J. 

Gates no lefs artificial than coilly^which lead from the City to the Main Land. 
Tiie Frefli Water is conveyed through the Salt in a Wall'd Channel,, out of 
which none may take up Water, except they pay Excife to the Kings Farmers. 
This City boails above iixty thoufand Houfes, all divided into Iflands, but 
joyn'd with great Wooden Bridges : The Market-place furrounded with GaL 
ierieSj drives a quick and conilant Trade, being always full of Buyers and SeU 
lers. In every Street they have a publick Inn, in each of which they keep Or- 
dinaries, wherein the Tables are ftor'd with well-drefs'd Flefli and Fifli, not. 
wantin<7 plenty of Wine. Their Trades are divided into feveral Companies, 
and they have their peculiar Places to dwell in. They deal very much in (^a- 
caos y a Fruit not unlike an Almond, which beaten to Powder, and prepared 
with feveral other Ingredients, gives name to that excellent Drink now in ufe 
with us, call'd Chocolate : They grow onely on moift and warm Grounds, and 
are us'd fo currently in Trade, that they go in ftead of Money. Amongft ma- 
ny beautiful Edifices, their Guild is very magnificent, wherein twelve Judges, 
attended by a confiderable number of Officers and Servants, fit daily, hearing 
and determining all manner of Caufes. The next is their Chief Temple or statdyT.mpi?. 
Minfter, built quadrangular, all of Free-Stone, having four Portals, opening 
into the four principal Streets or Triumphs^ that end at the four Stone Bridges. 
On the Walls, being of an exceeding height, Hand feveral Turrets, fo high^ 
that they feem to hide their Spires in the- Clouds j and have Apartments, 
wherein the Pricfts Diet, Lodge, and Study, which are afcended by Marble 
Steps. Thefe Religious Perfons are generally of Noble Extra(5t, which at fe- . 
ven years old are carried thither, where leading a very llri6t Life, they never 
come forth to fee the World, till they enter the State of Matrimony, The fa.^ 
mous ColojfuSj that flood over the ^wdian Haven, between whofe Legs all Ships 
did Sail, that came in or went out of the Harbor, cannot (land in competition 
with the ftupendious Idol Vmchilahuchichi, whofe Head touches the Arch'd Cei= 
ling of the high Temple. Near his (land feveral lefier Images, made of Meal 
and all forts of Herbs bak'd together, and kneaded with Mens Blood, Along 
the Walls are exceeding dark Vaults, in which the Priefts onely walk j over 
them are large Halls, full of Prefentations of their Gods, which ferve for the 
Burying=places of their Kings. 

Whilft (jrte:^ and Monte^^ma were viewing the Temple, two Spaniards rufli'd 

fuddenly into one of the Cells, where they found abundance of Lamps and 

rTorches burning, and the Walls bedaub'd two Inches thick with Humane 

rore : Over=head hung vail numbers of their Sacrificing Knives ; and the 

flench of the place was intollerable. 

But Corte;^ goi'^g ^^'^t Monte:^mna and his Attendants refented it very hainouf* 
iy, that he puU'd down fome of their Idols, and durft prefume to look in the 
Kings Face j for thofe People bear fo great Reverence to their Kings, that 
none dares fo much as once look up in their prefence : His Council fland bare- 
footed, {looping with their Faces bow'd almoil to the Ground before him : 
Four times a day they change their Apparel j and a Suit which they have once 
worn, is put to no other ufe, but prefented to inch Soldiers as have done fome 
eminent Service. Whatever manner of Chargers, Diflies, Pots, Cups, and 
other Velfcls the Emperor is ferv'd in at his Table, are every Meal nev^r. The 
King hath in Tenujlitan three great Structures, whofe Magnificence, for Cofl and 
rare Architedure, can hardly be parallell'd. The firft is the Refidence for all 
deform'd People : The fecond, an J'yiary for all manner of Birds and Fowl, 



Horribk Images. 

Grandeur of the Kings 

Snanjje Gartlen-houfes. 






Chap. III. 

being a fpacious open place. Roof d with Nets, and furrounded with Marbk. 
Galleries. The third, being a Den for Wild Beafts, was divided into feveral 
Rooms, wherein were kept Lions, Tygers, Wolves, Foxes, and all manner of 
Four-footed Animals. 

But whilft Corte^ having ilaid waiting eight Months in T*enuftitan, £ot the 
return of the MeiTengers fent to the Spanijh Court, received Tidings ,That "P^wi- 
^hi!o2slarVaecy,hY order of FelafquesjWis come with eighteen Sail, Mann'd with" 
eight hundred Foot, and eighty Horfe, from (^uba, and now riding before the 
Mexican Coaft 5 from whence foon after he received unexpeiSted Command, to 
€om€ prefently aboard unarmM, and refign up his Authority : But he in ftead 
of fubmiffion, compell'd NarVaecy in a fliort time to rclinquifli his Title, and 
own him for Superior. Mean while the Spaniards which remained inpoflefli' 
on of Tenuflitan^ ran the hazard of a general Maflacre 5 for the Citizens much 
ftomacking the Oppreffions of the Spa?iiards, who grew very infolent, inflaving 
their King, bringing their inveterate Enemies the Tlaxcallans and Gua^^^mgans 
into their City, exacting them to pay Tributes^ pulling down their Gods, and 
demoliiliing their ancient Idols, they brake out from all Parts in a tumultuous 
manner, ran to Arms, and belieg'd them Day and Night in their Fort, al- 
though Monte:^ma endeavored to perfwade the contrary. Corte;^ hearing of it, 
came to their relief with the New Forces Landed from Cuba j but he fighting 
his way ere he could get in, was fo roughly entertained by the Mexicans^ that 
they kiird him forty Men, wounding as many more ; and notwithllanding 
fifteen Field-pieces with continual Shot made foul Breaches, lelTening the 
number of the AiTailancs, yet they fuddenly fiU'd up their Vacancies again 
with frelli Men, which clambcr'd over the Heaps of thofe that lay {lain. 
Three Days the Battel had continued very fierce, when Montc:^wu being with 
the Spaniards in the Caftle, went to a low Window, to fee if he could com- 
mand his Subjciflsto retreat ; but a continual Cry fo deafned their Ears, and 
Oiowres of Arrows and Stones fo took away tlieir fight, that he did nothing: 




seawards b'.zten sfrefc; 

Remarkable Exploits of 

CHap. liL ' ^ <tl M E R I C A _ ^ So 

Thca Monte :<^wh^ thinking to be more eafily either heard or fcen, went to li 
higher Window^ Vhere looking our, he was imfortunacely hit with a Stonej 
of which he died three days after. Befides their Enen[^ies;, the SppHanls [u^tv'd 
extremely by Famine j and though they had beaten down a Tower., which 
had done the Caftle great mifchief, and fpt five hundred Houfes on fire, yet 
they could difcern no likely iffuc thereof, but judgM it bed 'to make their 
efcape by Ni<7ht over the neareft Bridge : CVfe;^ therefore dividing his gotten 
TreafureS;, v^hich a^mounted to above feVen hundred thoufand Duckets, 
amongfl: his Soldiers; carried Monte;^umas Son, and two Daughters, Prifoners 
with him, thou.c^h not without infinite danger and lofs y for the Ten ujl it an s^SlC- 
faird him on both fides, and falling iri alfo lipon his Rear, fpar'd not to kill 
M6nte:^u?nas own Children., In thislaft Eight the Service was fo hotj that Cor^ 
fe^ toft forty two Ho]:re3 a hundred and Rkj Spaniards, and twothouiand Auxi- 
liaries 5 and although gotten over the LakC;, they were ftill purfu'd by the 
Mexicans, who would then undoubtedly have made a general Slaughter, had 
not Corte:^ amufed the Enemies, by leaying in the Night great Fires in ieveral 
Places, hi^: fuppos'd Gamps, whilft he filently ftole away : Yet thtTeimftitans 
wotild have purfu'd the S'j^^wiWvhad they not wanted Provifions : But Cerfe^ 
fending his Treafure. before him,, through the Countrey Coba, to KeYa£rux, 
with a Convoy of five Horfe, and forty four Foot, were all cut off by the CoU 
Vaansy and feafted upon in a Thankfgiving Sacrifice. The fame misfortune be* 
fel twelve Spaniards in Tepeacu, which great City furrendred it felf up to Cor- 
te:^^ beinff affifted by a mighty Army of Tlaxcallans and others. But after all 
thefe Lofifes, he took Guaccachiulla^ and I^^uca, both fortified with ftrong Walls 
and Gates ; in which laft he burnt above a hundred Temples, built for Hu- 
mane Sacrifices. All the Countrey through which he thus ranfack'd, he call'd 
Neiif'Spain. 'From the City Ta^^uco, which he had newly taken, intending to 
befiege Tenujlitan, he digg'd through the Lakes a broad Trench, of above three 
Leagues in lenath, to bring up thirteen new Ships to Tenujlitan - and the 
neighboring People envying, that that City fhould not be conquered, as well 
as theirs, rais'd an Army of above a hundred and fifty thoufand Men, making 
Cor^^;^ their General : Himfelf incamped on one corner of the City^ appoint- 
ing the other two fides to be inveflcd by Gonfales Sandoyalo, and ^edro jilvarado-^ 
buttheBefieg'd refolutely broke out, and made a fierce Sally with five thou- 
fand Boats, fetting upon the thirteen Ships • but the great Guns made fuch ex- 
ecution and havock amongft them, that they retreated with great damage. 
Whoever were taken Prifoners in this Fight by the Spaniards, the Tlaxcallans^ 
being Commi/fion'd by Corte;^, feafi;ed upon. On the feventh day the City 
was taken, but not without great Slaughter, and the new King imprifon'd. 

After this mighty Conqueft, Corte^ refolv'd to difcover thofe Territories 
that lay Southward ; and whilft he was making all things ready for the Voy- 
age, he fent two Ships with an invaluable Treafure to Spain, who fearing 
to be taken by the Frtnch Pyrats, ran in at Tercera, where a miferable Accident ^ ^'^'"j!^^''^ occafl)-! 
hapned to the Seamen of the bigg«ft Ship, wherein were carried two Tygers^ 
which though taken young, and bred up amongft men^ yet had not fo quite 
forgotten their natural ferocity, but that one breaking loofe in the Night;, tore 
feven of them in pieces, hurting a far greater number, of which iome had the 
Brawnis of their Arms^, the Calve^s of their Legs, and fieOiy parts of theix 
Thighs bit out. 

Several Places in Jtnerica breed Tygers, that far exceed Lyons in fierce 

Tenuflltan 3 ck Me.^ko.. 


M 3 


. m 


' 4 

1 1 

A M E%^I C A. Chap. Ill; 

■ fo that wiierc any confiderable number of them frequents^ though the Soil be 
never io fruitful_, yet it is left deiolate and forfaken. But the Baboons that 
" Strange Battel with B^- ffcquent the Woods are more pleafant, and lefs dangerous. Teter ^ria^ relates^ 
That his whole Army incountred with thcfe Beads, which climb'd from one 
Tree to the other, fhrieking, and making very ftrange Gefticulations to thofe 
that were gone before, and gathering their Mouths and Hands full of Stones, 
w^hich they threw as exad and ilrongly as a Man. When one of thefe 
Baboons^, fliot by a Mufquct, fell to the Ground, the reft gave fuch a horrible 
fliriekp that the Woods reiounding with the noife, ftrook a terror into the Sj^a^ 
niardu Amongft feveral things that hapned in this Counter-fcuffie^ take this 
one : A Spajiiard taking aim with his Mufquet at an old Baboon^ which fate 
pearchM up in a Tree^ and being now jufl: ready to give Fire, the Baboon Sol^ 
dier, at the very inftant, to break the Shot;, taking a Stone out of his Mouth, 
threw it exactly into the Mans Mouth, with fuch force as beat out fome of his 
Teeth; with which fudden blow furpris'd, he loft his Mark - and the proud 
Foe, (hewing figns of Triumph, went his way. 

But whilft Corte^i ftaid in the Countrey of Tenujlitan (now call'd JMexico) 
Prancifcm Garajw fail'd out of the Haven o^ Jamaica ^ with eleven Ships, to the 
lUver 'P^??«c«*, there, according to the Command of the Emperor C/^^r/ej, to 
plant a Colony ; Whereupon he went afhore, oiftlering his Fleet to fail along 
in fight of Land : So wading through the River Montaltus, which glides be- 
tween high Mountains, he came to a MorafTy Ground;, in which he and they 
ofren funk almoft up to the Middle, and loft his way in a Thicket of young 
Trees ; yet at laft being come to the River TanncuSj he found feveral high 

Great defiruai«a: Walls, being the Ruines of Fortreffes, Temples, and Towers, deftroy'd by 
(jjrf^;^ J To that the City lay quite defolate. Twenty Leagues further;, upon 
the Banks of the fame River, Corte:^ha.6 in like manner fack'd and deftroy'd 
Ch'tglia^ a Town which before its burning reckoned above twenty thoufaml 
Houfes, befides many fair Palaces^ Walls, Towers, and Temples : Which Crm- 
clties and Spoil had bred fo great an Odium in the Inhabitants againft the 5^4w/- 

The usfonunatc Expe- avds^ that thev immediately fent an Army againft Garaius. who had only a few 
half-ftarv'd Men with him j yet he receiv a the Enemy twice in his Retreat 
to the new Colony 5f. Steven, rais'd out of Chi^lias Ruines ; but finding no 
Provifions where=ever he came, he judg'd it fitteft to fend his Horfe into the 
Countrey to Forage 5 which Corte;^ meeting, took Prifoners, under pretence 
that Garajus came to take Po{reflion,where he had neither Authority nor Right. 
Cor^e;^alfo made himfelf Mafter of Garajus Ship and Fleet, commanding him 
withal to appear in Tenujiita?i , which not knowing how to avoid, he obey'd : 
His People mean time ranging up and down without a Head or Commander, 
either died by Famine, or were murther'd and eaten by the Natives 5 for at one 
time the Americans made a general Feaft wath two hundred and fifty rofted Spa- 
niards : But their days of Triumph lafted not long j for Saiidoyalus, one of Cor* 
te:^his Prime Officers, fet with fo much fury upon thofe Cawiibals^tliSit he kill'd 
feveral thoufands of them, and burnt fixty Perfons of Prime Quality ,all Com- 
manders, in the fight of their Friends and Relations. But Garajus, whofe Son 
was married to Corte;^ his Daughter^ liv'd not long after the Wedding, which 
occafionM a murmur as if Corft'^ had poyfon'd him, to rid himfefFof a Partner 
in his Government ; for it had been generally obferv'd, that his Ambition fuf- 
fer'd no Equal. The Americans fell all down before him j all were Servants 
alike : The Court which he kept fwarm'd with Attendance^ on which heNJpent 


Spaniards roflcd. 

Cffyfe^his Ambition.' 

nap. III. • A M E%^I C A. 

yaft Sums of Money j yet his Incomes were able to bear fuch exec/five Dif* 
buiTements. He kept in conflant Pay five thoufand Soldiers^ and ieveral Ships 
ready rigg'd and prepared on all occafions, to hold in awe the enOav'd People, 
or elfe for the Difcovery of New Countreys ; Yet after all thefe extraordina- 
ly Charges defrayed, to fliew his Wealth and Greatnefs^, he caus'd a Piece of 
Cannon to be cafl all of maflie Gold : for the Kings which formerly acknow- 
ledged Mo7tte:^uma for their Sovereign, gave him a yearly Revenue, moil of 
which were valued to be worth twenty three Tun of Gold j for fo much the 
King of Tefcufcus, a {lately City, paid, whofe Houfes Plaifter'd with White- 
Lirae, feem'd afar off to be rather a Chalky Hill or Mountain, covered with 
Snow : Full as much did the King pay which reigned in Otumha, notwith- 
llanding he had received with his Chrijiiantty the Name of Ferdinand (jyte:^-^ yet 
others gave lefs : The King Guac'tnal^o, with his Mother, and fome Slaves, 
bringing Gold, came to prefent it to Corte;^-^ and entring the Palace, through 
a Guard of five hundred Horfe and four Hundred Foot, which were always 
ready Arm'd for fear of Infurredions, he fell down proflrate on the Ground. 
Thus all things even out=went whatever he could defire, hope for, or imagine: 
And 'Jharedo, one of his Commanders, being Tent Eaflwardly, brought great 
Treafures back with him, which the conquer'd Kings were forc'd to raife. 
But Fortune, who feldom continues her Favors long,at laft began to frowuj 
for Corte:^ having Tent an unvaluable Treafijrc of Gold and Pearls to the Em* 
peror Charles the Fifth, Floryn the French Pyrate met with and took it, which 
went fo much to his Heart , that for a confiderable time he fent no Advice to 
the Spanijh Court, which made them grow jealous of him, doubting that he 
intended to make himfelf King over ]>(eli?-Spain j and this Sufpicion was not a 
little augmented by his Enemies. 

In the Neck of thefe, followed another Misfortune 5 for Chrijlopher OlituSy 
fent out by Corte;^to difcover new Countreys, rebelling, took up Arms againft 
him, being then in the Haven Figuera^j five hundred Leagues beyond. Not=. 
withftandingthe5/?^«i^r^^, although amongft a new-conquer'd People, which 
without doubt long'd for Revenge, were not to take notice of their danger^ 
but to go on with undaunted Refolution ; whereupon Corte:^ drawing out a 
ftrong Party, march'd a long and troublefom way to meet Olitus, making great 
Slaughters where»ever he came. Francifco de la^ Cafas was commanded to go 
upon the fame Account by Sea, and arriving firfl, found him fetling his new 
Colony, which he nam'd Triumph de SanSia Crux ; and notwithllanding the 
Water wjth a Northerly Wind was very rough and boyfterous in the Haven 
Figueras (which the Spaniards call'd fo, becaufe they found Trees there, which 
growing at the Foot of the Mountains, bore a Fruit not unlike a Fig) yet they 
came to a prefent Engagement, wherein Cafas wording Olitus, having funk one 
of his Ships, flood out again to Sea - but furpriz'd by a violent Storm, and 
driven on the Shore, fell into OUtu^'s Hands,who had a little before alfo taken 
Egidius or Giles Gonfaks. Thefe two Prifoners confulted together how they 
might poyfon or murder Olitm, which fell out according to their defires, be- 
caufe the Servants of the Houfe where they lodg'd fided with them - fo taking 
hold of the firfl opportunity , as they were at Supper together, they flabb'd 
him with their Knives in feveral places 5 yet the Wounds were not fo great or 
mortal, but that he retained (Irength to efcape in the dark to a neighboring 
Hut ; but the AiTafTinates immediately fent out Meficngers,publifhing,Thathe 
who did notjknowincT where OlitMj was^immediately bring him to them,fhould 



His Misfortune*. 

A Plot of two Spati'Jh , 



a M EXI C J. 

Chap. Ill 

Mexicans Apparel,' 

receive condign punifliment ; which terrifying Olitus^ he difcover'd him/elf, 
and was immediately beheaded. 

During the time that the Spanijl? Officers had thefe Civil Broyls one againft 
another, LodoVick Tont£us,z Man well experienc'd in the Law, came from Spain 
to America^ there in the Emperors Kame to fettle all things in good order . ha- 
ving alfo particular Inftrudions, to fhew great kindnefs to Corte:^^ and to make 
him a Knight of the Order o^ St, James ^th2it by that means the Emperor might 
be the more eftecm'd for his Noble Subjea:s and Servants, amongfl: the Mext- 
cans, who are themfelves of a proud and ambitious fpirit, and chiefly the No* 
bility, which doth manifeftly appear by their Apparel;, more gorgeous than 
the meaner fort o^ Americans ; and though the Slaves go ftark naked (having 
onely a Cloth tied about their Privities ) and with a Bowe and Arrows walk 
before their Lords, yet the Better Sort go very coftly Habited j for about 
their Necks they wear Strings of Pearl j on their Heads, a Cap, from whence 
hang down two Scarfs, one longer than the other ; then a party-colour'd 
Cotton Coat covers their whole Bodies to their Knees, under which they wear 
a Veil: girt about their Middle. 

But at lafl, after all thefe Services^, Corte:?^ difagreeing with the Vice=Roy 
T>on Jntonio Mendo;?^a, being about that time fent over;, went male-contented 
into Spam, 

Sect. XL 
Diego Gotticrez his Expcdiuon. 


l<{no \^A,o.GQtticre^ being chofen Governor of l^ew G/f/;j^c,weigh'd Anchor 

from Qadt:^^ and failing to Homhre de 'Dios^u^on his Landing rLiOi^d with 

S/"ir^ "'^''^' ^''^ ^^"Vnt/v Qontreras^ in whofe Place he was fent to fucceed. Two Yea^s he fpent 

without effcaing any thing j but at lail coming to Agreement with Contrcras^ 

he took the Governorfliip upon him, having fiifc forewarned him not to de' 




Chap. HI. AMERICA. 93 

pend too much upon his Authority- for the Conntrey being full of Woods 
and Mountains, might hide many of his Enemies : But he not regarding the 
Advice, went a Journey from ^{eTb Granada, and having march'd fifty Leagues 
Eafterly, he crofs'd into the River Suere^ with fixty Spaniards^ and was prefent- 
ed by the Princes of the Countrey with as much Gold as amounted to feven 
thoufand Duckets. Here he fpent forae Weeks, effecting little ; but now all 
things growing fcarce, though he was very earned with the Natives for Provi- 
lions, yet he could gee little 5 which kind of Life the Soldiers difliking, and 
growincr weary of, went away in the Night to l^icaragua. Gottie re :^ thus left isforfakenofaU: 
alone, got into a Boat, with intent to follow them j and being jufl: put off 
from the Shore, was met by Captain (Barjanto, who brought new Forces and 
frefli Provilions with him : This wrought upon him to flay there. Not loiig 
s,kct Jl^ho}ifo de Ttfa went with twenty feven Men from IS^pmhre de T>ios to the 
fame River Sucre • but it being then very rough at the Entrance, he was necef- 
iitated to pafs on to a fmall uninhabited Ifle, where whilft he lay at an Anchor, 
the Weather began to grow worfe and worfe ^ the Gufts of Wind,mix'd with Great Teapcft,: 
Showfes of Rain, Thunder, and Lightning, feem'd to threaten a general De- 
ftrudion . for in the Ship tvjo Spaniards and one Moor were kill'd by the 
Lightning : In feventy two Days, the Sun did not fliine four Hours : At lall 
weighing Anchor, he fail'd over to the Main Land, where he faw nothing but 
vaft Mountains and WilderneiTes. Here for a time they liv'd upon Cockles 
found on the Shore, and wild Fruits in the Woods : At length coming to Gof« 
tiere:^, he fent him with his People in five Boats to fetch new Forces from Norn- 
hre de Dios. In his way thither he faw a Houfe built of Canes, covered with 
Palm-leaves, forty five Paces long, and built after an Oval fafliion : Round 
about it flood feveral lefler Hovels, all which making up a Village, the Spani- 
ards nam'd Francifco, becaufe they came thither on St. Francis Day. About half village fr«i«/jf#. 
way they met with the Lords of Sucre and Chiupimy going to attend Gottiere;^ , 
to whom being admitted, and fitting with him at Table, he gave them, as a 
Dainty, roiled Chickens and frefh Pork j but they gave it to their Servants,not stran-e manner of eatbg 
delighting in the tafte of fuch Victuals. Gottiere-^, by means of an Interpre- 
ter, told them concerning the Qhrifiian ^U^ion, at which they bow'd their 
Heads, without making any Anfwer : But how little mind they had to em- 
brace it, quickly appekr'd j for not long after, they fet their Villages on fire, 
and all the Provifions which they could not carry with them,they fpoird,and 
fo retiring, hid themfelves upon inacceiTible Mountains. Another Incentive 
leading them to this Fight, was, becaufe the Governor Qamachireny and his De- 
puty (notwithflanding he had given Gottierc:<^ as much Gold, when he came 
firll into the Countrey, as amounted to feven thoufand Duckets, as we mentis 
on'd before) yet was put in Priion by his Order, contrary to all Promifes : 
Nay, Gottierc:^ threatned to burn him (not regarding, that he had befides re« 
ceiv'd of him feveral Pieces of Gold, refemblmg all manner of Beafls, as Ty« 
gers, and others • and alfo Fiflies and Fowls curioufly wrought, which were 
valu'd at two Tun of Gold j yet this Prefent fircmed too little for him, 
whereupon bringing the Prifoner to a Chefl, he fwore that he would rod him unfamfied eovetouftefs 
by degrees, if in four days time he did not furnifli him with four times as 
much more Gold as that Chefl: would hold : Whereupon Chamachirens Servants 
went away to get the requir'd Gold ^ but he,through carelefnefs of the Watch, 
made his efcape in the Night, fo that Gottierc:::;^ loft his Booty. But the other 
Prifoners, though threatned to be torn afunder with Dogs, remained firm, 




Dangerous Mountains, 

Strange Huts. 

Valiant figbt. 

^ M E^l C A, Chap. 

difowning that they had any Gold ^ and among the red, one fpeakincr boldly 
to the S^am\l-> Officer faid , Ihat he flood ama:^d at his trcachemis dc aimers. H^hydtd he 
keejjhim Charnd a^ainfl Law and fromtfe, and often threaten' d him ivith death, hut yet 
Ti^ould not kill him , foy he , /aid he , had rather choofe to die^ than I'm fo mifernbk 
a life. 

Gottiere:^s Confcience troubling him , he would willingly have released the 
Indian, and the rather, becaufe he promised to procure a great ranfome of 
Gold J. but the inferior Commanders would not confent to it. After this they 
march'd fix days through great Wildernefles, and over high Mountains, find- 
ing no Footfteps of any People. Laftly, They came down a very dangerous 
and deep Mountain, where had not the Shrubs and jutting Stones ferv'd them 
to hold by, they had all broken their Necks. 

Fifteen Leagues, the hanging of this Mountain fpread it felf along a fweec 
River, on whofe oppofite Shore ftood ftrange Huts full of dead Tygers, Deers 
Heads, and Legs 5 here they ftaid two days to reft themfelves, where the Trees 
Mamei and the Ca^^^hi Plants yielded them good Food. 

Travelling forward, Gottiere;^ ask'd an Lidtan which was the neareft way to a 
Village, but he pretending not to know any near hand , had his Head imme- 
diately cut off. In like manner, and for the fame reafon the Indian Prince 
iliould alfo have been Executed, had not Gottiere:^ given order to the contrary- 
feeing his refolution , that with no lefs Patience than undaunted Courage, 
ftretch'd forth his Neck to the Executioners. Mean w^hile, their Provifions de- 
creafing, they fuifer'd extreme hunger ; infomuch, that fome fainted quite 
away. The Souldiers alfo rebelling againft Gottierc^ for Food, he commanded 
them to kill theif Dogs, and ftamp the Barks of Trees ; two days they tra- 
velled much difcontented in this manner , and at laft came to the entrance of 
a Wood, where they efpy'd an Mian ftanding behind a Tree, which on a fud- 
den ran away with incredible fwiftnefs : early the next morning , above four 
thoufand Indians came Marching againft the faint Spaniards^ making a terrible 
noife with Horns and Drums ,• they were all except their Princes Painted black 
and red 5 fome wore Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Collars of the 
fame about their Necks • the fight began very fiercely , by cafting abundance 
of Stones, and fhooting of Arrows, wherein, though Gottiere^ was at firft 
Wounded, yet after half an hour the Aflailants fled, but recruited witK frefii 
Forces renew'd the fight, breaking into their Ranks, and making fo ^reat 
flaughter amongft them w^ith Woodden Swords, and Palm-Tree Clubs, 
knocking down, and dealing fuch deadly Wounds, that of the Spaniards, three 
onely efcap'd , faving themfelves by flight , who two hours after , much 
amaz'd and terrify 'd, came to their referve, confifting onely of twenty four 
Men , which Jlphonfo de %t^a Commanded 5 the infulting Enemy at their 
Heels, waving over their Heads the Swoids, Shields, and Crofs^Bows 
which they had gotten from the flain Spaniards ; and fome withal cryincr in the 
Spanifl? Tongue, Come Chriftians, come^and take Gold, But de ^ifa, for all their pride, 
fet them going with fome Volleys of Shot j after this , efcaping innumerable 
other dangers, he came to ]>{omhre de Dios, without having effeded anv thin^ of 


Chap. Ill; 

A M E%J. C A. 


S E C T. X I. 

Th Expeditions of Peter Alvarado, Francifco and Gonzalvo Pizarro 

and Diego de Almagro. 

TN the City o( Manama j in ]>lcM> Spain, liv'd three eminent Spaniards ^caWd Fran- Fhc.rro\ ana Aimagro'^ 

■*- cifco Ti:?iarro, T>iegode Almagro, znd Ferditia?id de Luque.a^VxkRy which joynt- ''""^''^ -e^^poi-s- 

ly defign'd to difcover farther Southerly along the rich Gold and Pearl Coafl 

and infped the Southern Ocean. De Luque was to look to home-affairs j and 

Tizarro fee Sail firft with a Ship Man'd with one hundred and fourteen Men 

which Almagro followed with feventy more , yet both were valiantly repulsed 

by the ^eruVians j but although they returned the firft time with bad fuccefs 

yec they undertook their bufinefs once more , but with no better fortune - 

whereupon difcouraged, the undertaking feem'd to be totally laid afide, and 

the ^wm'crfw Vice- Roy, P^ter Je (?{jw forbad any to attempt a farther Difcover>" 
concerning ^eru. 

The former difficulties with this Edid eafily wrought upon Ti^^arro's men, 
all but twelve, to leave him^, for the reft went over with the Ship fitted out by 
^ios with fuccors to the Ifland Gallo , where Ti:^arro rcfided, having alfo fail'd 
in his fecond Expedition. But although he had made two bad Voyages, yet 
having an inclination to a third attempt, he went to Spain, defiring of the Em- 
peror to be Governor of feru , which he had difcover'd j for befides his Plea ' 
of Merits he had taken polTeffion of the Country twice by Landing there, in- | 
tended for the ufe of his Imperial Majefty J one of his Sea=men to that purpofe 
flourifliing his two-handed Sword over his Head , the gliftering of which 
Sword fo frighted the Natives, that none of them durft come near him. 

His requeft being confulted upon, was at laft granted, the Government of 
!P^rw being conferred upon him; but ^/;?M^ro took it very ill, that '?i;^4rro went 
to the Emperor on fuch a defign for himfelf; yet by the mediation of his 
Friends the difference was reconciled , then fi:^'trro fetting Sail with one hun^ 
dred and fifty Foot befides Horfe, and Landing at the Ifland Tuna^ at firft was i'/^me's fight on ?««-», 
courteoufly entertain'd ; bur the Spaniards by extravagant hunting and fearch^ 
ing every where their Houfes for Gold, and committing feveral other outrages^ 
incenfing, changed the humor of the Inhabitants fo much , that they fell upon 
them. In ftead of Enfigns, Standards, and Warlike Trophies, they ufed long 
Canes, at the end whereof were ty'd the Bones of their antient Hero's, honored 
by them after their death : But thefe Reliques fav'd not the Indians from 
flaughter, fo well as the coverts of a neighboring Wood. 

From this lile, lying three degrees Southward of the ^^.j-awot'^i^/, ^i:^arro pa.C- 
fed over to the Main Continent , where they were all in a great confufion^ upon 
the report of" the Spaniards cruelties committed in Tuna ; yet all the prepara- Comestos^emj 
tions of the Imiians to withftand, ftop'd not Tt:^arro from his intended courfe • 
for firft, having the iuccefs to mafter Tanipe:^, thence he made nothincr to march 
his Forces over the Kiver: Amhato , there burning a Temple Dedicated to the 
Sun. The Tortico ftood towards the Eaft, the rifing of their God, before which i'^r«*i4« Tempfe, 
hung a Curtain of their fine Cotton Scurf, within ftood the prefentations of 
two Golden Rims, fliaded with Black, and as many Drap-ons, before which ' ' 
the Fire never. went ouCj continually fupply'd with Offerings of burnc Inceofe^ 



Jlvar ado's Exploits 

I. I 


on the Pillars hung feveral Men flead^ their FleiL kept firm, and free from all 
Putrifaiftion , with the infufion of a (harp Juyce. 

Here yflma^ro coming to Ti:^arrG with frcih Forces, they made no little pene- 
tration into Teru^ fatisfying every where their thirll of Gold, and (laughtering 
the ToothlefsTo?/2^?^a, a people who having, offended their King^ had by his 
order the upper Teeth of the whole Nation beaten out. 

Teter Jlvarado informed concerning the Riches o^ Tern , and well knowing 
how to inlinuate with the Emperor in his fawning Letters, at laR: by his 
Friends fo prevail'd, that he alfo got leave to go thither j in purfuance of 
which, J?ino 1534. he Wcigh'd Anchor with fevcn Ships from Gmtlmala , a Ci- 
ty built by him between two Mountains. But Landing at Puerto Vie^o , and 
Marching Eailerly over Snowy Mountains , he Vv^as met by AlmagrOj between 
whom a bloody incounter was like to have happen'd , but after fome time, a 
Treaty being fet a Foot, they came to a Compofition on thefe Articles : That 
Jlyarado upon the receipt of a hundred thouiand Duckets, fliould leave his 
Men with /^W^ro, and depart from 'P^rw j with which fum, being inrich'd;, 
he foon after fitted out fourteen Sail-to difcover new Countreys to the Weft j 
but being bufie in his preparations , was fent for to Mexico by Don Antonio Men^ 
<io;^4 the Vice-Roy , to undertake a Voyage with him to the new»difcover'd 
Countr^y of 5/7'o//^, abounding in Gold and Saffron, according to the report 
of four Dominican Monks j and having already raised ieven hundred Men, news 
came to Mexico ^ that ^eter Zunica had received an overthrow by the Indians ofSa^ 
lifco -^ to whofe ailiftance Aharado March'd with all fpeed, and found the Indi- 
ans incamp'd on a high Mountain , fortifi'd with conjoyn'd Trees, and great 
Stones ty'd together with Rufhes , behind which they were fecure from Shot. 
The Spaniards climbing up the Mountain, approach'd their Works, when on a 
fudden the Defendants giving a great Shout ^ cut the Cords which held their 
ivicie Stratagem of Fortification topethcr , whereupon the Stones and Trees tumbled down with 

the Pt */: j.«>;.r D ' i 

fuch force, that they kill'd both Men and Horfe, few efcaping alive : In this 
wickanefsofaWomaii: con^'iCt Ahavado himfelf was loft. His Wife 'Beatrix Cuo'va made a ftately Fune- 
ral for her Husband, and caus'd her Houfe to be Painted black, refufing either 
to Eat or Drink for a fet time, yet notwithftanding,. all her pretence of for- 
row, file fo minded her bufinefs , that fhe took the Government of Guatimala 
into her own hands j but her Dominion lafted not long, for on the eighteenth 
o[ Scpemherj Anno \^ 4^1. happen'd a hideous Tempeft of Wind and Rain, mixt 
with continual Lightning, and horrible claps of Thunder, and what was 
G«<rM««/-» dcfacy'j by more terrible, was anfwer'd with roars and horrid bellowin^s from the ca- 

aflood. ' n 1 1 1 

verns of the Mountain, at whofe foot G«^tri?;w/^ ftood. About midnight the 
Mountain was delivered, whofe Birth was the irruption of an Inundating Ri^i 
ver, a precipitate torrent tumbling down full of Rocks and Stones , which 
carry'd all before it, fo that in few minutes Guatimala was utterly fwept away, 
not the leaft mark remaining, nor any left alive except ^h'ii;Wo's Baftard 
Daughter by an Indian j and in the adjacent Fields, fome few, and they maim'd, 
with broken Arms or Legs • after this utter deftru6tion, they re-built another 
Guatimala^ three Leagues more Eafterly. But though Aharado was loft in this 
Enterprizc, yec the Voyage to Siholla was not laid afide, for Francifco Vclafcjucs 
March'd thither with eight hundred Men , of which moft were Horfe, but 
found nought elfe but Snowy Mountains and barren Plains , infomuch, that 
l;iis Men and Elorfes were ftarv'd for want oFProvilion • wherefore he return'd 
without lucccls to Mexico, havincr onclv bLU'ii: Ionic Vili."?;^es, and had feveral 

Velafqites Journey. 

Rencounters with the Natives. 



-Cliap. Ill 



But AttahaUha 2ifmimFiincc , informed ot^ Ti^arro and Jhnjgro's coming, 
commanded them both to depart out of his Kingdom ; but they not regarding 
it march'd diredly to Caxamalc a, where Jttahaltha kept his Court, who again 
fent other Mcflengers to them with command to leave his Dominions. fi:^drro 
made anfwer, that he could not obey any Commands but thofe of his Mailer 
the Emperor, who had ordered him to fpeak with the King himfelf at his own 

Palace, A r I' ' c 

^ff^^^//^^ hearing that 'Pi;<4rro.refolv*d to come forward, lent hmi a pair oi 

Painted Shooes and Armlets, that he might put them on when he appeared be- 
fore his Throne : Captain Ferdinand Sotto march'd before with twenty Horfcpaf- 
img clofe on the Flank oUttahaBas hxmy ' The Indians amaz'd at the praun- 
cincr of their Horfes, retreated into their Fortifications, but were for their 
cowardize immediately flain by the King's Order. 

Sotto fent a Meilage to Jttahaltha, That the Spaniards defir'd peaceably to Treat 
with him, to which he received anfwer, That no Peace could be made, unlefs 
they reftorM the Gold and Silver to the Owners , which they had Plunder'd 
from them, and forfook his Territories ; which fo doing, they fliould have 
Audience the next day: Hereupon the B'i(ho^ Fmcent de ftlla Ftridt vvzs con^ 
duded into the Royal Palace, in the City o^ C^xamak a, and brought before ^^ 
tahaliha, who came thither in great State , with a Guard of twenty five thou- 
fand Men ; he was carry'd on the Shoulders of his prime Nobles in a Sedan, 
about which hung Garlands of Gold, and divers colour^ Feathers ; himfelf 
was cloth'd in a white loofe Veil, Without Sleeves • his Temples were bound 
with a red Ribbon , with a long TafTel on his left Cheek • on his Fore-head 
ftuck three curious Feathers 5 before him March'd three hundred of his Life= 
Guard, all in one Livery , who cleared the way through which the King was 
to pafs. The before-mention'd Bifhop carry'd in one Hand a Crofs, in the 
other a Book, difcourfing with the King to this effect • That God is the Trinity, 
Adam the firft SMan ■ Chnft ^orn of a Virgin , dyd on the Crofs ■ the Pope God's 
ftce^Gerent, li;ho according to the fotver he had from Beayen, had given Peru to the Ein:> 
peror Charles, ^ alfo all other Qountreys in America ; and if he Jhuld pro^^eohftinate, 
and reftfl, he mufl expeSi nothing lefs than utter mine. Jttahaltha reply'd, Tu.t heferVd 
Pachamaca, being the Creator of all things ^^ and next to him the Sun and Moon \ Bow 
glorious do they appear (faid he) in comparifon of a Crucifid God ! To make feace and 
Jlliance with mighty Princes, was the true Foundation of iVife Government : ^ut the Pope 
mufi needs befenfelefs, devofd of all reafon, and withal highly mpM, to g;m aivay Uat 
Tipos none of his own, viz. other mens IQngdoms, in ti^hich he ne^ver had the leaf: orfmalleft 
concern. Moreover, he would not defert that (Religion ^hich he and his Jnceftors had 
maintain dfo many Ages, and the rather, hecaufe there are no apparent or Jufficient Tefli- 
mony of the truth of Chriftiamtj. The latter claufe was thus anfwer'd, faying. 
This <Bookj I<^ng, -chichi hold in my hand , proves and declares all that you ^ue/lion, 
Attahaliha looking upon it, turn'd it over Leaf by Leaf, then look'd more in- 
tentively upon the Print, which done he clapM it to either Ear, and at lail as 
altogether unfatisfi'd, in difdainful manner threw it away. 

But Tt:^arro gaining time while the King and Bifhop thus difcours'd, had 
drawn his Men in Battel-Array , his fixty Horfe he divided into three Wings, 
Commanded by his three Brothers, Ferdinand, John, and Gon^alvo (Pi:^arro, left 
the Captains Sotto and ^aValca^ir in an Ambufcade ; ^eter de Canada march'd m 
the Van, and he himfelf in the main Body, leaving Sotto in the Rear, 

So foon as the Bifhop could acc^uaint them m what fcornful manner Atca^ 

"M " ballba 


JttaUIi'd'i meffagf «d 

His difccurfe with>a Spa' 
n'jh Biftiop^and his apparel,^ 


,£Z ''"' '"" '- ^'''''"' ^^^ '''f""'" ^'^ H°ly Book, The WordofGod, upon the sround • both Ar were Engaged, whilft their Trumpets founded, their Drums beat their 
Canons roar d, the Horles neigh'd, and the Dogs bark'd, they made a Vpeedy 
march up agamft the Walls oiTaxamalca, dreadful mixture of terrible 
noifes ftruck luch a Pannick fear into the hearts of the Ind.ans. that they all pre- 
lently broke in their flight crowding one another to death at the Gates of the 
. City, being too narrow to receive them, they themfelves made breaches 
in their own Walls to enter ; which opportunity the S^miards no ways negleft. 
ed but entering with them , ftot and kill'd all they could reach • their Do^s 
alfo having no little Ihare in the flaughter , whole companies ohnd,ans were 
trode under the Horfes feet , yet near Attabatiha, Chair was the greateft refift. 
ance for no fooner fell one of the Bearers, but immediately another fupply'd 
the place ; fo that the King was furrounded with heaps of his own flain Siib. 
,eas. towhomK^.^<,himfeIfCharg'dupfoclofe, that haying feiz'd him by 
h.s long Hair, he puli'd him out of his Throne, and having gotten him under 
^-,««*.,atop,if«r. ftim, lecurd immediately in Fetters ; whereupon all his Life-Guard forfoofc 
him and fled : But the lofs of the Battel, which was AttabaUhas utter ruine ' 
was laid upon <^unm„,.m, a Captain appointed to lie in Ambufli, fo to fall in 
the Rear of the Spaniards with five thoufand men, but was fo far from per- 
forming his Orders that terrifi'd at the uncouth noife of the Guns, and the 
reft, that he fled one hundred and fifty Leagues Southerly, before he ftopt, or 
«SS"!°™"-"- f"«^ ever look d behind him in fo long a flight. Mean while, AtubaUbl ^om. 
^ poiinded with r.^^rro for his Ranfom , V,^. to pay him as much Gold as thac 

i Hall in his Court ( where they made the Agreement} could hold to the top . 

they firft meafur'd the heighth , then the length , which was found to be Mt^ 
four Foot and the breadth nine : In purfuance of this compofition, Gold was 
brought th.ther from all places , according to MUbaBn's order ; yet he could 
not raife fo much as would perform his bargain, which made the Spaniards to 
grumble : But AttaiMa def.ring fome longer time to perform it, telling fi. 


Burns his Brother Gtntf-, 
f«r alive. 

Chap. III. AMERICA. ' 99 

;^arro^ that mod of the Gold was brought on Slaves Shoulders , a long and 
troubleioine way, of two hundred Leagues long, from the City CufcOy and if 
this would not fatisfie, Ti^^ano might fend fome of his own people thither, to 
inform him, that he need not fear the leaft danger, as long as he was Priibner 
with his Wife and Children. , - , . 

The two Captains, SottOy 2nd ^eter deliBaro being fent away to that purpofe,' 
met after fome days Journey with one of^ttabaliha's Leaders, who was bring- 
ing the King's Brother Cuafcar with a Party, Prifoner to Gx^md/c^. 

Guafcar had now a fair opportunity to crave afliftance of the Spaniards , tel* 
ling them, that he and^^f^^^/j^^ were the Sons of Gwrfjw^cdV^, fo that the King- 
dom was to be divided betwixt both. But Attahaliha had by force made himfelf 
Mafterofall, whereas he being the youngeft, ought to be fatisfi'd with, that 
fhare which Guafcar ^ being the eldeft, would affign him^ for the right of Inhe- 
ritance belonged juftly= to him, and yet he was carryM away bound to flaugh- 
ter : But if '?/;^^rro would dojuftice in delivering him out of his Brothers 
Bloody Hands, he would raife him thrice as much Gold 2is Attahaliha had pro» 
niis'd : To which purpofe he delirMSorto and^^ro to put off their Journey to 
Cufco ; which they not daring to do, went on their way, and Guafcar defcend* 
ing the Valley Sucfuhuanay was burnt alive by Jttahaliha's Soldiers. 

Mean w^hile, Almagro c^vao, with frefli Forces to Taxamalcaj which occafion^d 
no fmall trouble in Tl^arro, who was onely thirfty after Gold : On the other 
fide, Ahnagro as greedy, grew jealous that Ti^arro lliould keep the promised 
Hall full of Gold for himlelf, and he fhould have no fhare, becaufe Attahaliha 
was his Prifoner • therefore he earneftly defir'd that Attahaliha might privately 
be made av/ay, and that the Booty might be divided to one as well as the 

'Pi;<rfrro to prevent all inconveniencies that might happen from his diflent- 
ing, gave in the prefence of the King to every private Soldier a thoufand 
Duckets in Gold , and fix thoufand five hundred twenty five Silver Crowns « 
the inferior Officers received four and thirty thoufand Crowns, and the others 
fixty thou fan d\j the fifth part 6f the Booty he referv'd for the Emperdr :> And 
notwithftanding Attahaliha performed his promife in filling the Hall full of 
Gold, yet he had the fentence of Death pronounc'd againfl him j neither 
would his cxcufe of Innocency ferve, or his Requefts to be fent to Spain^ there 
to clear himfelf before the Emperor • but fighing, and lamenting his misfor- 
tunes, was ty'd to a Poll:, and Strangled in the prefence oi^izarro. For whole ^»«^'»^'^« firangied. 
Death, though a Heathen.^ Divine Vengeance purfifd thefe cruel and unjuft Ar- 
bitrators that thus made their Will a Law, none of them dying a natural 

Moreover it was obferv'd , that a few days before this Execution a blazing 
Star appeared, which ^fr^/'^Ba feeing, prefagingfadly of himfelf faid. That a 
great Trince would die in a fl)ort time ; but 'Ti:^arro's chief pretences for the Kings 
juft fuffering was, that he had cruelly murder'd his Brother Guafcar : Btic this 
was a meet blind, for that that incensM them againft Jttahaliha, was, that he 
knowing where the unvaluable treafure lay, which Guafcar had buryM, would 
not difcover it to them. 

Attahaliha, before his death, defir'd that he might be buryM in the Territory 
Quito, by his Father GuaynacaVa , whom the ^eruVtans^ot his great Juftice and 
Prudence in Government, believed that he would arife, and fettle the World fo 
troubled and full of diforder in peace and quiet^ : The Corps was accordingly 

N 2 carry'd 


An incredible fum ot Mo- 
rey given to the Soldier I. ^ 


Cba'Cc i 







J M E T^I C A 

canya thither in great State after their manner, attended by his Brother, 
XA/hom Illefc^ (^minagui which ran from Jttabaliha in the Battel, where he lay 
in ambudi when he might have done them good fervice ; in the way to his en- 
tertainment, received with all (Lews of forrow • but when they were feafted 
to excefs, buryM in fleep and Wine, he Maffacred and flea'd Illcjca^ the Kings 
Brother 'alive, and made a Taber of his Skin. Whilft Attahalihas Funeral 
P..n. puts ^.i...k was thus bloodily folemniz'd , his General Qui^qur^ raised a great Army, 
"''" which TtKftrro encountring after a valiant refiftance , totally routed; then 

Andtak«c«/.. marching vidorioufly to Cu/co, he faw great Fires in the City, and the Citizens 

fighting with the Spaniards, fent before ; but the Horfe breakmg in upon 
them, moil of them fled the next morning to the Mountains : Thus the %- 
mw/became Mafters of the City, where they inflided the moft cruel tortures 
on all Sexes, by that means to force them to difcover, if they knew of any hid- 
den Treafures, being not fatisfiM with what they found there, although they 
unv.iuabi. had gotten a greater Treafure in Cu/co than that that they had extorted from 
JttabaUha before : Nay, they gave thofe that were murtherM for Food to their 
Dogs : Among the reft,Dii^f ^ Sala^ar having a very fierce Dog callM ^e:^eml, 
had^lfo an old Indian Woman his Prifoner, to whom he gave a Letter to deli* 
ver to the General 'Pi^^rro ; the Woman had not gone many Paces before flie 
was fet upon by ^e:^ernl, whom Sala^ar let ioofe, that he might delight himfelf 
in feeing the Dog tear the poor old Woman ; but (lie obferving him come run- 
ing at her with fo great fiercenefs, fell down upon her Knees,and holding forth 
Remarkable paffage of a the Lcttcr, cry^d, Good Mj Lovd, good My Lovd Dog , 1 mufi carry this Letter to Gene- 
°^- r.?/Pizarro, whereupon the furious Curr having more compaffion than the 

Spaniard, ftood ftill a little , and at lafl lifted up his Leg in a fcornful manner, 
Urin d upon her, and rcturnM fatisfi'd ; at which fportive behavior of the Cur 
^nd the Chrone, Sak:^ar laughing, was fo well pleased, that he gave the Woman 

^/..,.'s unhappy jouv. Aftei Cufco had been fufficiently Plundered, ^iKcirro made Ahnagro Governor 
thereof with the Territories belonging to it, and built near the River Lima a 
Town,' which they callM Us %eyes. Mean while, Ahnagro received Letters 
PatentVrom the Emperor , in which he was nominated Uarpml of fm^ ■ en* 
couragM by that honor , he took a great defign in hand , for the feruyians had 
reported, that the Golden Chili lay to the South ; and Ahnagro being encouragM, 
and alMed by ?t;Karro, March'd inqueft thereof with two Troops of Horfe, and 
five hundred Foot : But mean while there happened fo great Rains , and fuch 
foul Weather , that the Ways were almoft unpafTable , fo that the Expedition 
grew very troubleiomc ; yet however he went on, in which hard March he loft 

both Horfe and Men. 

Whilft Ahnagro was upon this undertaking, Francifco <?i^nrro receiv d Letters 

• Patent from the Emperor, in which he was IntitulM Duke of fern , but with a 

Sdyo for the honor before given to Jhnagro • yet thefe balanc'd honors bred 

great diffention between the Duke and Marflial , which Mango Inga another 

of Attahahbas Brothers obferving , laid hold of the opportunity , and fetting 

Ma.,oi.,auk.scufii. upon the Spanifl? Garrifon in Cufco, took the City. Whereupon fi^arro imme- 

diately fent his Horfe thither, under the Command oUl^honfo Aharado, and 

Gomes de Todo^^a , againft whom the Indians fought very valiantly, infomuch, 

that the Battel was a long time doubtful ; yet at laft the Spaniards got a bloody 

Viaory and regained Cufco - hither after iome time, Ahnagro returning with ill 

fuccefs, 'having effeded nothing, was kept out by Ferdinand fi^arro, under pre- 

^ . tcnce 


King's Town. 

..nap. Hi* A M E %^l C A. . i^i 

tencc that lie cduld not open the Gate without Order trom his Brother the Contea between itmn^ 
Duke. Jlmagro much offended thereat , yet faying little , was Co privately lee ^ " 
into the City, that he furpriz'd the Governor FenUiia?id ^i^arro, and his Brother 
Gonfahoy with ^Iphonfo Jlvarado Prifoners, fwearing that he would not reft be- 
fore he had rooted all the ft^arros out oi^eru. But whilft he was palTing the 
intended Sentence of Death upon them, (/ow/k/Vo and ^/v^r^iio broke Prifon^ 
and got away to the Duke, who troubled for his Brother Ferdinand t\\ttt in cu- 
ftody, and in danger of his life, came to Compofition ; whereupon Ferdinand 
was ^Ifo released : But this wasnofooner done, and he had got his Brother fafe 
there p but the Duke regarding nothing lefs than the keeping of the new-made 
Peace, fent to Ahnagro , that the Emperor having given him the prime Com- 
mand over ^eru , he required him to leave Cufco , or elfe he would force him. 
Almagro fent anfwer_, That if he could fee the Emperor's Hand, he would im- 
mediately obey, otherwife not ; whereupon both Parties prepared for War, ^.. 
wherein they had many fliarp bickerings in a fliort time : But Almagro being j/w«^re%angid- 
too weak fell into the Dukes hands, who ordered him to be ftrangled in the 
Gaol, and his body afterwards to be drawn to the Market-place, and there 
publickly Beheaded. 

Ferdinand Tii^arro being not long after fent to Spain, with the fifths of the 
gotten Treafure for the Emperor, was Imprifon'd in the Caftle Motto j for Ai- 
?w^^ro's Death : But what further happened to him there, or became of him^ ■ 

hath never been Recorded by any Pen. 

But younc; Almagro, inftigated by his Guardian John^da. refolving , tb rerdimndpizKtmntytv 

t Jiri-T-ii-ki 1 /-I obtains his liberty, 

be reveng d tor his Fathers Death j to that purpofe he went to Los ^yesy 
whereby thchelpoffome hir'd Male^contents, he defign'd to Murder the Duke Yom^Aim^'sro&abstUc 
upon St. Johns day, in the Church at high Service : But this bufinefs was not 
fo clofely carry'd, but the Duke had fome inkling thereof, who therefore 
ftay'd at home, and went not to Mafs that day. The Confpirators doubt- 
ing the event, hearing that their Plot was difcovcr'd, though defeated in their 
purpofe, yet not fail'd in their Courage , ran at noon day to the Palace, cry- 
i"§> ^^^ ^^^ Tyrant y kill the Trayior, But Ti^arro being fo much forewarn'd, had 
lock'd up the Gates, and arm'd himfelf, which when they could not enter, yec 
they went back through the City, and waving a bloody Sword, cry'd, fi;^arro 
is Jlain; this being believ'd, above two hundred private Friends to Almagro ap* 
pear'd, who all ran to the Palace, crouding about the Gates : And Fmnctfco de 
Chares coming out at a private Door, hoping to pacifie the Mutineers, was 
immediately Stab'd j but they rufliing in the way he came , found fome flout 
oppofition , for fevcn Halberdiers of his Guard fought till they were ail kill'd 
in the Dukes prefence j but ^i;^arro was taken alive, and being brought before 
Almagro, he Savagely Butcher'd him with his own hands j which done, they 
ran crying along the Streets, Long live the Emperor, and Didacus Almagro. 

But after all this, ^i^arro's Party joyning together, valiantly withftood the ^'^'' 
Confpirators , fo that a confiderable number were flain on both fides, yet Al- 
magro at laft getting the better, confifcated the Goods of all thofe that were 
againil him j and now every one fhew'd him the refped of Chief Governor, 
till the Emperor fhould either fettle him, or fend another. 

From hence Marching to Cn[co, he had like to have paid for all, but preven- 
ted by private intelligence thereof ; which happened thus, 

G arcias Alvarado ^nd Chrijlopher Sotello were Joynt- Governors of C^/co ^ but 
quarrelling, and coming to Blom^s in like manner , Sotello vv^as llain : This 

- N ^^ _ ; Almagi'Q 

Great flaisgHter in Xw 

Cajlrts. Cruelty.^ 

Vela Vice-Roy gf Peru. 

Strange Tranfafcions be- JlmctgYO took^itxj Hainoufly, as being his intimace Friend, givina forth threat- 

twtm Alvar ado , Sadie, . , ^ ^ 1-l\./ 1 • r ^iri-^ t. 

znd Aimagro. niHg Speechcs ot Kevenge 5 which Jivar ado inform d or, and intending fome 

way or other to prevent all Dangers, and fave himfelf, he invited Almagro to a 
Feail^ but privately refolving to make it a Bloody Banquet, by his Death at 
the Table. Of this he being informed, as we mentioned before, flaid at home^ 
and privately fent for fome Soldiers that had belonged to Sotcllo , fendin*-^ 
word that he was indifpos'd : Jharado, under a fhew of Kindnefs, goes to 
Ahmgro^ hoping to perfwade him to come to his prepar'd Treat j bur fo foon 
as he v\7as entered the Hall, they clapped to the Gate, and the Soldiers falling 
upon Jharadoj flew him : But foon after Almagro was call'd in queftion, and 
not long enjoy 'd this his ufurp'd Authority ,. for the Emperor Charles fendingr 
the Learned Vacca de Cafiro with full Authority to feru, to fettle that diflurb'd 
Kingdom, Almagro now us'd to Govern^, had no Ears to become a Subjedt; 
therefore he march'd with an Army to meet Cajlro^ by whom, after a bloody 

^Sf '''''"'''^"'"'^ f ig^^. ^ei"g t)eaten and put to flight, having four rhoufand Men, he fell into 
the Vidiors Hands near Cufco, where he was treated very feverely ; for (hortly 
after he was condemned to be Beheaded ; others were fl:rangled, and fome 
torn in pieces with Horfes. 

Not long after this great Execution, ^lafco Numie;^ Vela came to ^eru^ and 
being appointed Vice-Roy, had four Councellors aflign'd him, with whom 
he was to confult in all Affairs 5 and efpecially to fet the Indians at liberty, 
which till then had fuffer'd much mifery under the Spanijh Tyranny : To 
perform which, the Emperor had given an Order under his Great Seal, which 
was to be publifli'd and proclaimed in all Places. Vela at his arrival faithfully 
performed all his Commands, feiz'd upon Vacca de Caftro, becaufe he had Exe- 
cuted Almagro without any Examination or Tryal ; yet by this means he got 
the hatred of all, fo that mofl: of the Spaniards chofe Confaho fi^arro for their 
Chief, whereby Affairs grew daily more and more out of Order. ISlunne^ 
Vela laid all the blame thereof upon Wtlltam Xuare;^ Governor of Lima, whom 
he fent for in the Night, and corrediing over-feverely,gave him alfo two mor- 
tal Wounds, of which he prefently died : The Body was in the Morning 
drawn along the Streets, which caused fo great a murmuring amongfl: the In- 
habitants, that foon after they fecm'd to make a general Infurredion : Where- 
; fore Nu?ine:^ Vela fearing the worfl:, refolv'd to convey himfelf from thence in^ 

cogniio, and pafs to Truxdlo : But his four Councellors advis'd him to the con- 
trary . yet he took his own way, caufing all his Treafure to be fent aboard ; 
and having made ready his Horfes to depart, the Common People in a tumul- 
tuous manner fet upon the Palace, catching, fnatching up, and carrying away 

jstakenand putin p^ all the Silver they could find, and meeting the Vice-Roy, feiz'd,and thrufl: him 
into a Dungeon ; which done, they fell at variance amongfl: themfelves ; for 
fome would have him executed, but others infifted to have him fent Prifoncr 
to Spain • which laft being the more moderate,getting the upper H^LndjVela was 
put aboard, and committed to the cuftodyofi)/J/szc/^^/"p4A-f;^,who Anchoring in 
the Mouth of the River Tombe:^ (kindnefs growing betwixt them) released the 
Vice:=Roy his Prifoner, and fet him afliore, who not long after got fome For. 
ccs together. 

Meanwhile Ti:^arro was every where acknowledg'd for Supreme Governor, 
who having Intelligence of the Vice=Roys Defign, fent Franctfco CarVayales thi. 
ther, between whom and Vela was a (harp Encounter j but at lafl: being worfl:- 
ed, and retaken by CarVayales^ he was foon after executed, and his Head plac'd 
on a Pole near the Gallows. Xhe 

Murders Xuarez. 

Is Beheaded. 

fchap.HL ^ . <iA M E K 1 C J}. 

The Emperor Qharles turmoilM with Wars at home, Hiw no likciyhcod to 
fettle the confusM Affairs of 'Pctm 5 yet at lad he thought it convenient to fend 
one ^iiUr Gajca thither, an Eccleliaftick, of a llibtile and ingenious Wit, who 
landing Anno 1546. in Limay with no other Title than Chief Councellor to the Em» 
peror, took c^uite another courfe than Kt/^/, perfwading them all, that Affairs 
iliould be fetled in order^, according to their own defires, and former Mifcar- 
riages never be remembred, being utterly deleted by an Ad of Oblivion. 

The News of this General Pardon fpreading it lelf far and near, wrought 
a great change J for 'Pi;^4rro's Intimates, and thofe nearefl of Concern, fhrunk 
daily from him j which Gafca obferving, march'd againfl him j and that they 
might make the more hade, they loaded feveral ^eru'piansychs.mdjWith their 
Arms, whom when they lagged, they fwitch'd and whipped before them. And 
now both Armies being met, and difcharging their Cannons at one another, 
with confiderable lofs to each fide, whole Regiments came running over to 
Gafca 5 fo that fi^^arro being quite forfaken, yielded himfelf to the mercy of 
the Conqueror, who accusM him of High Treafon, and caus'd him to be 
ftrangled in a Dungeon, and fixM his Head on a Marble Pillar in Lima^ envi^ 
ron'd with Iron Rails, and infcrib'd with a brief Account of all his Offences,, 
But Gafca not thus fatisfied, hang'd up feveral Commanders, and whipping and 
ftigmatizing others , condemn'd them after to the Gallies : But his greateft 
fpight was againfl the Field-Marflial Carvayales-, a Perfon of the Age of four- 
fcore years, whom tying to a Horfes Tail, he caus'd a whole Hour to be 
drawn up and down the Market-place, fcorn'd and derided of all People j 
which done, he was quartered alive. 

Not long after Gafca furrendred the Command of Tern to the Learned Qiun^ 
ca, and carried an unvaluable Treafure to Germany, for the Emperor Charles, 
who gave him in requital for his faithful Service, the Bifhoprick of Vakntia, 



Gafcai murderous Ex- 


Qottjalvts Pizarre flran» 


Cruelty us'd on Car va^- 

Sect. XII. 
The Expeditions of John Stade, and Nicholas Durando Villegagnon. 

A Bout the fame time that Gafca arrived in Spain John Stade had the Command 
■^ ^ over afmall Fort rais'd of Stone and Earth, on the Ifland Maro, adjacent 
to Brafile, becaufe the Salvage People of Tupin Imha fail'd twice a year from 
the Countrey of (Brikiokaj to Maro, at the time when the Flznt Jbbati was ripe, 
of which they made the Liquor that they generally drink at their Humane 
Banquets : They alfo landed on Maro about the iBr^m-Fifhing. This !Bratti 
is a Fifli of a very delicious tafte, either caught in Nets, or fhot by the Tupin 
Imha, and carried to their feveral Habitations. Againft thefe People Stade kept 
a continual Guard, when Heliodorus Heffe, Son to Eohanm Heffe, the famous 
Latin Poet in Germany, came to vifit him. Stade to entertain his Guefl the bet- 
ter, went into the Woods to hunt for Venifon, where he was taken by the Tupin 
Imha, of which the King march'd in the Rear with a great Palm-Tree Club, 
and carried him towards the Sea fide, that he, with others that waited on the 
Shore, might make up a I{_awewipepicke (that is, A Feaft of ^fied Men) But be- 
caufe Stadehtm^ a German of a large Body, well-skinn'd, young, plump and 
fat, they all concluded to fpare this Dainty, and carry him alive to 'Bnkioka^ 
that with fucha Banquet they might highly carefs their Wives : But the Jour- 
ney being lonfy, and a jud melancholy poileffinghim with fear, and the terror 

. '-^ " : of 


His firange Entertain- 
ment amonglt them. 


Purandii Expedition. 

A M E'R^l C J. Chap. HI: 

of certain death, and to be Food for fuch ravenous Catinihals, fo macerated and 
confum'd him, that he was almoft dwindled away to Skin and Bone j where^ 
upon thinking him thus lean to make but few iavory Morfels, they chang'd 
their rcfolutions^ and growing better acquainted , he having iearn'd their 
Tongue, and being able to difcourfe with them, they lik'd his company fo 
well, that they let him live amongfl: them. Nine years Stade had been a Slave 
amongft thefe Man-eaters, when the French coming thither, bought him for a 
few TrifleSj and carried him to IS^ormandy, whsre landing Anno 1555. he went 
from thence to Hamburgh^ being his Native Countrey. 

ISlkholcis Durande a Frenchman fet Sail from Ha'Vre de Grace ^ at the fame time 
when Stade came thither. This Dura?ide having loft a Caftle in ^ritta'm^ to the 
great prejudice of the French, out of a pretence of advancing their Affairs, and 
to fill up their almoft exhaufted Treafury, reported. That the S^mnij}) and ^or- 
tuguefe Forces were driven out o^ India ^ where they had gathered fo much 
Wealth 5 and it would certainly redound to the Honor and Profit of France, 
if they could become Matters of the Gold and Silver Mines. King Henry the 
Second approving of the Propofal, and the more becaufe the Admiral Gajper 
Qoligni was alfi^ very earneft, looking upon it as a fafe Retreat for the Prote- 
ftants, at that time cruelly perfecuted : and Durande, fenfible of the Admirals 
thoughts, privately informed him. That in his American Defign he chiefly aiai'd 
to plant a True Church of God in America, where the Profeffors might enjoy 
themfelves peaceably. This Report being Ipread amongft thofe that called 
thcmihlvcs Trotejlants, (fled from 5w;^er/dw^ in great numbers to Fr^wce) made 
many of them venture upon the Defign 5 who having fitted themfelves, and 
fetting Tail with three Ships, after fome time arrived on the Coaft o^ Brafik, 
and landed on the %Qck-Ifland, in the Haven Januario : Here Durande built feve- 
ral Watch-houfes, and the Fort Coligni, which he fortified with a confiderable 
number of Guns : Not long after he writ to John Cahin, That he would pleafc 
to furnifli this new Plantation in !BraJile with good and able Teachers of the 
Gofpcl J which Requeft being immediately taken into ferious confideration by 
the Clafles, one Philip Corguikray, a Gentleman near Geneya, fct Sail out of the 
Haven Honfleurs, with three Ships, freighted with fome Provifions, feveral Per- 
fons of divers Trades, and two Minifters, Teter (^cher, and William Chartier : 

Diflantioninthenewco- But he had fcarcc xnndc Africa, when they began to have a fcarcity of Vi<^uals^ 
wherefore they turn'd their Defign of fetling theGofpel in America, toPyracy, 
where they made finall fi:ruple or difference, whether Friends or FoeS;, but 
made Prize of all they could light upon, though indeed their Minifters both 
preach'dand perfwaded the contrary, amongft whom a Controverfie happen-^ 
ing, put other Bufinefs into their Heads 5 for one John Cointak, formerly a ^a» 
rifian Sorhonijl, was alfo amongft thofe that removed from G^wo^, who pretend- 
ed that Coligni had promis'd him a Minifters place, fo foon as he landed at ^ra^ 
file 5 h\M^cher and Chartier, not fatisfied that there was any fuchPromife, and 
confequently thinking themfelves not obliged by his bare Affertion, told him,' 
That themfelves being able, under God, to perform the Work, they needed no 
fuch Coadjutor : This bred fo great a Rancor between them, that Coiwf^^ ac - 

wickednefsofco/MMta- cus'd them for teaching falfe Do(5trine, and chiefly that they did not mix the 

giinll the Minifters. *^ i-t t ir»i 

Wme at their Sacraments with Water, which Father Clemens had ftrid:ly com- 
manded. Durande, being prevailed on by the Cardinal of Lorein, joyn'd with 
Cointak, and thereupon lb fharply perfecuted the Trotejlafits^ that he ftarv'd fe- 
veral of them, which otlxfs to efcape fled to the 'BrafdiaKs : Nay. he took John 



Chap. III. A M E%1 C A, 105 

Dw Sordell, Matthias Venneil, and feter bourdon, out of their Sick-Beds, and ty- ^J^][''^J^fj^''''''' '^''' 
ino- their Hands and Feet, threw them headlong from a Rock into the Sea : 
Soon after which, the bloody Perfecutor returned with ill fuccefs to France ^ 
where he wrote a Book againfl the Reformed Religion^but all the Honor which 
he gain d was,that all Parties on both fides accounted him a diftraaed Perfon. 

Sect. XIIL 
The Expeditions of John Ribald^, Renatus Laudonier, and Gurgie. 

Florida being upon the Continent o^ America j and fo calFd by John Tontdus, ^^^J^yida unhappily aifco- 
who landed there upon (pahn^Sundajjthough Sehaflian Gaboto a Venetian, im- 
ployM by Henry the Seventh King o^ England, landed there before, may well be 
termM the Europeans bloody Stage, Tont^us being flain here : But Ferdinand Sotto 
exercisM againft the Inhabitants inhumane Cruelty five years together ; yet at . 
lad died of a deep difcontent, becaufe he could not reach his Aims, having 
condemned fo many Floridans fruitlefly to dig for Gold in the Mines. However, 
fince that, Julian Sumanm and feter Jhumada undertook the Work an^w , but 
with the like bad Succefs. J}ino 1545. one Lodowick Cancello, a Dominic an, thought 
to effed: great things with four of his Aflociates 5 but landing on Florida, was 
deflroyM by the Natives. But Gafper Coligni the Marilial, neither difcourag'd 
.by thefe miferable Proceedings, nor the former Treachery of Durande, pre- 
par'd for a new Expedition thither ; and accordingly John ^bald was fitted ii/^^/Zs Voyage; 
with two Ships from Viep , at the Charge of Qharles the Ninth King of 
France , wherewith having fail'd thirty Degrees Northern Latitude , he 
came before the Promontory of Francifco, where he ran up into the Mouth of 
a wide River, to which he gave the denomination of Dolphin, upon whofe 
Banks were whole Mulberry-Woods, which nouriflfd Silk- Worms in ftrange 
abundance. From hence he failed by the Wohes Head (a Point fo call'd, becaufe 
great numbers of Wolves breed there) and leaving the (jdar^'ljland, landed on 
Florida , where he built a Triangular Fort, and having furnifh'd it with Men, 
Guns, and Provifions, fail'd back for more Supplies to France j but coming thi- 
ther, found all things in diforder, occafionM by a War amongft thcmfelves ; 
fo that the Fm2c/. which guarded and dwelt in the Fort, waited in vain for Re. ■,,'^:^^::^'''' ''''''"''' 
lief, and their Provifions growmg fcant, thought it fitted and their beft way 
to build a Veflel, and fail from thence j which having effeaed, and being 
gone about the third part of their Voyage there hapned fuch a Calm for twen- 
ty Days, that they made not the leaft way, which drove them to fo great extre- 
mity, their Provifions being fpent, that they drank their own Urine, and fed , 
upon their old Shoes, which alfo in a ftiort time failing, they agreed amongft 
thcmfelves to kill and eat one of their Sea-men, call'd Henry Lacher, on whofe ui.heard-of Hunger: 
Flefh they liv'd fome days • but being again driven to the greateft want ima» 
ginable, in this extremity of Defparation, their Condition being altogether 
hopelefs, an £?za/i|?? Frigat difcovering them, and obferving by their manner of 
Sailing that they were in fome great want, drawing near,fent their Long-boat 
aboard, and found them fo weak, that they were not able to handle their 
Tack 5 whereupon generoufly taking pity of them, they relieved them, and 
conduded them to the Coaft of England, and then brought them to Queen Eli- 
^aheth, who had formerly defign'd to rig a Fleet for Florida, 

Mean while, no News having been heard of the foremention'd French Plan- 
' '"■' ■ tation 


Laadoniir'i, Vovaje, 


Chap. III. 

the f/f«f/; Fleet. 


ration in ^raftle, and Colmns Difference with the King being decided, he prc- 
vail'd To muchjthat %enatus Laudomer ([\o\AA with three Ships fail to relieve the 
Garriion in the late deferted Fort. Laudonier landing in KoVa Frmciuj found a 
Stone with a Fmich Infcription, plac'd on the Shore by ^ilbald,2ind hung full of 
Laurel Garlands: Then he vifited the King Satunona^ whofe Son Atorcus had fc- 
veral Children by his own Mother^ according to a Salvage Cuftom obferv'd in 
that Countrey. Whilil: they flay'd here, a Fiery Meteor appear'd in the Sky^with 
fuch fervor,that fome Rivers boyTd with the heat of it^and the Fifli parboyl'd, 
died ; nay more, it fcorch'd all the Plants far and near : The Natives afciib'd 
this Plague to the French Cannons, by which means they Rood in great fear 
of the French , who might have done great things had not they differed 
amongfl: themfelves ; For a Sea-man nam'd ^'^thd Tatracon^ pretendina to 
have skill in T^ecroinancy^ would undertake to fhew the Places where the Gold 
and Silver Mines were, which the reft of the Sea-men believing, rebelled 
againft Laudonier^ and though fick, imprifon'd him, forcing him to fign a Wri- 
ting to this effea, That the two Ships, of which the Rebels made Vajfar and 
Trincant Commanders, fhould with his leave and permittance fail to New Sba'm 
for Provifions. Whilft they were preparing for their Voyage, ^^ptferrir ha- 
ving been fent to the King lif/;w,came back with many rich Prefents,and with- 
al brought Information of the Gold and Silver Mynts J^nJatka-^ but Fa/far and 
Irincant taking no notice thereof, fet forth, and took a Spanifb Carvel, richly- 
laden before Havana^ whofe Commander they agreed to releafe on the pay- 
ment of a great Ranfon ; but the Mafters Son being lent afhore to fetch the t 
Money which they had agreed for,in ftead thereof,made his Fathers Mifchance * 
known ; whereupon two great Frigats and a Galley were the next Morning 
very early fent to attaque the French, between whom was a fharp Encounter • M 
but in a fhort time the two Pyrats were funk, and the Prifoners fold for Slaves ■ 
excepting a few that efcap'd in their Long-boat. 

In this interim Landonier receiving no Supply from France, was brought to 
great extremity ; for the Rebels had carried great part of his Store with them. 
In thefe ftraights he was forced by thofe that ftaid with him, contrary to the 
Articles of Peace lately made with King Utina, to take him Prifoner, in hopes 
that for his Liberty he would procure them fome Provifions ^ but the Inhabi- 
tants incens'd at the bafenefs of fo unexpected an Adion , could not be 
wrought upon by any means to give them Relief j but grown more perverfe 
than before, appointed a general Meeting to eled another King; fo that out of 
all hopes, they utterly gave themfelves over for loft. In this defperate conditi- 
on Jo/;?2 Haukins^^^v^zt Sea-Captain, came thither with four E?i^liJJ) Ships, who 
pitying their mifery, furniffiM them with Neceftaries, and having onely four 
Veftcls, lent them one, becaufe Landonier was at that time too weak to endure 
the Sea 5 but not long after recovering ftrength, and all things ready to fet Sail, 
Ribald came to an Anchor before Charles-Fort, wich fcven Ships from Diep : 
Within few days after, the Spanijl? Admiral Tctcr Mclande:^:iVYi\'d with eighc 
Frigats, whereof the French having Intelligence, cut their Cables, and ftood 
out to Sea, whom the Spaniards chac'd, but could not reach ^ whereupon lea- 
ving them, they landed in the Mouth of the River Dolphin, where by help of 
the ^foorip? Slaves they began to intrench themfelves • of which ^bald having 
notice , immediately fail'd thither , at leaft to diftvirb , if not abfokuely 
drive them from their Work ^ but furpriz'd in the way by a great Storm, 
lo^ft moft of his Fleet, ingag'd among the Rocks ; yet the Men w^ere moft of 



Cliap. III. 

A M E%1 C A. 

them favM. In this Storm the Sp.iwiWi' alio fLiffer'd great damage, yet made 


an Advantage of the Fre?icJ?mens Misfortune, marching with all fpeed to Charles* 

Fortj m which were onely two hundred weak Men, ^bald havino- taken the 

primed Soldiers along with him« In the Morning before Sun-rife the Sbamards 

made a fierce AiTault, and in a fiiort time became Mailers of the PlacC;, which 

Laudonier feeing^, fled in a Boat j others leaping from the Walls into the Moat 

fav'd themfelves by fwimming : Whoever fell into the Vigors Hands was. <Sreatcrueityofthe%-. 

., n- ri if>-/- 1 ,' ff"*rds againll the £rtnch. 

without mercy ilam 5 nay ;, luch was the bpdniurds mveterate malice to the 
Vrenchj that wanting living Bodies, they exercis'd their Cruelty upon the dead, 

pulling out their Eyes, and cutting off their Members, carrying them in Tri- 
umph on the Points of their Swords. In the interim, the Storm ceafino-, (^, 
bald approached Charles^Vort, with his fhatter'd Fleet, but was fo amaz'd wheii 
he faw the Spa?np? Flag fet upon the Walls, and Vallemond marching towards 
him with a Squadron of Spa?uards, that although a River lay between them, 
yet he prefently came to a Treaty;, and deliver'd up all his Men, being above 
four hundred, upon promife of good Quarter 5 but the Spaniards in ftead of 
keeping their Agreement, bound them, leading them all to the Caftle, where,' 
both againft their Articles, and the Law of Arms, they maflacred them, and 
burnt their Bodies; but ^i^^W being quartered, they fix'd his Limbs upon 
Poles about the Walls, fending his Head to SeVil. When CW/a the Ninth, 
King of France J received notice hereof, he was not in the lead: concerned at the 
Spanijh Cruelty us'd to his Subje^s, out of a particular hatred to Coltgnl^ the , 
firft Promoter of the Voyage. But though the French Crown fo little regard- G«.^/Vsva]iam Expicb 
cdthe inhumane Ufage committed by the Spaniards in Charles^Fort, yet Domi- '^""^ ''^^ ^^''«"'^''^- 
nkm Gurgle fliew'd himfelf fo highly concern'd thereat, that turning all his 
Goods into Money, he levied two hundred Soldiers, and fourfcore Sea^men, 
which he put aboard three fmall Ships, pretending that he would onely touch 
at !Br.t///e J but failing beyond Cuha^ he flood diredly ^ov Florida, whereafter 
his Landing he was kindly received by Saturlona the King, who complaining 
much againft the Spaniards OppreiTions, fent to joyn with him his Kinfman. 
0/ofoc^r^, having the Command of a great Army. 

The Spaniardshy this time had not onely ftrengthned Charks^Fort, but alfa 
rais'd two others on each fide of the River Mayo^ in which three Holds lay 
Garrifon'd above four hundred choice Soldiers. Thofe in the new Forts made 
little refiftance J but quitting the fame, and flying into a neighboring Wood, 
fell into an Ambufcade of Indians, who flew thirty of them, and preferv'd 
ninety for a Publick Execution. Thus they march'd on vidorioufly to Charles- 
fort, where by the way fixty Spaniards fallying out, were every one cut off, 
which much facilitated the Frenchmens Work. The Governor Melande^, feeing 
a certain ruine attend him, fled into the Woods ; but met there by the Florid 
dans, returned to the French, of whom he beggM Life for himfelf, and fome of . 
his People: Yet Gwr^ie deaf to all intreaties, would hear nothing, butpref- 
fing on, took them all Prifoners, and as a juft Reward of their Cruelty to his 
Countrey-men, hang'd them on the next Trees : After which Execution, it 
can fcarce be exprefsM how kindly the Natives entertained the French, becaufe 
they had freed the Countrey from the Spanip? Oppreffions. Thus having ac- 
complifliMhis Defign, and returning home, he was nobly received at ^ochel, 
but had not the leafl: Countenance for all his trouble from the King ; the Car- 
dinal of Lorein telling him, That for his good Service he ought to fujfer death, becaufe isongrat.fuiiyr^vardeC 
h had fined out three Ships pipon hh olpn Jccount, without Authority. 

^ E C T ^ 

<U M EXI C A. 


Jforiijheri Expedition; 



Sect. XIV. 

Four Englifli Expeditions ^ under the ConduEl of our Famous Sea-Xaptams Martui 
Forbiftier, 5f> Francis Drake, Thomas Candifli^ and John Smich, 

/^Aptain Forhiflm failing to the Northern Parts o^ America, Anno 1^76. chtifing 
'^^ a bad time, the Year being too much fpent, and the Ocean fo full of Ice, 
that it forc'd him to return to England : Not many Months after, he renewed 
his Voyage, Queen Elizabeth having rigg'd out, and fent under his Command 
one Frigat and two Ketches, Manned with a hundred and forty Men; The 
twenty fixth of May he weigh'd Anchor, and fail'd to the Orkenies^ ^yhig to the 
North of Scotlandy where landing, he found the poor Iflanders fled out of their 
Huts, into Caves and Dens among the Rocks. From thence he fteer'd North- 
North-Weft, through abundance of floating Pieces of Timber, which often- 
times gave him great flops. The fourth of y«/) he made Fn>;^/W, where he 
met with a great Storm of Hail, mix'd with Snow : Before the Shore lay a 
great Ridge of Ice, which hindred for a while their Landing : Here he faw 
feveral Wild People, but could not come to fpeak with them ; for upon the 
ieaft approach they fled ; yet when they faw any advantage, made refiftance : 
At lafl;, three of them came unarm'd to the Shore, beckoning Forbijher' to come 
to them J which he had done, had not great numbers of the Natives appeared Jj 
too foon from an Ambufcade in a Wood, and behind a Hill, who feeing them* 
felves difcover'd;, march'd up into the Countrey, three onely fl:aying on the 
Shore, of whom the middlcmoft feigning to be lame, at lafl: fell down, whom 
his Companions took up, and carried a little way, but then forfook, by which 
the En^lijh obfcrving their Defign, (hot that the Sand flew all about him - 
whereupon forgetting his Lamenefs, he ran as fwift as a- Deer up a Hill. 

Forhijhe/s Men had by this timefiU'd two Barrels with a Mineral not unlike 
Gold, but was afterwards found to be of little value. Nothing clfe of Re- 
mark did he find here, except great long-hair'd Men, who being exceeding 
falvage, fubtilly plot nothing elfe but to murder, lurking for Men, like Wild 
Beafts for their Prey, whom, when caught, they tear in pieces. Clofe fitted 
to their Bodies, they wore the Skins of feveral Wild Beafts, priding in the 
Tails which hung down betwixt their Legs. Their Tents are of conjoyn'd 
Whalebones, cover'd over with the like Skins, the Entrance always facing the 
South. They ufe Bowes, Arrows, Slings, and two forts of Boats : In the big- 
gcft they can carry feventeen Men, which are made of feveral Wooden Planks 
clinched together, and cafed on both fides with Leather : The fmalleft ones 
are cover'd juft in the fame manner, much refembling a Weavers Shuttle, ha- 
ving in the middle a Hole, wherein a Man fits, who drawing the Cover of the 
Boat about his Waftcby Strings, with one Oar makes fwift Paflage. 

The Countrey it felf is barren, yet feeds abundance of Deer, Hares, Wolves^ 
Bears, and Dogs like Wolves, whofe Flefli ferves the Inhabitants for Food. 

This Countrey feems to be exceedingly troubled with great Earthquakes, 
becaufe feveral pieces of Rocks, and whole Mountains rent afunder, maybe 
fcen in divers places. 

The fourth of ^/i^wy?, ForhiJl?cr having elevated the Pole to fixty eight De* 
grcc5, beyond what Sehapan Gabot, the firft Difcoverer of thofc Parts, and fet 
out by Henry the Seventh, had done (for America Northward never before had 




Gliapi IIL 

A M E %1C A. 


been fo far penetrated) and laden witli a fort df fhining Sand, which he be- 
liev'd might contain much of a Golden Oar, having with him three of the Na- 
tives, yi;^. a Man, a Woman, and a Child, fet Sail for England, and the feventh 
of September ca,me to iW/or^.Haven,and not long after arrived in Lojtdoti^ where 
in fiiort time the Salvages died. 

At the fame time when Forhijher fail'd Northerly, Sir Prancis Drake alfo, fitted 
out by Queen Elizabeth, fteer'd another Courfe, failing by Cape manko and Cape 
Verde,2Xon^ the Jfrtcan (Brafile, where he caught feveral Sea- Wolves,and 
Anchoring in the River La flata , furnifliM himfelf with Frefii Water : Then 
proceeding on his Voyage through the crooked Straights of Magellan, he came 
to an Anchor before Moucha, wafli'd by the South Sea. The Iflanders received 
Iiim very courteoufly, becaufe they were inform^ that the Engltjh were at great 
,Wars with the %mWf , to avoid whofe Cruelties, they had deferred the main 
Continent, and fetled on Moucha. One of thefe Mouchaners going aboard, fervid 
them for a Pilot to the Haven Falpari:^o, where Drake burnt the St. Jago, a fmall 
Village, and plundring all the Coundrey about it, got together a great Trea- 
furc of Gold and Silver. Before Mca he took three Spanijh Ships, richly la- 
den . and before Lima, four more, having an unvaluable Treafure of Pearls 
and Gold aboard them. Thus inrich'd , he fteer'd his Courfe Northerly to 
forty two Degreesj but the Cold forcing him to fall four Degrees to the South- 
ward, he difcover'd a very pleafant and inhabited Coaft, the People whereof 
fiiew'd him great kindnefs : The King himfelf coming aboard with a great 
Train, fet a Crown of Gold upon Drakes Head, and gave him a Golden Scep- 
ter, and an Ivory Chain. After this he infpeded the IflandsTOor, Ternata, 
Java, Zetlon, and Cape de (Bona E^ran^a, from whence, after a three Years Voy= 
age, having encompafs'd the World, became fafe to loWo^, where he refted 
not long ; for failing Jnno 1585. to America, he took great Prizes from the Ci- 
ties St.Jago, St. Domingo, St. Auguftin, and Carthagena, fetting them all on Fire. 
Thus again returning home via:orioufly, and after the famous defeat of the 

O Spanip 

Sir Trancis tira^^s 




C<?«(/r/5^ his Expedition. 

Smith's Voyage. 

a M E'B^I C A, Chap. I 

SpanijJ? Jrmado , he rigg d out a new Fleet, having for his Vice.-=Admiral Cap. 
tain Haivkins : Their Defign was to havcfailM to Manama j but both dying, 
and To the CommilTion ceafing, the expeded great and golden Projed alfo 

died with them. 

A Year after the death of thefe farnous Navigators, Captain Thomas Candish 
Mann'd with a hundred and twenty Men, and Provifions for two Years, fet- 
tincT fail in a hicky Hour, a fccond time encompafs'd the World, pafTmg the 
Straights of. Magellan -^ in which Voyage having got above ten times the value 
of his Charge, by taking the Spanish Carrack St. Jnn a, y lined at twenty Tun oj 
Gold- and at laft freighted with a Mafs of Treafure, he came fafe into the 

River of Thames* 

But much worfe fuccefshad Captain John Smith, who weigh/d Anchor J?im 
1614. with two Ships, fitted out by feveral Merchants in London, for Netp^Eng- 
land, and on the Idand Monachigga to load Copper, Gold, and other Mineral; 
that were to be had there, and alfo to fifh for Whales : But there were no fuel 
Minerals to be found there, nor any Whales to be taken on the Coaft, becauf( 
the time of the Year was paft 5 fo that he returned home without Succefs 
However, not long after, they undertook the fame Expedition a fecond time 
but with worfe Fortune j for being gotten in fight of Yirginia, he was trcache^ 
roufly fet upon, and taken by the French, who accus'd him, that he had de 
ftroy'd the Plantations in Nova Prmcia, and unlefs he would make fatisfadlioi 
for the Damage, they threatned him with death. He was carried Prifoner t( 
^chel, in a French Ship • but not far from thence furpris'd by a mighty Storm 
Smith finding an opportunity, leap'd into the Boat, and driving betwixt th 
Waves, at laft, half dead, was thrown upon the Ifland of O/t-m^, whom after 
wards, having loH all, an Hw^/i/7? Ship took in, and brought to his Nativ 

Sect. XV. 
Netherland Expedition by Jaques Mahu, and Simon de Cordes. 

MfhiisVoyig^ Ih ^^^ ^^^P^ ^^'^^^ ^^^^^ out zt Rotterdam, the Command of them was givei 
•*■ . to Jaques JMahu and Simon de Cordes, who on the twenty feventh oijum 
Anno ^598. weight Anchor from the Goree, and failM on an immenfe Voyage 
at latl landing at the Illand St.Jago, they won a ftrong Caftle there, and tool 
two Barques ^ but at laft Articled with the Tortuguefe, that they might undi 
fturb'd fupply themfelves with FreOi Water, yet they, as if they minded n( 
Agreements, whilft the Dw^c/; were filling their Casks, came down upon then 
with two hundred Horfe, each having a Foot-Soldier behind him -, but thi 
Hollanders made fo ftout refiftance, that they put them all to flight. 

The City of St.Jag9,vjW\c\\ gives Denommation to the whole inand,is buil 
long-wife, having a convenient Haven, like a Crefcent : Through the Cit] 
glides a River, on both fides of which, beyond the Town, arife feveral higl 
Mountains : That part which faces the Sea, hath Fortifications, defended wit) 
ftrong Bulwarks. The fortuguefe had brought all their Guns to bear toward 
the Sea, to fink the Hollafid Ships, which they invited thither under pretence o 
kindncfs • but a great Storm hindred the Fleet, that they could not Ancho 
at the appointed place 5 onely two of the Ships faiTd prett^^.;i£jear , but no 

within Shot. 




GHap. III. 

A M E%^1 C A. 


tfdm hence fteering to the Defolate Ifland ^rcr^d^ they faw nothing but five 
ruin'd Houfes, the Door of one ftopp'd up with great Stones, which being . ^ 
taken away, was found full of ^urh^ Wheat, which prov'd a great kindnefs 
to the Sea>men. 

Mean while the Admiral MaU died, and his Body put into a Cheft fill'd up m.m^,, 
with Stones, was thrown over-board j fo that Smon des Cordes carrying the c..^« Ms Voyage.^ j 
Flag, fteer'd his Courfe to Guinee, there to refrefh himfclf ; for moft of his 
Men were fo weakned by the Scurvey, that they were fcarce able to hand the 

Arriving at their intended Port, the Sick were carried afliore ; and the 
Vice-Admiral <Bemmgen, being condufted by a French Guide, went to the Vice« 
Roy of that Countrey, who fat on a low Bench, with a Sheeps-skin under his StrangcKingin e«;««. 
Feet, in a Violet*colour'd Cloth Suit, without any Linnen, Shirt;, Shoes, or 
Stockins ; on his Head a Cap made of yellow, red, and blue Eaftern Cloth . 
his Face whitened with Aflies,fliew'd in feveral places its natural blacknefs,ap- 
pearing through the Colours ; about his Neck a Collar or Chain of Glafs ' 

Beads : Behind him fat his Nobles, with Cocks Feathers on their Heads, and 
their Skins painted Red. 

^emingen plac'd by the King on a Mat, complained to him, That the Guinea 
ms fled from him where.ever he came, though in Friendfliip, to barter Europe-- 
an Commodities with them, againft Fruits, Poultrey, Sheep, and other Provi- 
fions : Whereupon the King promised to furnifli him therewith, and invited 
Seuningen to Dinner. After fome ftay, the Kings Wives cntred the Palace, a 
very mean and ill-favour'd Building, more like a great Barn than a Kings 
Houfe, and plac'd a kind of nafty Trough on the Ground,, in which lay no» 
thing but fome wild Herbs, and a piece of a fmoak'd Sea-Calf; and though 
he was a Perfon of the largeft fize, and corpulent, yet he eat fparingly. Sen* 
ningen, though exceeding hungry, found little rellifli in fuch kind of Meats ; 
wherefore fpreading a Napkin, his Attendants brought him fome Bisket and 

O 2 Spanijh 








a M EX^ C A. 

Chap. III. 

Bloody Seas vety P.iange 

ff Magellan 


A wild Woman.' 

Spanip Wine, whereof after the King had tailed, he likM io well the rellifli, 
that it rock'd him afleep, whilft Beumngen walked to the Sea^fideto refrefh him* 
ielfj but the Guineans coming about him, he was forced to return to the 
King, who waking at the noife, appeared highly inccnsM at his People^ and 
took Beunlngen into his Houfe : However the Subjects , notwithftanding 
the Kings Commands, when 2emingenyR2.s Tent into a neighboring Hut, kept 
Watch about it all Night: The next Morning early an old Woman entred, 
muttering to her felf, and went out and in to 'Beumngen three times one after 
another, knocking on a Box not unlike a Pair of Bellows, out of which flew 
abundance of Duil about Smn'mgen^ which caus'd a great Laughter amongft 
the Guineans. The King alfo coming to him^ prefented him with two Goats, 
and four Hens, and fo conduded him back to the Ships. 

'Beuningen feeing that there was no good to be done^, fet fail from thence,and 
coming before the River La flata in Amerkay it appeared Blood-red . Out of 
the Water which was taken up in Buckets , flatted a fort of Infects like 
Fleas, which caus'd a flrange and fad Diftemper amongft the Sea^men, that 
when any Meat was offer'd to them, fo foon as ever they put it to their 
Mouths, they would fall down backwards in a fwoon, foaming and frothing 
at the Mouth, and turning up the White of their Eyes, die diftra^ted. Suffering 
under this Difafter, theyhafted from thence with all fpeed, and failing into the 
Straights of Magellan they kill'd above fourteen hundred fenguyinsy which is a 
Bird that preys on Fifli, and lives in Holes under Ground j they fomewhat re* 
femble aGoofe, onely they ftand more upright, and are double- crefted^, with 
two plumy Combs. Coming to an Anchor in the Cree7i-!BayyihcTt arofe a great 
Storm, which continued feveral days, fo that they were forc'd to moor their 
Veffelswith four Anchors, extremely afflided both with Hunger and Cold, 
preferving themfelves alive by eating young Grout, at that time not above a 
fpan high from the Ground ^ but this courfe Food bred an incurable Dropfie, 
that polled them on to a fudden death. Afterwards, when the Weather grew 
^nihcstmghts more pleafant, the Inhabitants being Gyants, moll of them eleven Foot high, 
grew more troublefom, oftentimes affailing them, and throwing Darts point- 
ed like Harping-Irons, at which they were very expert. Their Salvage Natures 
may appear by their Dealings with the dead Hollanders^ cutting off their Heads, 
and bruifmgthem to pieces, flicking Darts through their Hearts, and cutting 
pff their Privities. / 

At lafl the Fleet getting into the South Sea, were by flrefs of Weather fepa- 
rated one from another : Two Ships, being the Faith, and the Good Tydi?jgSy 
w^ere driven back into the Straights of Magellan, where they fuffer'd the utter- 
moft extremity of Hunger : Here they took a wild Woman, and two Chil- 
dren, who being of a fallow Complexion, had a great hanging Belly, a wide 
Mouth, crooked Legs, long Heels, and Brealls like Cows Udders ; about her 
Neck a String of Snail-fhells, and upon her Back a Beafls Skin, faflned about 
her Neck with the Sinews of it ; her Food nought elfe but live Fowls : The 
fame Diet the Children fed upon : The youngefl being but fix Months old, 
had his Mouth full of Teeth, and ran without any help : The eldefl they car. 
ried to Amfterdam ; but having kept the Woman aboard two Nights, they gave 
her feveral Trifles, and fet her aHiore. Here they found old Ice in the middle 
of Summer, four Foot thick. 

'Beuningcn lingred in the Straights cf MagrAlm , and being tired out with 
Hunger, Cold, and Storms, rcturnM home • and had they not by accident 

, taken 


Chap. !II. A M E K I C A. 

taken abundance of Coneys, they had all perifli'd. Above two Years had this 
unhappy Voyage lafled, when they arrived at their Native Countrey, with fix 
and thirty Men, being, all that remained alive of a hundred and five. 


Sect. XVI. 

. ■ ■■•^ , 

T7;e Expedition of Oliver van Noord. "^ 

TWo Months after Mahu, Oliver van ]S[oord fet fail with four Ships, and twd 
hundred forty eight Men, from the Maes, Having reachM the 'Priwcf^ 
Jfla)id, he loft fevcn of his Men by the Treachery of the ^ortu^uefn ; and An- 
choring before the City Janeiro, he was no better entertain'd by the fame Nati. 



having a 

Rencounter , and both Sides receiving confiderable 
Lofs, he fteei-'d for St. Sehajltan, a fruitful Ifland, producing an Herb very 
wholefom againft the Scurvey : Here the Sea-men found great ftore of Sea- 
Mews, and Parrots, befides feveral forts of delicious Fifh. The approaching 
Winter advis'd them from entring the Straights of Magellan Co late- wherefore 
they judg'd it beft to feek a convenient Harbor^ to put their Sick afliore to re- 
frefih themfelves. The Ifland St, Hellen, for its fruitfulnefs;, feemM to be the 
moll convenient for this purpofe ; but a great Storm preventing them, they 
came to St, Clara, where taking in Frefli Water, they caft Anchor in ^orto De- 
fire, In this Haven they faw a kind of Sea-Dogs, whofe fore-parts being over- 
grown with long Hair^ feem'd like a Lyon, and the Feet like Mens Hands- 
over their Eyes and Upper-lips grew black and white Hair, which in Stormy 
Weather flands ftaring upright^ but in Calm, lies flat and fmooth j they Urine 
backwards, fleep very foundly, and caft their Young every Month : Their 
Flefii welUboyTd prov'd a favory Difh. 

fan Noord going afliore here, faw not a Man ; but only Burying^places on 
high Rocks, built of red Stones, and adorn'd both within and without with 
Bowes, Arrows, and other ftrange things : Under the Heads of the Dead lay 
four-fquare Shells, and other things artificially carv'd. Curiofity made them 
defirous to make a further feareh into the Countrey j wherefore he rowed du- 
ring a whole Tide up a River ; and when their Boat ran aground at the 
time of Ebb, he walk'd feveral Leagues up into the Countrey, where he faw 
nothing but Deer, Buffles, and Oftriches : and becaufe he faw no People, he 
judg'd the Coaft to be uninhabited j but returning again^ he found it other- 
wife J for the Sea-men, though commanded to ftay in the Boat, which lay in 
' the middle of the River, went afliore, where they were fo fiercely fet uponby 
thirty of the Natives, that three of them Were kill'd, and another wounded 
m the Leg. Thefe People are very ftrong and Salvage, with painted Faccs,and 
long Hair 5 but after this Encounter, they faw no more of them. 

But Van Noord having fpent fourteen Months in feareh, and loft a hundred 
Men, fet fail again with three Ships ; for one of them, being the Utiity, he 
burnt at the Ifland Qara, where he Wintered, becaufe of a great Leak which 
could not be ftopp'd. Here they brought five thoufand Fowls aboard.which 
much increafed their Stock of Provifions. 

From hence paffing the Wide Ocean, into the Straights of Magellan, fom times 

the Fleet attempted to ^o' into the South-Sea, and was as often driven back by 

'crofs Weather into the Straights • but the fifth time prov'd more fuccefsfuij 

for having got through, and left the Straights & handfom way aftern, they 

O 1 difcover'd' 

Sea- Dogs, 

Suangs Tombsr 



througlt tuinine. 




A M E'B^l C A. Chap. III. 

aifcoverM two iQands, fmm one of which the Sea-men going aland, brought 
four Boys and two Girls j who afterward inftnided in their Tongue, in- 
formM them concerning the fcituation of the Countreys thereabout. 

After that, the Fleet Sail'd into Hungers HaVen, where they found the rumes | 
of the deferted (phtUp-Stadt , which Captain TI?onm Caudijl? had fexn fourteen 
years before, fortifi'd with four Bulwarks j but now onely fome Houfes, a 
Church, and a Gibbet were ftanding : Four hundred Spaniards built that City, 
^s^Kcytoiht Straights of Magellan, But all their Provifions being fpent in 
three years time, and no relief coming from Spam , and what they Sow'd ex- 
peaing the hopes of a Harveft, the Salvages coming down by night de- 
ftroyM • which caus'd fo great a Famine to rage amongft them, that many 
dy'd, not fo much as putting off their Clothes , who lying in the Houfes un- 
bury'd, occafion'd fuch a flench in the City , that the remainder fled mto the 
Field ; where they livM a whole year by the Fruits of the Trees, Herbs, and 
Roots : At laft, three and twenty of them, amongft which were two Women 
remaining yet alive, refolv'd to travel to the River La (plata, and accordingly 
fet forward, but what became of them could never yet be heard, only one 
. Ferdinando that was of that company, accidentally wandring from the reft, 
. > happened to light upon Candip/s Fleet. 

Here Fan Hpord fet on Shore the Vice- Admiral Jacob Claef^oon llpendam, for 

fome crimes which he had committed 5 and leaving him behind, Sail;d from 

M..,. What kind of thence thorow the South-Sea along the Coaft of Chtlt and Mocha . which liland, 

of a confiderable bignefs, rifes in the middle with a forked Mountain , from 

which a convenient River comes flowing down into the Countrey. 

The Inhabitants conduced the Hollanders to their Village , conilfling of 
about fifty Houfes built of Straw, but were forbid to go into their Huts : Up- 
on the Mens call the Women appeared, which being divided into three par- 
tics , humbly kneel'd down before them • and fooft after an old Woman 
brought an Earthen Can full of Oca, a Liquor made of Mays , whofe extra- 
acd Juyce, boyl'd and put into Tubs, ferments like our Beer or Ale, with a 
cap of Barm, with which they treated the Hollanders, who drinking moderate- 
ly, were well refreOi'd 5 but the Natives will ply this Liquor, till they make 
themfelves Diftracted, and arc mad Drunk. 

From hence Fan Noord fteer'd his courfe to SanBa Maria, where in his way 
he took a Spanlfh Ship, called ^uonjefm, that is. Good Jefus, and received intelli- 
gence from the Prifoners, that the Admiral Simon de Cordes, with twenty three 
Men was kill'd by the A?nericans on the Promontory LaVapia, being the head 
Land or Point oppofite to St. Maries 5 that a year fince, tydings were brought to 
Lima of his Fleet 5 fo that they had made all things ready to withftand him. 
But Van Noord hinderM by ftrong contrary Winds, not able to reach SanBa Ma^ 
ria, ftood dircaly for St. Jago, in whofe Haven lay a great Spamp? Ship full of 
Indtans, and two other going in, which two he fet on Fire , and the third he 
Tow'd towards his Fleet • repenting extremely that he had given liberty, and 
{ctFranctfcodcharfoComm2.ndct of the !Buon Jefm zdrnx^ ^^ becaule he aftei- 
wards underflood from the SpamP? Pilot , that harra threw ten thoufmd two 
hundred pound weight of Gold, pack'd in fifty two Cafes, over-board, when 
he obferv'd that he was like to loofe his Ship. 

The Fleet Sailing forward came to an Anchor before the r/;imi 1/7 W, whofe 
Inhabitants are very light Finger'd, go ftark naked, and are of great ilrength ^ 
they found the Women much Disfigured, their Nofes, Lips, and Cheek-bones 
eaten by the French Pox. 

Cica, a flrange DrinV. 

ran Xatrd takes a Spt'^ 
nijh Ship. 





In the Bay La'Bayd, the i)utch Admiral, with a Spanip Flag on histop-Maft, 
fcnt one of his Sea^mcn in a Fryers garb afliorc, if polfible under that difguife, 
to get Provifions j which falling out according to their Defign, they were fup- 
ply'd with all manner of Viduals : After that, the Hollanders burnt five Vil* 
lages on the Ifland Capull-^ took a Qnnefy VeffcijOne Spanish Barque, and a Caryel 
Laden with Brandy from Cocos ; and after a great and bloody Fight funk the 
Admiral of the Mzwi/Z/s, and ^a at laft with various fortunes arriv'd at %otm- 
J4WJ, having in three years encompafs'd the World. 

l^erforms great tbiagii 

S E C T. X V L 

the Expedition of George Yaii Spilbcrgen. 

^ pLH/io 1614. the eighth ofjugujiy the EaJlJndia Company of the United Nether-^ 
^ ^ lands fet out feven Ships tinder the Command of George Spllber^en , who 
coming to Cape St. Vincent y and engaging with the Tortuguefe, took one of their 
Ships^ and fo proceeded tin his Voyage to the Straights of Magellan, but by a 
huge Storm, the Fleet v(ras feparated. Amongft thofe that were fcatter'd was 
the good Ship call'd Meruw , in which fome of the creW had confpir'd to have 
kiird the Mafter, and feiz'd the VcfTel 5 but he having fome inkling thereof, 
fetfo ftoutly upon two of the chief Contrivers with his drawn Hanger, that he 
forced them to leap over-board, and as ftoutly ordering the reft, fet all to 

But Spilbcrgen Landing ott one of the (P^w^mjw Iflands, found two Dead Bo- 
dies juft covered with Earth, about their Necks was a Chain of gliftering Snail 
Shells neatly ftrung j the Grave ftuck full of BOwcs and Arrows, was plcafaht 
to look upon, between fevcral high Mountains, whofe tops lay bury'd in Snow: 
The Fleet came out of the Straights 6^ Magellan ^ but not without great danger, 
for the South-Sea much difturb'd by tempeftuoits Weather , feem'd to raiit its 


Strange Goips. 

• XI 6 


Strange iheep. 

St. Maries biunr. 
And alfo Val,Paiyft. 

A M E R I C J, . Gliap.lliv 

Waves up to the Sky, fo that they had enough to do, from being ingag'd 
amoncT the Rocks : But at lafl: with great difficulty ^ wonderfully eicaping all 
danger, they Anchored before La Mochas an Idand which on the North fide lies 
low, and on the South defended by Rocks. 
spiii,erocnh great d.n- spilhergen feeiug abundance of Men Handing on the Shore, Row'd thitherto 
Barter for Merchandize, amongft them was a Sheep with a long Neck, bunch- 
Back'd like a Camel, a little Mouth, and long Legs • which Beail ferves them 
inftead of HorfeS;, to carry their burthens, and perform their Tillage. The 
Jmericans breed up theie Sheep every w4iere, by reafon of the extraordinary be^ 
nefit they receive from them, fome of them keeping no lefs than eighteen hun- 
dred. Their Shepherds nde upon a Bead" almoft like an Ox, and carry in their 
hands Copper»Plates , hung round about with Bells , which they fhake, ma- 
king a different noife when their Sheep fball go in or out j and on their Heads 
wear Feathers like Coronets, {landing upright. 

From thence, S^ilhergeon departing, Landed at laft on the Idand of S'r. Marjiy 
where he burnt all the Sfamsh Villages -, as he did alfo in Val Tary/a, 

After going afiiore, in the Haven Quintero, he faw abundance of Wild Horfes 
^ drinking out of a Rivulet, fupplyM with frefii Water from an adjoyning fteep 
Mountain ; fo foon as they efpy'd Men , they inftantly running away, were 
feen no more. 

Having left QMuitcro , and fpent a Moneth in Sailing farther, they dif- 

cry'd eight great Ships ; whereupon the Prifoners inform'd them, that it w^as 

the Spanish Fleet, of which %odmgo de Me?ido-;<ia was Admiral, fitted out on pur- 

' pofe to fight Spilbergen , whofe coming (as we faidj was known a year before. 

Bloody fight between the ^j- midnight Memlozci Boarded Spllhernn , but was fo roughly received, that he 

Manim and Spanijh & ^ , , f r r ^ c^^ ■ c^ -T • /" A r>» L It 

was forced to Retreat with the lofs of the Ship St. trmcijco. At Day. break, the 
BolUnd Admiral fir'd at Mcndo:^a j who anfwering with equal courage , occa« 
iion'd a fmart Engagement , wherein the Spamards were fo hard belet , that 
they put forth a White Flag; but it was immediately taken in again by the 
Commanders aboard, choofing rather to die, than furrender, becaufe they 
had mockM at Mendo^t, when he hinted the difficulty of the Enterprize in the 
Grand TemVtan Councel, faying, They Ipeiit out, onely to take a few di/abled Hol- 
landers, and tying them hand and feet, carry them to Execution. Yet their high and 
proud Stomachs prov'd very fatal to them, for afterwards totally routed and 
put to flight j mod of them funk by the way. 

This done, the Hollanders viaoriouOy Sailed to Calyo^)^ de Bma^ having a con'. 
venient Haven t The City adorn'd with curious Houfes and Temples , is 
ftrengthen'd by a Platform, Planted with great Guns towards the Sea, and the 
Shore was guarded by eight Troops of Horfe, and four thoufand Foot ; where- 
upon Splhergen , who was yet to go fo great a Voyage, judg'd it no way con- 
venient to adventure the lofs of all on the good or bad event of a Battel, cfpe- 
cially being fo much over-power'd by the number of the Enemy : Wherefore 
feeing no hopes of Vii^ory, fetting forward to Guarma, he got fome frefh Pro- 


Againll the City feyta.hc playM his Cannon with fuch fury,ihat the Towns- 
men deferted the place, which he obferving, fet it on fire, and Sailed to A<iuapul' 
que, where from the Fort at firft the Spaniards fired fome Guns at them • but 
foon after changing humor, they came to an Accommodation, furnifliing the 
Hollanders with convenientProvifions. Paffing on, and coming to Sdaques, both 
Natives and Spaniards having fuffer'd fome of the HclLw.ders to Land ; after 


€a^)Ot» tit Limit, 

5*()/t« btt}"lW/ 

Chap. III. 

<J: M E RI C A 

fee upon them treacheroufly in a Thicket, but to their little advantage, for 
they made fo good a Defence, that the Alfailants not able to bear the brunt, 

fled with great Iofs» 

Spilhergen Sailing from hence to the Manillas, waited there for the Spa?jip Ad- 
mh^\Jua?i de Siha, who had made (as was reported) great preparations for him 
loner fmce - but feeina it was in vain, at laft he returned to Zealand , where he 
came to an Anchor, loaden with Riches, in the middle of Summer, Jmm 


Sect. X V IL 


The Expedition of William Cornelifzon Schouten, and Jacob Le MairCc 

SOme Merchants that were called the Juftrian Com^znj y fitted out one 
Ship with fixty five, and a Ketch with two and twenty Sea-men , giving 
the Command thereof to the Captains Schouten Sitid Le Maire : Anno i6\<) they 
Wei^h'd Anchor from the "/exe/j the firft took a view of one of the three 
Iflands, caird Mahrahomma, lying before Cape Sierra Leona. This Ifland appear- 
ing a great height out of the Sea, was not inhabited, they feeing onely three 
Wild Buffles, many Wild Cats, Birds which bark'd like Dogs, Wild Palm- 
Trees, Lemon-Trees, Turtles, Crocodiles, Partridges, and Storks: From 
hence, pafling by the dangerous Shelf ^W^oj, they ran into forto Vefire, where 
on the Rocks they found abundance of Eggs,and Spierings,or Smelts,and Spire=. 
grafs fixten Inches long, wherefore they called that Inlet Spierings-'Bay. Their 
Sloop alfo brought two Sea-Lions , and one hundred and fifty fenguins from 
the (penguin Ifles, having Sail'd two Leagues up the River ; iti the interim, the 
ground being meer Stone , and their Anchors coming home, the great Ship scimmw gvczid^z^r; 
drove againft a Rock , and at Ebbing Water , broke off the outermoft Planks 
and Iron-Work , and the Ketch alfo ftriking on a high Shelf , was at low Ebb 
two Fathom with her Keel above the Water, and had without peradventure ^ 

been overfct, and bilg'd, but a frelh North-Weft Wind kept her upright, yet 
at laftjthe Weather growing calm,fhe lean d,but the Tide coming in very faft, 
fether afloat, fo that (he was miraculoufly fav'd ; then fetting Sail again to 
i^ingsdjland, they found fo many Eggs of black Mews, that one without ftir- incredible many Eggs. 
ing from his place, might reach above fifty Nefts, and in each of them at leaft 
three Eggs, which they carry'd aboard by thoufands. Their Boat Rowing 
Southerly down the River, found fome Oftriches, and Beafts not unlike Stags, 
but with exceeding long Necks. On the Hills lay Stones heap'd one upon ano- 
ther, which removing, they found Dead Bodies of eleven Foot long; here 
theyfpent their time in cleanfing their Ships, and new Sheathing the Ketch, 
but as they were Tallowing, the Flame accidentally got between the Grevifies ^mh burnt, 
which immediately taking Fire , in a fhort time confum'd it to Allies : The 
great Ship had gotten a Horn in herBoW, feven Foot under Water 5 this Horn 
being firm without any hoUownefs, and not unlike a great Elephants Tooth, 
ftruckthorow two Aflien and one Oaken Plank, flicking in a Rib of the like 
Wood, and yet above half a Foot remained out to be feen. 

At length Schouten Weighing Anchor from forto Defire , and Sailing to four 
and fifty Degrees Southern Latitude, met whole Shoals of Whales, infomuch, 
that he was fain to Tacque to and again to fliun them. Sca^-Pies, bigger than 
Swans, came flyinc^ in great numbers aboard , fufferincr themfelves to betaken 


Great Cerpsj 

Strange Komi 

Great Me wSj 




Straights Le Mairt. 
Ifles in the South-Sea. 

Strange entertainment at 
the Horn Iflands. 



A M E %^I C A. Chap. III. 

with the hand. On the North-fide they fpy'd a high and fcraggy Coaft fpread. 
ing it felf to the Eail South-Eaft, which they call'd, Tk ^taus QonntY^y, that 
which lay to the Weft ward of it , Uaurice oF Hf^jfau , the Iflands in fifty fcven 
Degrees (Barnevield's Iflcs, and the iharp Point in which lay the Snowy Moun- 
tains , Southward of the Magellan Straights end, the Cape o^ Hoorn. 

5'c/;o«?e;i had now gotten the height of fifty nine Degrees, when he enter'd 
the South-Sea, through the new paifage between Mauritm and the States^Coun- 
trey, which was call'd from his Partner, The Straights of Le Maire, 

Near the two Ifles Juafi Vernayido, they found great ftore of FiQi, after that 
they view'd thefe Iflands, that lay fcatter'd up and down the South-Sea, each 
of them they nam'd according to their feveral occafions, calling the firft , Tk 
Ifle of Dogs , becaufe they have abundance of Dogs there that could not bark i 
Another, The ^ottomlefs Ifland , becaufe the Sea was fo deep about it, that they 
could not come to an Anchor. The Inhabitants who go naked, with their 
Skins pounced full of ftrange fliapes, of blue Snakes, Dragons, and fuch like 
Creatures, Salli'd out of the Woods upon the Hollanders with great Clubs, to 
which was faften'd the Sword or Snout of a Sword-Fifli , and alfo with 

Slings. ^v 

Somewhat further they came to Water-Land , and Flyes-lflajid , the firft fo 
nam'd, becaufe the Shore round about was planted with Trees , but in the 
middle all lay covered with Salt- Water ; the other from the Byes^ which with 
incredible numbers troubled the Sea-men four days together. 

Moreover, the Reception or Entertainment which Schouten was welcomed 
withal, at the HoornJftandsy being very remarkable, we will in brief relate : 

Anchoring in nine Fathom Water, Shelly ground, before a frefli Rivulet, 
three Hollanders fent to the King were by him courteoufly entertained, who 
with ftrange humility, not bow'd, but kifling their Feet fell flat on the ground, 
and put the Hollanders Feet upon his Neck 5 and after this manner of Salutati- 
on, waited upon then! aboard : Yet although this King fawn'd fo much, and 
feem'd fo humble, yet he was very fevere over his Subjeds, for finding one 
that had filch'd a Sword, he not onely brought and reftor'd it, but immediate- 
ly Executed the Thief before their Faces. 

Le Maire and Jrias Claef;^oon were much honor'd here, for the old and young 
King put their Crowns on their Heads, curioufly Wrought of fine White Fea- 
thers, and the end adorn'd with fmall Red and Green Feathers 5 they gave alfo 
to each ofthem a Pigeon, White to their Wings, the hinder part Black, and 
under their Bellies Red. 

In the interim, the King o? Water Jjland vifited the other, by whom Le Maire 
was treated : When they met, they made ftrange fhews of Honor to each other, 
but at laft fhew'd their Salvagenefs by eating raw Fifh , and rudely Dancing 
before the Hollanders, Le Maire going into the Countrcy , and climbing up a 
high Mountain, faw nothing but Morafs Wilds, and Vallies, lying under 
Water : The King and his Retinue here kept him company, during his ftay 
there, when weary with walking, they fate down together under Coco-Nut- 
Trees ; the young King tying a String about his Leg^ climb'd with exceeding 
dexterity up a high Tree, bringing feveral Coco-Nuts down with him, which 
he open'd very expeditioufly. 

Anas Claef^oon, Rowing afhore one night, found the King fitting under a 
Roof, reftincT on four Pillars , where feveral Naked Women DancM before 
him according to their Mufick, which was Taboring upon a hollow Piece of 


"^"^ — ^ 

■^v i 

Chap. III. 

A M E 1^1 C J. 


Wood, which yielded a murmuring found without any diftind Tune. 

But the two Kings meeting again, the next day Complemented one ano^ 
ther with more antick and ridiculous Poftures , fitting fide by fide under the 
Roof, imploring their God^ with their Hands folded, and their Heads bow'd 
to the ground : At this interview ;, four i:?b//^wJ Trumpeters and Drummers 
flood playing before the King, to the great admiration and amazement of the 
Iflanders, which were near ten thoufand gathered together upon the News of 
the ftrangers to attend the two Kings. Soon after a great company of Rufticks 
came running thither, which had a green Herb cali'd Caya, ty'd about their c^^^aftranjertjuor. 
middle ; on a fiidden they began all to chaw this Cava, throwing that which 
they had chaw'd into a large Woodden Trough^ then putting Water to it, they 
Kneaded it together J which done, brought the Liquor on their Heads to the 
two Kings , before whom they kneel'd when they gave them any : Yet not* 
withftanding they received fuch honor from their Subjeds, they fliew'd fervile 
xcfpe^s to zhc Hollanders, for every King prefented them with a Pig, which 
they firft laid on their Heads, then kneeling, put it down at Le cMaires Feet, 
and bowing their Heads to the ground, rofe again. They wear their Hair 
long, which Brayded, hung on the left fide of their Heads down to their Hips, 
ty'd at the end with two Knots ; but the Nobility had two fuch Locks: All 
of them went naked, their Privities onely covered. The finallefl of the Men 
exceeded the biggefl: of the Hollanders in tallnefs. The Women had longBreafts impudent womenj 
hanging like Satchels down to their Bellies, and fo unfliamefac'd,thatthey pro- 
ftituted themfelves to any , in fight of all Men ; and flill at low Water , their 
bufinefs was to catch Fifli, which they greedily eat raw. 

After all this Entertainment, Weighing from hence, Schouten SailM along smngewiidmenj 
the Coad of T>{eii>r.Gumy^ -where three Boats full of Kcgro's came Rowing to«' 
wards them , Slinging very fiercely Scones at them, and hoverino- about, 
attended their motion ail night. Next morning, feven Boats more coming; to' 
their affiilancej they (et upon the Hollanders , but fooa fled from their Bullets j 




Deform'd people. 

Remarkable Exploits of 
i' Htrmite. 

VegdY a wickc j_,manj 

A M E "B^t C A ■ ChapJII. 

yet two of the Kegro's were taken, that in each Noilril wore a Ring. Sailing 
further, feveral Boats came aboard of them, whereof thofe that Row'd, break- 
ing their Ajf^^gciys or Launces over their Heads, entered the Ship j the Hair of 
their Heads and Beards bedawb'd with Lime, flew about, whiift they Danc'd 
on the Decks, after they had eaten a good Meal : But they endeavor'd to re= 
ward this their kind Entertainment with Treachery , for going afiiore , they 
foon after return'd in greater numbers, and fat upon the Anchors which lay 
over the Bows of the Ship, and there being a great calm^ endeavor'd to Towe 
the Ship towards the Shore, whilft others threw Stones and Arrows. But fo 
foon as the Hollanders firing their Guns Wounded feveral of them, they all 
fled , except fome which they took Prifoners, whereof one whom they after* 
wards caird Mofes, did them great fervice. 

But Le JMaire was amaz'd at nothing more, than when on the next Coaft he 
faw feveral little Houfes built about nine Foot high , out of which many Peo» 
pie Iflu'd, which were all deformed, either having Wry Nofes, Bow Legs, 
Squint Eyes, or crooked Backs, and all in one part or another mif-fliapen. 

At lad, Anchoring before Jacatra, the Ship was ftopt there by order of the 
EaftJndia Company , and the Men divided and put aboard thofe Ships that 
Saird from India to Hollandj3.nd arriv'd in fafety at Flujh'mg, after they had Sail'd 
about the World, in two years and eighteen days. 

s E cT. X vin. 

J^oyage of the Nalfavian Fleet, under the Command o/" Jaques L' Heremite, 

and Geen Huigo Schapenham. 

THe United Netherlands, to abate the Spanijh Grcatnefs, fet out a confidera* 
ble Fleet, which they fent to try their fortune, in making Prize of what 
ever they could light upon in any of their Havens wafli'd by the South- 

Jaques U Hermite had ten Ships under his Command, Manned with fixteen 
hundred thirty feven Men, and two hundred ninety four Brafs and Iron Guns, 
with which he fet Sail from Goree, Jnno 1623. and coming before Cape Vincent^ 
he difcover'd eleven Turkifl) Pirates, whom fighting, he beat, and re=took the 
Holland Ships they had made Prize of. 

At %oxents Head, V Hertnite ^zye chafe to fifteen Spanip? Ships , and coming 
up with them, funk eleven, and took four laden with Sugar. Afterwards An* 
choring at Safia, he fent the Ship Over-yjfel, and a Frigat call'd the Gray-Hound, 
to Convoy home the Prizes ; afterward being informed , that thirty Spanijh 
Ships were making to them, Sailing into the Haven St. Vincent, the Spring Wa- 
ter that he fupply'd his empty Cask with being brakkifh, caus'd an excoriation 
of the Guts, which brought the Bloody-Flux, whereby he loft many of his 
Sea-men 5 being well entertained by the Salvages of Jnto?iio, they went on to 
Sierra Lcona, a Mountainous Point full of Lime-Trees, here they found the 
Names of 5r. Francis Drake , and other EnglifJ) cut in a Rock. 

After that he put in at the fruitful Ifland Annahon , where he caus'd his Chi- 
rurgeon to be Beheaded. 

This wicked Man being brought to the Torture , would confefs nothing 
concerning the Crimes objected againfi: him, but being flrip'd for Execution, 
they found a fmall Bag hanging on his Breads in which lay a Serpents Skin 


Chap. III. . <t4 M E%^1 C J. 

and Tongue, with which he had Poyfon'd fcveral Men, but he confefs'd no- 

The firll o( February , the Fleet came to Cape de ?emia6 , which they know at a 
great diftance, by its high Mountains cover'd with Snow. 

In fliort time after, Sailing by the Mouth of the Straights of La Maire, they 
met with very tempeftuous Weather, and feventeen of their Men going adiore, 
were devoured by the Cannibals o( Terra del Fuogo. Thefe People being all V/hites, 
and of a large Stature^, Paint themfelves Red, and go ftark naked, except fome 
of higheft quality who tie a Deer Skin about their Necks; and the Women co- 
ver their Nakednefs with a piece of Leather : They live in Bowers made of 
the Branches of Trees, Staked three Foot deep, in a round at bottom, and above 
like our Tents, Canopy'd, the top of which open, to carry out the Smoke like 
a Chimney J and have no other Houfliold-ftuff than fome Baskets, in which 
they lay their few Fifliing Implements. They go continuallyArmM with Clubs, 
Arrows, Slings, and Stone.Knives : Their Boats being only the Trunk of a 
Tree made hollow, rife up before and behind like a Half-Moon, and are four- 
teen, and fome fixteen Foot long, and two broad ;, and Row fwifter than a 
Pinnace with many Oars. Laftly, they are fo Salvage, that they feem rather 
to beBeafts than Men, knowing no Religion, ill Natur'd, cruel and Trea- 

From hence, paffing on, U Hm«f7e refrefh'd at the defolate Ifle FmiWo, and 
fo SteerM his Courfe to Calla de Lima, on whofe Coail, taking a Spanip VeiTel, 
the Prifoners told him , that their Plate-Fleet had Weighed Anchor^ and were 
gone to fanama j only the Admiral which carry'd forty Brafs Guns, with fifty 
Merchant.Men, lay clofe under the Shore, Guarded by three Stone Bulwarks 
Fortified with fifty Guns. 

V Hermite having a defign upon thefe, took three Spanijh Veflels that were 
going thither, and at midnight, fent Captain Jdrian Tol, feter Slobbe, and Mein- 
dert Egbertf^on, with twelve well Mann'd Boats, furnifli'd with Brafs Drakes, 
and Hand-Granado's, to Attaque the Spanijh Fleet that lay hard by 5 and whilft 
fome gave a falfe Alarm on the North of Callao, the Boats Rowing from Ship 
to Ship, in fliort time firM forty of them ; although the Spaniards from the 
Shore endeavored by their Shot to drive back the Enemy , neither the Fort or 
Admiral fparing Powder nor Ball. 

In this valiant Exploit the Hollanders had onely feven Men kill'd, and fifteen 
Wounded : About break of day, feven of the Spanijh Ships floated, burning to- 
wards the Dutch Fleet, which were as terrible as now Fire-fliips, which forc'd 
them to Weigh Anchor to fliun them. 

After that, L' Hermite took two Ships laden with Wine, a third full of Wood, 
and a fourth with Wheat : One of thefe Prizes he fitted and prepared for a 
Fire-fliip, and fending her to Board the Spanifi Admiral, it ran aground with- 
in fliot of him 5 whereupon being battered by the Admirals Guns, and thofe 
from the Bulwarks, and at laft taking Fire gave but a fmall blow, becaufc 
mofl part of the Powder had taken Wet. 

^ In this interim, while thus their defign went profperoufly on, their Admiral 
V Heremite dy'd, whom they Bury'd on the Ifland Lima, and Schapenham, in de- 
fiance of the Vice»Roy in CaUao, caused one and twenty Spaniards to be hang d 
at the Yard.Arm, becaufe he had fent him a fcornful Anfwer on the Propofals 
concerning the delivery of the Prifoners. 

Cornelius Jacob/R^oon Sailing to Tifco with four Sail from the Fleet, could do 

P no 



r t-^i-jj-s^j^ ^i.-i!ii 


J M E "KI C A. Chap. III. 

no ^ood there, for he not onely found the City to be furrounded with a Wall n 
oflfteen Foot high, but having alfo many Earthen Redoubts, behind which 
lay above two thoufand arm'd Men, wherefore he deferred the fame after fome 
F.7^...'s E.pi n. Pvancounters : But the Rear.Admiral, John Williamf^oo?! Verpoor, who was fent 
to Gainciutl, had much better luck ; for he not onely took that Metropolis, but 
alfo burnt a new Royal OaUion, and two leffer Veffels j carry'd a conquered 
Velfel to Lmi^ ; flew above a hundred Sfmlards, and threw feventeen over- 
board, becaufe they had fhot Poyfon'd Bullets againftthe Law of Arms ; of 
which Conouefl Captain Engelhm Shtitte had the greatefl honor : But the Sea- 
men grew weaker and weaker by the Scurvy, and all of them would have pe- 
rifli'd, had they not found a foveraign Herb on the higheft Mountains o^ Lima. 
^c^.^«;Wsremarbb!. Scha^cnhcim being chofe Admiral in V Heremkes place. Weighed Anchor from CaU 
"'^'''' /do,andranintothe Inlec'?i/'c4^om,whereon thefhorehcrais'daSconcej yet 

not long after departed from thence without any effed , but loft twenty eight 
Men, through the bad Condud of their Commanders j the like number he 
loft alfo at Jquapulque, on the fide of which City ftands a Caftle with four 
ftrong Bulwarks j the Holland Fire-fliip lay juft without the reach of the fhot, 
the rell lay along'the (hore in a row, there to feize upon the Veffels expeded 
thither from the Manillaes : But becaufe the Scurvy raged amongft the Sea-men, 
and diiabled them* they waited in vain, Schapenham Sail'd through the South- 
Sea to the Ladrones, where he found ftore of Provifions. Jnno 1625. in March, 
he dropM Anchor before Makye, and from thence went with Herman Spiult,tht 
GovQtnor fox tht Eaft-India Com^zny in Amboina, to Qram, where they Con- 
quer'd the Fort Lochoe, and foon after C^mhella ; then the Fleet being divided, 
Schapenham carryM home two Ships from ^ataVta, and the remainder returned 
at feveral times, they being hirM to ferve the Eafl^India Cpmpany to Surratta, 
Malacca, Coromandel, and the Molucca Ifles : Schapenham Deceafing near (Bantum, 
and being Bury'd on fulo 'Boftok, the Ships arrived at the fm/ in July, Jnno 


Henry Brewer his Voyage. 

the States-IJle, Co dangerous and Rocky, that he durft not put in to the 
Land • from which flew great abundance of Party-colourM Ducks, with fharp 
Bills, about the Ships, and under the Keels fwam alfo Whales. 

On the Weft fide of the Straights Le Maire, Brown ran into Valentines Inlet, 
where he was much troubled by the Winds which came whiftling through the 
hollow Mountains with great and fudden gufts : The fliore afforded red and 
black Strawberries, CarVtlle and Mufcles, to the great refrefliment of the Sea- 
men, who daily faw Sea»Lions, but could not come to (hoot one of them, for 
no fooner they perceiv'dany body, but they Diving under Water, fwamawayj 
and though they faw Mens Foot- fteps of eighteen Inches long, yet they never 
found any Men. Thence Sailing into the South-Sea, along the Coaft of ChiU, 
they enter'd a Bay which they nam'd Brewer' s- Haven ^^ where Landing, they 
walkM towards a great Smoke which they faw afar off, but coming near it, 
found only two Houles within a large Plain, full of Sheep, Oxen, and Hor- 
fes; before the Houfes flood Woodden Croffes. 

The Volphm Pink and a great Boat being fent to the Inlet, lay the following 
Night at an Anchor near a high Mountain • from whence, in the Night, two 
great Guns were fir'd, whereupon, LicutQnznt IViUumTer Bergen L-^ndcd with 


Schaftnhatu dies.^ 

Sea Lions. 

Brewer's Haven. 
Jleraarkable Exploits. 


Chap. IIL ^ <tA M E^R^l C A. 

fixteen Mu^ueteers , and climbing up the Mountain, found a Village'behind 
the fame, where all things were in Alarm, Drums beating, Trumpets found- 
ing, Bells rmging; the Villagers fuddenly firing their Guns on Ter Serf. ;2 who 
bemg fupply'd with thirty four Men, Encountered the Enemy fo Valiantly, 
that he fled into the Woods, not without the lofs of Men and Horfes : The 
Guns with which they had fliot in the Night lay onely on a Redoubt : Ter <Ber^ 
gen perfuing this Vi^ory, March'd into the Woods, and fliot the S^mjh Com- 
mander Andreas Mums Iferrera from his Horfe, got great ftore of Treafure which 
lay hid under the Tree, being brought out of Carelmappa, which Village he fet 
afire, and killed all the Horfes , and Weighed Anchor with the Admiral brewer < 
• to Mchael de Cahuco, where not being able to Land, bccaufe of the many ob- 
fcure Rocks and Shoals, they fet Sail to Cujiro, which they conquer'd and burnt 
without the leaft refiftancc : This City fituatc on a Mountain is ftately buik 
among Flowry Meadows, delightful Orchards, and brave Fountains ; the Sea 
before it flows daily fourteen Foot. !Brewer alfo burnt a Spamfi Ship,' and fet 
fome Houfes afire, took three Spaniards Prifoners on I^ Bahm^ who informed 
him, that the Winter Seafon was almoft over, but that it was never knowii 
by any to pafs over fo mildly, ill Weather generally ufing to blow down 
Houfes, Trees, and rend Rocks afundcr; that there was much Gold in Ofomo 
and 'BaUivia^ which laft they had fome years fince deferred for hunger, but it 
was fince Garrifon'd by three hundred Cajiilians, that none could get at the Fort 
Conception (which lay a League Wefterly from thence) but in afmall Boat, that 
there were on the place near two thoufand Inhabitants. Moreover, an ancient 
Matron catl'd LoVyfa Tirana, from Quintian, one of the Ifles in the Chilean In- 
Land-Sea, being fetch'd from thence, gave information, that forty years fince, 
before the Indians took up Arms, the Spaniards were quietly fetled in Ofomo, and 
in fo good a condition, that an ordinary Planter had at leaft three hundred 
Slaves, of which, every one was to procure a certain quantity of Gold . that the 
mcsChdoVes were divided into above a hundred Colonies or Plantations the 
Qtlefes ferving the Cafttlians^s their true Governors ; thofe that do good Service, 
the King of the Colony makes them Commanders- and that the Chinefes hzd 
Kebell d m feveral places. Brewer on the QUefes requeft took fome of them, 
with their Wives and Children into his Ship, furnifli'd with Arms, he digged 
a Cheft of Silver and a Brafs Gun olit of the Earth , and foon after being fick 
dyd. His SuccefTor Bias Herkmans ^^xoftcmin^ thofe Publick Affairs fent 
the Pilot of the Unity out of ©reWs Haven, and fome Sea-men, with two Chi^ 
lean Cafyues with a Boat to Carelmappa , but being furpriz'd by a violent Storm 
Itood in for Horfclfland, where he and the Cafi^ues Landing, he order'd feven 
Sea-men to carry the Boat to a fafer Harbor . but being driven from the fliore 
by ftrong Winds, it took in fo much Water as fiU'd and funk it, fo that all of 
them were drowned. HorfeJfland being deftitutc of Provifions and Lodgings, 
thofe that were Landed expected nothing but Death, till they found out a fmali 
Hut, and in the fame £1:, brave Sheep, and a good quantity of Potatoe Roots, 
which ferv d for Bread : But when this their new-found Store was almoft fpent 
they happily were fetch'd off by the Boat belonging to the Ship AmfterdamUnd 
with the whole Fleet came to an Anchor before Baldma. This City built by 
the Cajhhans, confifted formerly of five hundred and fifty fair Houfes, and was 
divided into Streets and crofs Ways, with two large Markets, and as many 
Goftly Churches. 03/ 

The a//./., unfufl^erably ofprefs'd, flew all the %«///; Garrifon, and into 

Ft:-' the 


Ter Strf««'j Exploit. 


Scream chili. 

Breifer ijes.' 

Strange accident; 

Saldivia, a brave Cltf, 





Why the Chilofes gi-ew 
ftrange to the Hollanders. 

A M E "Kl C A. Chap. III. 

the Governor's Moiiih and Ears pourM melted Gold • oFhis Skull they made a 
Dnnkins-cup , and of his Shin-bones, Trumpets • after this, the City fell al. 
moft to decay, onely a great part of the Wall remain'd yet (landing : The Chi. 
leans hereupon flockM hither by thoufands, fome on Horfes, others on Foot, all 
Arm'd with Lances of a Foot long : Herkma?i hereupon inforn:iing them by an 
Interpreter that they being mortal Enemies of the Spaniards, would joyn with 
the Chileans\ozinik that common Foe • and defirM, that they might build a Fort 
on the Market-place in ^aldivia, for a defence againft all Invafions, and that 
th'-y mipht be luppl/d with Provifions which the Fleet wanted j all which the 
ChiLns granted, and accordingly brought in ftore of Sheep, Hogs, and Cattel: 
But fo Toon as Berkman began to make the leaft mention of Gold, they were • 
all abafli'd, and faid, that they knew of no Gold Mines, nay, their Hair ftood 
an end, when they heard the name of Gold 3 fo horribly the Spaniards had dealt | 
with their Parents : After this, the Chileans growing more and more ftrange, 
did not in the leaft countenance the building of the Fort, and the longer the 
Fleet ftaid, the lefs Provifions they brought aboard ; upon which, the Ships 
were neceiTitated, without any remarkable Exploits, to fet Sail and return to 




ry of 


Chap. L . ^ M E %^I C A. 

Foreland, Cumberland Ijles, DaWs Straight, (^c. on this fide toward the Jyfitck Grck, 
(Buttons and !Brtggs Say, Hudjons Sea, otherwife termM Mare Chrlftianum, out of 
which more Wefterly runs a narrow Sea call'd Hudfons Straight : beyond 'nudfons 
Sea towards the Aakk Circle is a place callM Nelip North-Wales . and on this fide an- 
fwerable to it, between buttons Bay and the Chriftian Sea, Iks lS(eTi^ South^Waks j all 
which places we find generally fet down in the Jmerican Hemifphere, but in the 
Geographical Difirourfes thereof little is faid of them, iffomuchas nam'd. The 
farthcftpart of Land Northward, between Hudfons Gulph and Hudfons Straight, 
betwixt fifty feven and fixty Degrees of Northern Latitude, goes generally by the 
Name o^ Efiotiland, I mean that properly fo call'd (for Eftotiland is by fome as' 
largely taken as Qanada, by CluVerius, Golmt;^im, ^eter du Fal, and others, namely for 
all that Traa of Land extending from that fuppofed Straight of Jnfan, which di- 
vides America from Jfiatick Tartary, as far as the utmoft point of Land that (lioots 
toward the Jtlantick Ocean) which Southerly towards Terra Lahoratoris is bounded 
with a River vulgarly c&Wd (^o ]>iey ado, or The Snowy ^tver, Eftottland Cccms to 
have dcriv'd its Name from its lying more Eafterly than the reft of the Provinces, 
and^ according as Noya Britannia is placM in fome Charts, might very well be takcri 
for the fame, though it hath not been fo terniM by any Author, but rather Terra 
Lahoratoris, Cortereatis, and No^a Britannia are, generally received to be all one. 

This Province is ^(Rrm'd hy Matthias Quad us, znd J, Jntonius Maginns, to have F-fldifcove, 
been the firft difcover'd Countrey of the new World, and that by Jmniu^ Zeno, a ^" " ''" 
Patrician ofFenice, in the Year of our Lord 1390. which was long before the Ex- 
pedition of Co/«m/.^, through the encouragement of ^ic/;;«^, King of the lile'^of 
Frie^land ; but by whomfoever found out, or at whatfocver time, it is commonly 
affirm'dtobenotillfurnini'dwithProvifionsofall forts, as Beafts, Birds, Fifii, 
Fowl, and Fruits, having a Soil indifferent fertile, in refpcd of the coldnefs of the 
Climate. The People in general (for fome there are that live wild and falvage up 
and down the Woods, and go naked, whereas the Clothing of the Countrey is the 
SkinsofBeaftsandof Sea.Calves, call'd Mr/a) are reported not onely tolerably 
civil, but alfo ingenious and expert both in mechanick Arts, and other neceffary 
Faculties, infomuch that the firft Voyagers to this place are faid to have obfeiVd of 
them upon this firft Difcovery, That they fow'd Corn, brew'd Beer and Ale, and 
Traded by Sea to Greenland, Frie^and, and other places, to the diftance of fifteen 
hundred Miles 5 and that they were not altogether void of the ufc of Letters but 
that their Charader was onely proper to themfelves and not intelligible by' any 
other Nation : Moreover,there is a certain Tradition,that there was here and there 
lome httle knowledge of the Latine Tongue amongft them, and that there were - 
tound divers Latim Books in a Library of one of their Kings 5 the rcafon of which 
if true, is conjeaur'd to be from certain Europeans who underftood that Language' 
having in Ages paft fuffer'd fliipwrack upon thofc Coafts, where chancing to abide 
either through conftraint or choice, they might haply at their Deceafe leave behind 
them fome Books and other Monuments of the Latine Tongue. They were ob- 
ferv'd to ufe fuch a kind of Javelin or fhort Dart, as was known to be us'd by the 
Peop e of J ay a, and fome other Iftands of the Eaft.hdtes • whereupon it feems not 
wholly improbable, that they might for a long time have entertain'd Traffick and 
Correfpondence with them. 

The Mor/es, or Sea-Calves before mentioned, are about the bignefs of a young Defcnp 
Heifer, the Hunting of which by the Natives, who take them in great numbers i^ "'^'^^"'^" 
to them in the ftead of Whale-filhing, which is not there fo good, for they draw a 
great quantity of Train-Oyl out of them. On each fide of the Jaw of this amphi- 

- . ^ bioos 

ij » 

The Natura 
of the People, 





Chap. I. 




bious Creature (for it is faid to live very much on the Land,as well as in the Water) 
there (licks out a crooked Tusk, winding downward like an Elephants (?roho[cts, 
above a Cubit in length, and as white and hard as Ivory : It is efteem'd of great 
vertue at leaftit paffesfor fuch among thofe who take it for other than what it is, 
for it is frequently vended for Unicorns-horn 5 of which impofturc Dr. ^mvn takes 
notice, and gives a Caution againft in his r«/^^r£rrori. 

This Countrey is fuppos'd, and that probably enough, to have ftore of Brafs and 
Iron Mines . but for the Mines of Gold and Silver,which fome have imagin d there, 
the Northerly Situation of the Countrey, and by confequence the coldnefs of the 
Climate give fufficient caufe to queftion the truth of any fuch alTertion. What 
chief Towns, Cities, Rivers and Mountains there are in this Province, is not yet 
deliver'd by any, onely Af^^m^and Qudtis make mention of four principal Rivers, 
which difperfe themfelves through the Countrey, and take their fource out of a 
great Mountain in the midft thereof. , 

Sect. III. 

Terra Laboratoris. 

'^Erra Lahoratoris, by fome called Xiova Britannia, by others Qorterealis, (though 
there are fome who make Lahoratoris and Corterealis two diftind Countreys, 
comprehended, according to feter du Val, under Hoya 'Britannia, as the more 
creneralProvince J or, according to Cluye/m, under C^W^) lies from about fifty 
four to fifty feven Degrees of ^lorthern Latitude, between Eftotiland and the River 
Canada, which Maginm and fome others, though for what reafon is not exprefs'd, 
name Fretum trium Fratrum, The Bay of the three Brethren- others, Tk (^Ver of 
St. Laurence, and is, according to the faid Author, of fo vaft a bignefs, that the 
Mouth of it extends it felf thirty five Jt^/i4« Miles wide; likewife of fiich a length, 
as to have been navigated a continued Voyage of eight hundred Miles. The deno. 
mination o^ena de Lahorador, or Lahoratoris, feems probably enough conje(5tur'd 
to be from the cultivability (if one may fo term it) of the Soil, or its aptnefs for 
Cultivation or Tillage ; that is, becaufe by the painful Hand of the Labourer or 
Husband-man it may be rendred fo fertile, as to yield all forts of Grain and Fruits • 
haply in allufion to that fruitful Countrey of Campania in Italy, vulgarly known by 
the Name o^ Terra dt Lavoro. As for the Appellation o^ Terra Corterealis, it need not 
be queftion'd, but that it derives it felf from Ga^ar Corterealis, a Tortuguefe Gentle 
man, who about the Year of our Lord 1500. is thought by fome to have made the 
firft difcovery of thefe Parts ; though Sir Sehafttan Cahot a Venetian, is more generally 
believM to have been the Man that (under the favour and countenance of Henry 
the Seventh, Km^ o^ England) firft difcover'd them, at leaft the adjoyning Ifland 
Terra Ko^a, or Isiet^^found Land - but juft onely difcover'd, being hinder'd the far- 
ther profecutionof that Defign, by the important Affairs in which the faid King 
was about that time involv'd ., neither did Corterealis, whether he was the firft, or 
came after, do any more, for returning within a year after his firft fetting out, he 
was never heard of; nor, as Oforius^fortuguefe Hiftorian writes, any of his Com- 
pany, bcina all fupposM to have been drown d by Shipwrack ; and in like man- 
ner Michael \orterealis, who the year following fet forth with two Ships in queft ol 
his Brother Gaipar, Upon which feries of Misfortunes the fortugueje being wholl) 
difcouragd, and giving over this Defign, ihz French oUrmortca or Bretany fucceec 
them in it with fomewhat better fuccefs about the Year i504.whereupon it came t( 


Chap. L 

A M E%^I C A. 

12 Sf 

be tcrm'd ]S[j)Va ^ritatmia, or New Britain, The ancient Inhabitants of this place 
were formerly of a Nature, like the generality of the American People, fomewhat 
bruitifli and falvage, but by long converfation with the French, arefaid to have 
caft off their original wildnefs, and become more civilly manner'd : they arc very 
jealous of their Wives, by report much addided to Soochfaying, though otherwife 
having little of Religion, or of any other kind of Learning . they dwell for the mofl: 
part in Caves under Ground, kt^ chiefly upon Filli, and are accounted moft ex- 
pert Archers. Whatever places the French have builc here befides, thofe of chiefeft 
note are St. 'Marks y Cabo JMars^o, and 'Brefl, 

Sect. IV. 

Canada, or New France. 

CAmia^ as it is taken for one and the fame Province with l^eip France^ con- 
tains Keip France, properly fo callM, l^oya Scotia, Kortimbega, and fome ad- 
joyning Iflands, as the Canada of CluVerimj lying more North-Wefterly, 
comprehends (as we have already intimated) Eflmland, Laboratoris, and Corterealis , 
and, according to the moft modern Divifion (for that of Cluyerim neither con- 
fents with the lateft Authors, nor agrees withexaa Survey, it being nam'd Canada 
in refpcd the River Canada runs through it) hath on the North Terra Corterealis on 
the South Neiil? England, and on the Eaft the Ocean, and hath between forty five 
and fifty two or fifty three Degrees of Northern Latitude. The River Qanada is 
judg'd to be the largeft of all the Rivers o^ America, as thofe Rivers generally the 
largeft of all in the World befides ; it rifes in the Weftern parts of this Province 
which remain yet undifcover'd, and in fome places fpreads itfclf into huge Lakes 
fome of them a hundred Miles in compafs, with many little Iflands difperfed 
up and down in them, and fo running from the Weft about a hundred Leagues,falls 
at laft into the North part of 5f. Lawrence (Bay, hdng that wide Emboucheure of thirty 
five Miles breadth already mentioned. This River is extraordinary full of Fifli;, 
among which there is one fort more remarkable than the reft, called by the Inha- 
bitants Qadhothuis, having Heads refembling the Heads of Hares, and Bodies as 
white as SnoW; they are taken for the moft part before the Ifle de Lievres. The 
Countrey on both fides of the River is pleafant and indifferently fertile, efpecially 
towards the South- Weft, where upwards from the River the Ground rifes into 
many little Hills, invefted moft of them with Vines, with which and feveral other 
forts of Trees this Countrey abounds, being well water'd with a great many lefler 
Streams, all of them falling into the River Canada. 

That this Countrey is term'd New France, from having been difcover'd by the 
French, at leaft more fully than before, there needs no queftion to be made • but 
whether Joannes Ferra:^anm, under Francis the Firft of France, or Sebaftian Cabot before 
fpokenof, were the firft in this Difcovery, may admit of fome difpute : the 
Cabots indeed, (for John the Father is by fome mention'd to have accompanied 
his Son) who by all are own'd the firft Difcoverers o^ Ne^io- found- land ^nd Terra de 
(Baccalaos, are alfo commonly reputed to have firft found out the Province of ]>lew 
France, together with fome parts adjacent, though perhaps it might be upon this 
Ground that Terra de NpVa, or New -found- Land, not being known at firft to be an 
Ifland, Nenj France and that might be taken for one continued Province ; and it ap-- 
pears fo much the more probable, becaufe Canada,ot Noya Francia, is by fome call'd 
Terr^NoV^; however it be, or whoever were the firft Adventurers, Quarttri 2.nd 



Firft difco-; 




11 1 


A M E'KI C A. 

Chapi I. 

Champlain ate the two French-men that have gain'd lomuch fame by making a more 
ample and particular fearch into thefe parts, that this Province may feem from 
thence to have fufficient claim to the Title of New France, whereof that part more 
efpecially To callM, lies on the North-lide of the River Canada, and Southward to 
Terra Corterealts. The Winter is here very long, and fo much the more fevere by 
reafon of a cold North-Weft Wind which blows moft part of the Winter Seafon, 
and brings with it fo thick a Snow, that it continues upon the Ground moft com- 
monly till after May. The Countrey is for the moft part wooddy, but in tlve 
Champain parts thereof very fruitful of Corn, and all forts of Grain, efpeci-.iy 
Pulfe : It hath alfo Fifli, Fowl, wild Deer;, Bears, Marterns, and Foxes in s Hun- 
dance, and of Hares fuch plenty, that one of the little Iflands belonging to thi^ Pro- 
vince, is by the Frenchn2Lmd V IJle des LieVres, or The Ifland of Hares : But the moft 
peculiar Commodity belonging to this Countrey is the Efurgnuy^ a kind of Shell- 
Fifh, extraordinary white, and approved of lingular vertue for the ftanching of 
Blood ; to which purpofe they make Bracelets of them, not onely for their own 
ufe, but alfo to vend them to others ; hut.'john de Laet aiid others have obfcrvM no 
other than a fuperftitious ufe of them amongft the Salvages, in their Funeral Rites 
for the Dead : the manner of their taking it is very remarkable ; for when any one 
is condemned to die, or taken Prifoner, they cut ofFall his flefhy parts in long dices, 
and then throw him into the River, where they let him lie twelve hours, and ac 
laft pulling him out again find his Wounds full of Efurgnui, Quadm and Maginus 
make mention of three ancient Towns, namely Canada (denominated as the Pro- 
vince, from the River) Hochelai and Hockhelaga, giving Name to a Territory about 
it, which Geographers either take no notice of, or make fom.e queftion of the be- 
ing of fuch Towns 5 howcver,a late Dcfcriber of the IVefl-Indies, not mentioning 
the other two, gives this defcription of the laft, W;<.. Hock/;e%4 : 

" This City(faith hejfaid to be the Seat and Refidence of a King of this Country 
" whom the Natives, at leaftfome of them, acknowledge and reverence, carrying 
"^ him fometimes in great pomp upon their Shoulders fitting upon a Carpet of 
'' Beafts Skins, is fituate far within Land, at a diftance of fix or feven Leagues from 
'* the River Canada, and is a kind of fortifi'd place,encompafs'd about with a three- 
<^ fold Range of Timber Ramparts one within another, of about two Rods high 
*' from the Ground,with crofs Planks,or pieces of Timber jutting out, on purpofe 
<^ to hinder an Enemy's Scaling or getting up j towards the top there is as it were a 
<* Scaffold or Gallery fram'd, from whence they may throw down Stones (of which 
" there is always good ftore ready, or what elfe to annoy the Aflailants : It hath 
" one onely Gate for Entrance, and thatlikewife well fortifi'd after their manner : 
There are guefs'd to be in it fifty or fixty great Houfes^ built (as the maner of the 
<' Americans that live inHoufesufually is) in a fquare Figure, each fide being about 
** fifty Foot long, or more, and fixteen or twenty broad, but not many Stories 
" high • and inthemidft of the Court or void fpace, a place to make their Fire, 
*^ and do other neceflfary work about it. Moreover the Territory round about 
'* this Town is both rich in Soil, and pleafant in Profped. 

Befides thefe three above-mention'd Towns there are feveral others, which arc 
not untaken notice of in the moft modern Defcriptions and Maps, vi;^,. i. Stadac, 
or Stadacone, fomewhat Weft ward of a fmall Ifle caird The Ifle d' Orleance ; z. Que- 
heque, which being made a Colony of the French, and the Natives expell'd, came to 
be Entituled St. Croix j 3. Tadouffac ,\n\\\c\\ lies in that part of the Countrey denomi- 
nated from the River Saguenay, and by feme call'd at this day KouVelle Bifcaye,z de- 
lightful place, and full of ftately Trees, and hath likewife a good and fafe Haven, 





Chap. I. 

A M E%^I C A. 

capable of receiving twenty Ships/ 4. rrois <^Vier\s, or three Rivers. 5. 
nd>^ 6. Stlkry. y-^cheltew^ befides tvio ftrong Caflles or Forts, Franceroy and 
Sc, Uwis:, the Firll built by Monfieur %phey>al at his Landing here, about the 
Year 1540. the other defign'd for a Colony, in the Year 1611. by Monfieur 
Champlany, but hindered by the Invafion of the Iroquois. The fmaller Rivers that 
runout of the Gulph of St. Lamence , and the grand River a«^^^ towards the 
North, on which fide chiefly lies this Province, are, 1. Onchefedec, 2. St. Manante 
3. Lefquemm, ^.Saquenay, before-mention'd, 5. Montonne ■ and on the South fide the 
River Mary. The principal Tribes of the ancient Natives of this Countrey were- 
. on the North fide of C.«^^^ the Canadans, the ^etiftamkes, the Hurons, the Al^onlqums 
the Qumongehlns, the Algoinge quins, the Attagopantans, the Atticameques, the Ntpifirtmens' 
and on the South fide, the Etechemins, and the chief Heads or Princes of thefe Tribes 
were call'd Sagamores. 

Jaques Quartter Complementing their King Agouthanna, took up his Quarters a 
whole Winter at St. Croix, a Sandy Promontory, overflowed by the River Canada, 
into which falls the Lake^g Champlain, grown round about with Cheflinut Trees' 
in it breeds the fl:range Fifli call'd Chaoufarou, generally ten Foot long, with Heads 
like Sharks, and two rows of Teeth in their Mouths, their Skins full of ftrong 
Scales, which are fuflicient Shields againfi: Swords and Lances, are great devourers 
of other Fifli and Fowls, which they take after this manner, o^i^. they fwim a- 
mongfl: Reeds or Canes, and lie fl:ill with their Mouths open j whereat the Birds 
fitting down upon them, are immediately fwallow'd« 

The Natives of Nova Francia anoint their bodies with Oil • fn the Summer they 
; go naked, and in the Winter mantle themfelves in Furs. Their Warlike Accoutre- 
: iBmts are Darts and Clubs, but chiefly great Shields. They are revengeful, cruel 
and fraudulent ; their Women common to all Men, from fifteen to twenty after 
which, Marrying, they become very Chafte. Their Diet is Indian Corn, frefh and 
fait Fifli, Vcnifon, (Buffalo's and Btavers flefli • wiping their Fingers (when greafie) 
on their Heads, or their Dogs backs, which wait for the Scraps. 

At that feafon when the Corn covers the ground,to any heighth,they eat Cockles 
Dogs, dead Caryon, and the Skins wherewith they Clothe themfelves. When they 
have eaten^their fill, they tabering on their Bellies, cry^Tapoue Miki^oun, that is, Ve^ 
rtly I am fatisfd. They give their Sick a fpeedy Cure, either immediately kiUing 
them , or inhumanely expofing them to the Woods, to be devour^ by ravenous 
Beafts, but if they die fuddenly, they in howling tone pronounce Ove, Ove thereby 
to chafe the Souls of the Deceas'd out of their HutSj they ftick the bodies on Wood, 
den Prongs, cover them with Bark, and lay their Clothes and Arms by them • 
all what remains of the Funeral Feafts is burnt, whereas at other times, what e're 
is brought on their Table they eat, though ready to burfl:. They make the firft 
Proofs of their Valour by undergoing a mofl prodigious Torment, in this man- 
ner ; Two by confent tie their naked Arms together, .on which they fuffer burning 
Sulphur to bepourM, till the flefli fl:arts from the bone- if either of them flirink 
or pull back his Arm, he is accounted by them ever after as an ignominious and 
bafe Coward. They call God Jtahocan, and believe that one C^efu firfl: drowning 
the world by a general Deluge, reftor'd it again after a wonderful manner y^z 
Meffou hunting with Wolves, they fcented a Deer which being clofely purfu'd 
leap'd into a neighboring Pool, the Wolves following it, were drown'd • Meffou 
coming thither, Hood amazM at a Bird, which informed him, that the Wolves 
were pluck'd down, and held fall in the bottom by horrible Monflers, where- 
upon he diving, the Pool immediately began to fwell, and at la ft the whole fur- 

■ face 


Strange Fi/h 
nam'd Chaou- 

proof of Va- 

opinion of 




A M E'Kl C A. 

Cliap. I 


their Extract 
from Heaven. 
Their ftrange 
Relation con- 
cerning it. 

As alfo of 
the Crcariont 
and Souls of 
the Dcceafed. 



thHk»ht(\ an 


face of the Earth to be overflow'd. Uefu afterwards let a Raven flie to fetch a 
Clod of Earth, but in vain, for all the Land lay drown'd in Water ; at laft a Rat 
divine to the bottom, brought a lump of Earth , cut of which K./oh reftor'd the 
World, fliot Arrows into Trees, which became fruitful Branches. Here alfo re- 
fide an innumerable many Sorcmrs, call'd Whrni, which fometimes being pof- 
fefs'd with a Frenzy, fcourge themfelves in a terrible manner, mforauch that the 
Blood runs down by their fides : Thefe People are held in great efteem for they 
boift themfelves to have their Original from Heaven upon this occafion, -^<^. 
Juenftc a certain great Queen or Goddefs, refiding above the Stars, had a lick Huf- 
band' who Dreamt that he fhould be reftor'd to his former health fo foon as he 
could but tafte of the Fruits which grew on a Tree , whereby the Family of Hea- 
ven were kept alive, but that the Tree muft needs be cut down, which Atacnftc 
obeying gave onely two blows, when the Tree, to her great amazement, fell out 
of Heaven down to the Earth ; there being by this means nothing more left to eat 
in Heaven : Atamftc follow^ the fallen Tree, and being big with Child, bare a 
Daughter, which growing up to years, was Deliver'd of two Daughters v,^. 
Tmyifuron ^ndjou^hh^, the eldeft of which flew the youngeft : By thefe Fables we 
may difcern their obfcure knowledge of Hpah's Flood, Eye's Fall, and Q.«'s Mur- 
der. No lefs ridiculous is that which they believe concerning the Creation, \'t^. 
That the Waters were inclos'd within a Frog, which Jouskeha caufing to be cut open, 
all Streams and Rivets iffuing out , had their Original from thence : This done, 
Jonskeha open'd a Pit, out of which came all forts ofBeafts ; they a Bodily 
flrape to the Soul, as alfo Immortality, but that they live together m a great 
-Village tt)wards the Weft ; from which removing fometimes, they knock at the 
Doors of their former Friends in the Night, and fow deferted Grounds : That the 
Tourney towards the Village in which the Souls refide is very ftrange ; the High, 
way thither beginning at a Rock nam'd Ec««^. , where they firft Paint their 
Faces which done, they go to a Hut inhabited by an old Man, nam'd Ofotr^ch, 
who takes the Brains out of the Souls Head ; after which they walk to a broad Ri. 
ver which they crofs on a narrow Plank or Bridge, on which a Dog encountnng, 
forces them to leap into the Water, which carries them down to the foremention'd 
Village They acknowledge one Oki for the Governor of the Sea, and feafons of 
the Y°ear • They alfo Rcligioufly Worftiip the Rock Tfankchi Arafta, which they 
believe fothe ages ago was once a Man, but afterward Ttansform'd imo a Rock, 
in which a D^mon refides, who can make their Journies either fucceisful or dan- 
gerous, wherefore they offer him Tobacco. Their opinion or Thunder is like- 
wife very ridiculous, for they fay that the Devil endeavoring to vomit a horrible 
Serpent by ftraining to evacuate the fame, rents the Clouds, and occafionsTnun- 
derf La'ftly.They relate of a Dwarf call'd rhakabech, who climb'd on the top of a 
Tree which by his blowing thereon grew fo high, that it touch'd the Clouds, 
and rhakdech eafily ftept into them, where he found all forts of delight and plea- 
fure • but having a Sifter on Earth, defcended again along the Tree, and fetching 
his Sifter conduced her above the Stars ; mean while, Ihakabed going in the 
Night to fee if he had taken any thing in his Net which he had pitch'd found 
it full of Fire , and obferving the fame very narrowly , faw that he had taken 
the Sun but d'urft not approach the fame, by reafon of its great beat ; but making 
a Moufe, fenc her to gnaw the Net in pieces, and fet the Sun at liberty. Every 
twelfth year they keep an extraordinary great Funeial-Feaft ; for on the Set.time 
they flock from all parts to the appointed place, every one carrymg thither the Bo- 
dies or Bones of their Deccas'd Friends, wrapt up i.i Clothes, and hang them over 



Chap. I. 

<tA M E %^l C A. 

their Meat, which they eat finging ; fuch fond and Superftitious Conceits make up 
the Religion of thefe poor deluded People. 


S E C T. V. 

Accadia , or Nova Scotia. 

NO\a Scotta, or 2\[eTb Scotland, formerly callM Jccadia, is commonly accounted 
a part o^ew Fra?ice, {vi;^, that part which lying on the South fide of the 
River Canada, and fhooting South-Eafterly into a bofom of the Sea, forms 
itfelfinto a.femnfula, between the Gulph of St. Uwrence, and the Bay Francoife) 
ncverthelefs, becaufe of the different concernments of this part of the Countrey, in 
regard the right of claim to feveral places in thisdiftria, mofl efpecially of all No. 
Va Francla befides, hath been long in difpute between Us and the French, it will be 
moft convenient to Treat of it apart ; and becaufe the Series of Affairs, from its 
firft difcovery, till of late years, appears faithfully reprefcnted on the EngUfh part, 
in a Remonftrance Addrefs'd to the King and Council by Sir leW i^'r^, and his 
Brother John K^rk Efquire ; it will not be amifs (onely adding fome few things up- 
on occdion) to follow cxadly the Narration of Affairs, delivered in the faid Re- 
monllrance to this effed. 



T He whole Trad or Space of Land m America, lying on either fide of the 
River Canada, which a long time fincc were known by the Names of 
'< Ko^^a Francia, and Koya Scotia, were at firft difcover'd and found out by the %. 
" up?, m the time of Henry the Seventh , King of England j which Expedition 
" was firft undertaken at the Command and Charges of that Kingj afterwards 
'' further'd and carry'd on by the favorable Afped of Queen Eli^^abeth. Co that in 
" proccfs of time, for many years together, the faid Trad of Ground,' with abfo- 
'^ lute Priviledge of free Commerce, fell under the Jurifdidion and Power of the 
'* Crown o( England : Neither was it unto any other Chrijiian Princes, or their Sub- 
« jeas more clearly known or difcover'd, untiU about the year 1600. fome of the 
" Frm/^underftanding the benefit arifing byTraffique in the River of St. Laii^rence, 
" having formerly feiz'd upon that Trad of Land, fituate on the North fide of 
^^^the faidFloudor River Canada, did afterwards, in Jnno 1604, (««^e/- the Qon^ 
'' dun 0/ Peter de Gua, Lord o/Monts, who in the year 1 606. ipo^ folloVd by Monfieur 
'^ de Pourtrincourt) Poffcfs themfelves of U Jccadie, lying on the South fide of 
'' the faid River, naming the whole Isiova Francia, challenging to themfelves for 
'^ many years, at leaft de faHo, the Poffeflion thereof, with fole liberty of Com. 
"merce there. 

" 2. In Anno \6ii. King James of England looking upon the Polfeffion gotten 
" there by the French, as upon an Invafion, did by his Letters Patents Grant un- 
" to Sir William Alexander a Scotchman ( Created afterwards Earl of Sterling , by IQng 
« Charles the Firjl) U Jccadie, by the Name o^JS^oya Scotia ; who in the year 1 6i%, 
'' and 161^. after Sir Szmud Argzl had dri^^en out Kurd and Usiffc, and demoUJhitig their 
" Fort , c^rry'd them frifoners to Virginia j having obtained the Poffeffion thereof, 
" they Planted a Colony therein, and kept Poffeffion for about two years after, 
" until fuch time, as upon the Marriage of his Majefty King Charles the Firft, with 
" the Lady Henrietta Maria, the faid U Accadie, or KoVa Scotia, was by Order of the 
" King of Bigland return'd into the Pofieffion of the Fre?ich. 

'[ 3. Afterwards a War arifuig between his Majefty King (;/;4r/^f the Firft, ^^d 

MMf mii~iii 



I m. 


A M E'K^ C A. 

Chap. I. 

cc tovinhe Xlll. Anno 1627, and 1628. Sir Vavd K^rk and his Brethren and Rela- 
cc ,io,,s oF England, did by vertue of his Majeftie's CommifTion, lend to Sea (at their 
u cren charae) flrft three, afterwards nine Ships, with Tariike Preparations for 

- recovering ofthePoffeflion of the faid Lands, lying on either fide of the faid 

- River a/4,and to expel and ejed all the Fnnch Trading in thofc Parts, wherein 
^' thev had aood Succefs ; and in Jnno 1627. did there feize upon about eighteen 
^'oftheFm^cl; Ships, wherein were found a hundred thirty five Pieces of Ord- 
'' nance defign'd for relief of the <^oyal Fort in U Jccadte , and Quebeck in HpVa 
^^ Franaa under the Command o^Monfieur de %ocmand, and lionfteur de la Tour, Fa. 
^< ther of ^e la Tour, Governor of the faid ^^oyal Fort, whom, together with the faid 
c^ Ships and Guns, they brought into England j and in the year 1628. they PofTetsM 
<' themfelves of the whole Region of Canada or ^oya Franaa, fituate on the North 
« fide of the River, together with the Fort or Caftle o( Qneheck, Sir Le^vis E^trk be- 
<^ ing then conftituted Governor of the place, the French bein^ then either expell'd 
^< or convey'd into England, and the Arms of the King of England being publickly 
" there ereded, and every where plac'd ; and before the year 1628. it was brought 
'^ to pafs by the faid Sir William Jlexander, (affifted both by the advice and charge 
'' of the faid Kjrk) that in the parts of T Accadie, or Nova Scotta, on the South fide 
^< of the River Canada, the whole place, with the Forts thereon built, being by him 
<' fubduM, prefently came under the Power of the King of E?igland . that Region 
<' on the South fide falling into the PoffefTion of the faid Sir lVtllta?n Alexander, and 
" that on the North fide, into the Poffeffion of the I{irks, 

■ '^ 4. On Uarchzcf. 1632. a Peace being concluded between King CWi^i the 
*' Firft,'and Lewis the XIII. it was amongft other things on the part of the King of 
« En<rllnd agreed, That all the Forts, as well in V Accadie as in Uo^a Francia, fhould 
« be'^reftor'd into the PofTeffion of the Subjeds of the French King , which was ex- 
« aaly perform^ on the part of the Englijh, though to the great damage of the 
<' J^rks . but on the part of the French, although it was agreed, as in the fourth and 
«' fifth Articles of Peace is fetdown, (to which reference is had) yet nothing was 
« ever performed of their parts ^ fo that the l\irks did thereupon fuffer lofs, to the 
'^ value of five thoufand Pounds Sterl which were to be paid them by Uonfieur de 
«' Cane a Frenchmunjhut remain unpaid to this day. 

^' <' 5. >mo 1633. the King of E?2g/W taking notice, that although the Forts and 

«Caftles, according to the League, were deliver^ up into the PoifeiTion of the 

<' French, '(efpecially fuch as had been ereded during their Poffeflion thereof) yet 

<' that his Englijh Subjeds were not to be excluded from Trade or free Commerce, 

" in thofe Regions that were firft DifcoverM and PoifefsM by his Subjec1:s, did, 

<' with the advice of his Council, by his Letters Patents, Dated Uay 11. 1633. upon 

" confideration had of the Expences, which the faid iQrks had laid out upon the re- 

*'ducingofthatCountrey with the Fort of (2iiekd> to the value of 50000'^- j and 

'^ alfo of their ready obeifance in refigning up the fame on his Royal Command, 

<' Grant unto Sir Lei,is l<Qrk , and his Brother JohnlQrk and his AiTociates, for the 

^^ term of thirty one years (not yet expired) full Priviledge, not only of Trade and 

<^ Commerce in the River Canada, and places on either fide adjacent, but alfo to 

'' Plant Colonies, and build Forts and Bulwarks where they fihould think fit. 

''6. By vertue of which Commiffion, Sir LeVis IQrk and his Brother John 
'' l<jrk, and his Affociates, in the Moneth o^ February next following, Vi^. in 1633^. ^ 
" fet forth a Ship call'd the Merry Fortune, Laden with Goods of a confiderable va- ' 
'' lue, confian'd to thofe parts, where during her Trading there, without any juft 
^^ offence given ; and in time of Peace, Hie was by the French forceably feiz'd on, 



Chap. IF. . ^^ Af E %^I C A, 

and carry'd into Vrance^ and her Lading, as if (lie had been lawful Prize, Confix 
fcatedj whereupon the i(/Hyfuifer'd iofs, to the value of twelve thoufand Pounds, 
'f And although the Lord Scudamorej Ambaflador in France^ by the Kina of Engl and s 
*' fpecial Command, and the faid John I\jrk being there in Perfon, by the Kina's 
'' Command, did often earneftly urge, that the Moneys due to the faid I{irksj and 
" the laid Ship;, with her Lading, might be reftor'd, which for no other caufe had 
*^ been feiz'd upon and fold, but only for that by the King's CommilTion (lie Was 
'"^ found Trading at Canada j yet he could obtain nothing, buc after fome years 
^^ fruitlefs endeavors returned into England without accompliOiinr^ his delires. 

'* 7. In the year 1(^54. Crommel, although an unjufl Ufurper of the GoVernment, 
^^ yet upon confideration of the Premifes, taking a jufl occafion for rec|uiring the 
" PolTeilion of L' Jccadte, fends forth feveral Ships under the Command of one 
'^ Sedg-ii?ick, who by vertue of the Authority granted him by Cromwel, a (faulted and 
" fubdu'd the aforefaid Forts in No-va Scotia, and reftor'd them into the PofTelTion 
" of the EngliJJ? : And although in the year K^^J. a League of firm Peace and Amity 
'' being concluded between Cromwel and the French King, the French Amba'Jador 
" did often urge the Reftitution to the PoiTellion of the French-, yet for the fame caa«. 
" fes aforefaid, which had mov'd Qromwel to feize upon them, it was thought fit dill 
" to retain the Pofleffion of them j and although according to the purport of the 
'*■ twenty fifth Article of the Peace, Commi/Tioners on both fides were to be ap- 
" pointed for the deciding and determining that Controverficj yet nothing was 
'''done therein, neither did the Commiffioners ever meet within three Moneths, as 
" in the twenty fourth Article of the Treaty was provided and agreed : So that ^ 
" now the cafe is very clear,that the PoiTefTion to the Englifh x^mzins firm and jufl, 
" and thac the Forts and Bulwarks before fpecifi'd, are without all peradventure 
" under the Power and Jurifdidion of the King of England, 

Since the Reftailration of his prefent Majelly, the French AmbaOldor reprefent- 
ing unto the King the Pretenfions of the French unto the feveral Forts and other 
places in y^cc^J.'^ , and urging the non-performance of the Articles of Agreement 
between Ol'mr Cromwel and the French King, mov'd the King of England, Js a pro» 
fef'd Enemy to all Violence, for a Reftitution of all the Forts and other places which 
were then in the poflefTion of the Englifl} : Not long after which, whether upon the 
AmbafTadors requefi:, or upon other important Affairs intervening, or upon what 
other ground foever it were, the French were fuffer'd to re-enter on the forefaid 
places, and do yet keep Pofleffion of them, till fuch time as the BigUp claim under 
the juft Title of the ^irks, fhall meet with fome fit occafion of being reviv'd. 

That which we fiippofe gives the French fo much the more confidence in their 
claim of this Country, is their prefumption upon the Expedition of James Quartier, 
whom they will have to be the firil Difcoverer, if not PofieiTor , not onely of the 
Ille of Jjfumpiion, but alfo of this Coaft of NoVa Francia, not taking notice it feems . 
ot Sehajiian Cahot, under H^wrj; the Seventh. 

The chief places of Note in this Countrey, are, i. fort<^yal, a Colony of French^ 
faid to have been Planted there by Uonfieur de Mont:^[n 1604. by report, capable of 
receiving a thoufand Ships j and in 1613. (the French being driven out by Sir Sa- 
tnueljrgal, Governor o^ Ftrgmia, who took Prifoners iSiW and M?/^, and demo- 
lilliM the Fort at Tort^^/) given by Patent, as aforementioned, to Sir William Jlex- 
ander • afterwards by him fold again to the French ; then in the time of Oltver Crom^ 
ml re-taken by Major Sedgwick ; laftly, re-poffefs'd by the French %. St. Lukes Say, 
or Tortua Mouton. 3. Gaf^e, or Cachepe. 4. The Hayen ofPajfe^ay. 5. The ^aj de Toutes 

Is. ^ 

yrie* V. 



J M E "1^1 C J. 

Chap. I. 

manner of Ji- 



Scurvy , 
when known. 

i' |J 

Exploit 'of 
dt lit R.oque. 

f)i til Moms, 

IJlcs. 6.rhcFortdelaHeVe. 7,Th Q^^e of Salle. ^J('lchin the SoULhern Point Forc/;«, 
lies the Ide Lotigu, which boafts of a Silver Mine. 

^ The mod noted Peopleof the ancient Inhabitants o^ Jccadie were the Iroquois, \f^ 
ing moil South-Wefterly upon the Sea Coafif, who us'd to drive a great Trade in 
Beavers and other Commodities. 

Wefterly before the River ChoVacoet lies Bacchus Ijle, full of Vineyards. 

The Inhabitants thereof differ very much from other Salvages, for they fliavc 
all the Hair from the Crown of their Head, wear long Locks behind, pleited to- 
aether, and ftuck full of Feathers, Paint their Faces black and red, go arm'd with 
Clubs,' Bows, Pikes, and Arrows pointed with Fiflri.bones : They Till their 
Groun'd very handfomly, and divide their Fields with Hedges ; they Plant To- 
bacco. Vines, Cabbages, Ud^y and divers Coloured Beans 5 the ftalks of theMi^;^ 
ferve in ftead of Poles for their Beans to run up upon. 

Beyond Ca^e de %oder lies the brave Harbor ^eauj^ort, which is fecur'd from all 
Winds by an Ifle which lies in the midfl of it. The Countrey Manur'd in moft pla- 
ces, and Fruitful, feeds (lore of Men and Cattel. 

The Haven of Malabar is furrounded in a manner with little Huts, cover'd with 
Mats, which in the Middle of the Room have a hole for the Smoke to go out at. 
The Southern fliore is Sandy, and very dangerous. 

For the more full exemplification of what concerns this part o^NoVa Francta, we 
fhall conclude with an account of all Material PafTages relating to zhtFrench, from 
their own Narrations as followeth. 

THe fira difcoverer of this Coafl was Jacims Quartkr, fent out Anno 1534. by the 
French King, Francis the Firft, ia which Expedition he fpent five Months ; and 
going from thence to Sz.Male, difcover^d the \n\tt Lam ence, Terr eneuf, and Naufcotec. 
The following year profecuting his Voyage, he Sail'd into the great River Canada, 
andWinterM near St.Cmx,where he lofl divers of his Men by the Scurvy,a Diflem- 
per till that time altogether unknown ■ and fuch was his condition, that none of 
his Men had efcap'd with life, had not the Inhabitants taught him to cure the fame 
with the Bark and Leaves of the Tree Jnnedda ; with which many recovering, 
Quartter Weighed Anchor, and treacheroufly carry d the King "Donnacona with many 
of his Nobles, Prifoners to France ; but moft of them dying, Quartier brought only 
a few of them back with him in his third Voyage, fix years after the firft,when ar- 
livingin the Haven St. (joix, he cafl up a ftrong Fort, which he nam'd Charles^ 
hourg (^oyal, where he flaid a whole Winter. Joan de la (^oque, whom the French 
King had made Governor of Quartier's new-difcovet'd Countries, Sailing thither 
with three Ships, met with Quartier's Fleet near Terreneuf • from whence he was 
then going home, becaufe he law no hopes of fubduing the Salvages with fo fmall 
a Force as^'he had brought with him from France, But de la ^ocjue endeavoring to 
make a further difcovery of a«.^4, Sail'd up the River Saguenay, where fpending 
both time and Money, he was Commanded home by the French King, and the fruit* 
lefs Expeditions lay dead till about 1604. 

Whcnfeterde Monts obtaining Letters Patents to Trade for Furs in the fore- 
mention'd Countries, Sail'd with two Ships beyond Jccadie, up St. LafPrence ^^ay, 
where he Landed on the lOe St. Croix, where of ninety feven Men, with which he 
flaid there a whole Winter, he loll thirty five • but having frefh Supplies fcnt him 
from France , he removed to fort %oyal, where leaving forty Men, he return d 
home 5 thefc forty being reducM to twenty three, and in great want, walking a- 
lons the Sea.Oiore in a dcfpairing condition, efpy'd a Ship coming up with full 

^ Sail, 

Chap. L ^ ^{ M E %_.! C J, 

Sail^ which upon nearer approach, pi-ov-d a French Vcilel, of which foutnncourt 
was Commander, who receiving his wretched with f7reat joy, took 
them with him to Tort ^pyal^ being fent thither on purpofe to fettle a Plantation 
in Jccadie : Meanwhile the Letters Patent granted to Moms, beinor call'd in the RrPc 
planters in Tort ^oyalwcvc forc'd to defert the fame^ and return home 5 and alfo 
ToHtrincoiirt returning, came back again three years after to fort %oyal^ where find- 
ing the Houfes (landing as he had left them, he ManurM the Coimtrcy all about, 
and endeavoring to Plant Chrifilanky among the Natives,, Chriften'd amono- others 
an Accadian Lord, who was above a hundred years old j all which foutriucoHrt Sail- 
ing back to France^ related at the Court. 

The y^/w/fi being alfo inform'd thereof, obtain'd leave of the Qneen to fend 
feter Biard and Euemoiid Majje thither, on pretence/ that Hnirj)/ the Fourth had him^ 
felf promis'd them the fame Priviledge in his Life time. But the Merchants at Diep^ 
which were cjoncern'd in the new Plantations with Toutrincourt, oppofincj the cto= 
ing over of the foremention'd Jefuits, exprefs'd themfelves very violent againd 
them, and laid totheir charge the Blood of the late King, which they faid was 
yet reaking in Taris : What ajfurance (alleadg'd they) had their Goods iphkh i\)ere in the 
Cuftody of MeniiicUnd to the Spaniards'^ Muft the Chriftian, Religion he promuUated ? 
There are Jo many Orders 0/ Monks li>hich may eafdj produce tli>o Men j hut if the Queen -^as 
refolVd to fend Jefuits thither, they defird reftauration of the Monies l^hich they had dtf^ 
hurs'd : To which Biard and Majfe harkening , gathered up the demanded Mo- 
nies, under pretence of being required towards the Preaching of the Gri/?w/7 %/i. 
^ion amongftthefe remote Fieathens 5 by this means getting great Sums^they boughc 
out the foremention'd Merchants, fo that the new Plantations fell half to theje- 
fuits, who fetting Sail, and arriving at Tort ^oyal, turned all things topfiturvy, 
and fo thwarted Toutrincourt in his defigns, that he was forc'd to complain to the 
French Court of the Jefuits opprefTion, whofe aim it was to get all thinas into their 
own Pofle/Tion 5 w^hereupon they Excommunicated foutrincourt's Son (who ferv'd 
in his Father's place at Court, and oain d the Duke GuereheVdle in Frofice to be of 
their Party, by promifing him, that he fliould fliare in the new Plantations for a 
contracted Sum of Money : After this they received all fores of Arms and Ammu-^ 
nition, with feveral Brafs Guns, of the rhen King Le^wthe XIII. and other gifts 
Colleaed and gathered out of their feveral Societies, for two new Acadian Apo- 
ftles. Gilbert dti Thetj a fubtile man of the fame Order, tranfported their Necef- 
faries. ~ 

At this time all things going favorably with the Jefuits, they made themfelves 
Mailers of Tort ^oyal, and began to raife a Fort on the River Temta^ovet ; but there 
their happy Proceedings were llop'd, for Captain Jrgal before-mention'd, Sailing 
thither in vindication of the En^HJI? , was encountered by du Ihet, (who firing the 
Bx^ Gun on Argal, was by him taken off with Chain.fliot ) and taking Si^ri and 
Map, carry 'd them Prifoners to Virginia, and difmantled the Fort built at Tort%py. 
al, after which it was by King James ^iy en hy Patent to Sk William Alexander, as 
hath been already related, together with what of moll remarkable hath happen^ 


Oi Poiityin- 
court. - 

ble Tr.iniath' 
om of fume 


b E G T. 


J M E R I C J. 

Chap. !• 

whence de- 

Towns and 
Cities not 




Sect. VI. 



'Orumhe^ua, lying between Nova 5corij Northward, and Ne> England South- 
ward"^ is' Co utterly not taken notice oFby many as a diftind" Province, it might feem to be fwallow'd up and loft in the two Countreys be- 
tween which it lies, or at leaft to be thought a part ofFtrgima or New England (for 
F»"^n2ia laraely taken is faid to contain Nen^ England, NoVum Mgium, and Vtrgtma, 
efpecially focall'd) and that fomuch the rather, becaufe the <Beffabees, accounted by 
Sanjm d' AhkVtlk an ancient People of Heiv England, are written to have liv'd near 
the Pviver Tenobfcot, which is reckoned to be the fame with (pemtegom, or (as fome 
will have it) Kormnhegua, from which, or from a certain great City of that Name, 
the Country for fancy^s fake muft needs be denominated ; but fince moft com. 
monly we find it nam'd and treated of apart, it will not be improper to follow 
that method, carrying the Bounds of New England no farther Northward than the 
River Qutnnebcquior: Sagadahoc, and fo determining the main part of this Countrcy 
to that fpace between the aforefaid River and Temtegom, excepting a fmall Sou- 
therly portion upon the Banks of the River aoV^com ; fo that it appears chiefly 
fituate under the forty third Degree of Northern Latitude. 

As for the Towns or Cities of this Province, there is but a very uncertain ac- 
count to be given, forafmuch as the pretended great City Norumhegua, from whence 
the Province Oiould take its Appellation, is not acknowledged by any of the moft 
authentick modem Writers, norin any late Voyage or Difcovery any mention 
made either of that or any other confiderable Town or City. Dr". Beyltn fuppc 
feth it to be no other than Jggunaa, a poor little Village, that feems compost of a 
company of Hutts cr Sheaves, covered with the Skins of Beafts, or the Barks of 
Trees. But the, moft favourable conjedure is, that it might haply be the Ruines 
of an ancient Town, which the Natives call'd Jramheck, and had probably defertcd 
it long before the arrival of the Europeans in thofe parts • however, it is not very 
probable that the Name of the Countrey fhould be deriv'd from this City, if ever 
there were any fuch, or from the River, which appears to have been termM No- 
rumhegua on purpofe to make way for this derivation, whereas fo?ntegoyet is the an- 
cient Appellation that properly belongs to it j nor hath any modern one been ap- 
ply'd to it but that of ^lo Grande, by Buno in his Comment upon fhilip CluVenu^, upon 
what ground is hard to tell, fince it is obferv'd by Heylm and others, to be neither 
large, nor otherwife much to be commended, being Navigable not above twenty 
or thirty Miles, in refpea of its many great Cataraas and Falls of Water, an In- 
convenience with which many other Rivers oUmenca^tc prejudic'd, and rendred 


Before and about the Mouth of this River, which is judg'd to be about eight or 
nine Miles broad, lie many fmall Iflands, or rather Hills, inviron'd with Water, 
the chiefeft of which is by the French callM La Haute Ijle, from the high and Moun^ 
tainous appearance of it to thofe that fee it from afar off at Sea. 

TheaforementionM!B/o/o, though he names, as belonging to Nomw^^^.t, thefe 
feveral places, vi^- foyto del Refugio, Torto (^ale, Tarad,fo, Flora, and Angolema, from 
fome obfcure French teftimonies, without particularifing any Author, yet he after- 
wards confclTes, that the Names given by the French, and thofe applyM by the 5p^. 
?2/Wy, are fo various and difagreeing, and breed fuch a confufion, that no Charts 

• As 

or Defcriptions had concluded upon either. 


Chap. II. . A M E%^1 C A. 

As for thofe who will have Korumhega derived from Nor^)^cgia, in refped of a Co» 
lony brought thither from ?{prwey, if the Etymologic be not a little too much 
forc'd, the Invention may pafs well enough till a better be found out. 

In this Countreythe temperature of the Air is not bad;, nor the Soil unfruitful, 
if it were well cultivated, chiefly towards the Rivers, and where it is not either 
overgrown with Woods, or craggy with Hills and mountainous Rocks : neither 
are the Woods unprofitable, for they afford good Timber^, and all kind oF neceflary 
and ufeful Wood, efpecially Beeches, Fir-trees, Wallnut-trees, and other Nuts : 
The Plains are very pleafant, and yield good Pafturage, onely the Maritime Coafts 
are fo (hallow and full of Sands, that the Sailing near them is accounted fome- 
what dangerous J and this may be imagined to be the reafon that no Authors have 
yet met with any Ports or Havens belonging to this Countrey, which they have 
thought w^orthy their notice. 


rature and 
ri.iture ot its 

j3.x jj^, A*. j*», jf**, j^. »*> jh. j^. 

^r/= ^> ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ni ^'i i*"* ^"^ ^^ if"^ ^^ C\ ^'^ ^^ ^^ ^<i* ij^'i ^i ink ^\ ^** ^^ if*'^ ^"i ^"^ ^*^ ''" •"'^ '%< ^ rty tfn ifn j^ ^ 

' mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmimi mmmmmmlm 

CHAP. 11. 



As Catiada is by fome accounted a general Province, containing IS^ew France^ 
V Mcadie ^'^rumhegaj and other places, fo under Virginia largely taken, are 
comprehended l>{ew England^ Neli? ]S[etherlandsj and Virginia properly fo 
calPd 5 however, fincethat part which vulgarly goes under the Name of F^rgiw^ 
and NeliJ England were poflefs'd, if not difcover'd, at feveral times, and their Plan- 
tations promoted and propagated upon feveral occafions, and by diftind: Interefls, 
and fince ]>(eT^ England hath been look'd upon as a place confiderable enough for 
Perfonsof very eminent quality to concern themfelves in it, we rather are induced 
to confider this Countrey as a principal part, than as any way depen^inor on, or 
being any Branch or Portion of /^^r^m/^. 

It lies between IS^prumhega, which it hath Northward, and New Netherlands South- situation of 
ward, trom forty one to forty five Degrees of Northern Latitude, in the midft of ^''«^- 
the temperate Zone, and paralell to France and fome part of Italy in the Weftern 
Hemifphere, fo that one would think it fhould enjoy the fame temperature of 
Air ; but the contrary is found, for that part which borders upon the Sea is colder, 
partly by reafon that the Sea-waves break the reflexion of the Sun-beams, partly 
by reafon of the abundance of Vapors, which mounting upward, abate the ardor 
of them 5 but the more Inland parts of the Countrey are indifferently warm: 
Moreover it hath been found by certain experience, that thofe Countreys which 
look towards the Eafl, or Sun-rifing, are colder than thofe which lie towards the 
Wefl:, or Sun=fetting, and thofe that have the Evening Winds on them, warmer 
than thofe which have the Morning Winds j which being fo, it fhould follow, 
that the temperature of the Air in thofe Regions is peculiar to the Bodies of thofe 
of our Nation, who being accuflom'd to a Climate fomewhat temperate, are nei- 
ther able to endure extremity of Cold, nor immoderate Heat : Yet there are who 
affirm, th^iNei? England^ though fituate in the midfl: of the temperate Zone, never. 
thelefs feels both extremities of the two oppofite Zones, in the Summer the heat 
of the Torrid, and in the Winter the cold of the Frigid. 

As for thefirfl:difcovery of this Countrey, it is not robe expeded ocherwife ^^';y"/"""' 

, than 



^ M E "KI C J. Chap. 

than that of the diicovery of thole odicr Councrcys hitherto difcoursM of, that is m 
to fiay veiy uncertain j but becaufe the Frenchho2.9i oijoannes Vn-ra^anm (who though ■ 
an J was employ'd by the Fre7ich King Francis the Firfl:J as the firft Difcoverer, 
not onely oFNoV^ Francia^ as hath been already intimated, but alfo of this Coun* 
trey and t'jc adjoyning Coaft and Regions, we fliall not think it impertinent to 
give from their own Relations, a brief view of his Voyage, and afterwards a parti- 
cular Delcription of the £/(g;/iy^ Plantations there,, and of their TranfadtionSj both 
one with another, and between them and the Nations. 1 he Narration of Verra- 
^nm's Voyage is as followeth : 

Voyage rf 

The fetling of 

N command of the Frcwc^-King Francis the V\x{{^']ohnVa'yd;^aniis^ Jmio 1514. 
fctting Sail Weftward from the Canary I0es,difcover'd a low Ammcan Coaft, 
'^ in thirty four Degrees North Latitude^ inhabited by naked People, which be» 
*' hind the fandy Hills facing the Sea;, Manur'd many fruitful Plains. Then Sail- 
^' ing a hundred Leagues along the Shore Northerly, he view'd a Countrey full of 
*^ Vine?^ which grew up amongfl the Boughs of high Trees ; and Sailing up a 
*^ pleafant River, Landed on the Ifland Clandin, full of woody Mountains : thence 
*Mie flood for the main Continent • where after havino- vifited a King, Clad in 
" wrought Deer-skin, he Sail'd by a Bay, at whofe Mouth appeared a Rock in an 
'Mnlet, twenty Leagues J where appear'd five fmall Ifies, all of them exceeding 
^' fruitful. After this (being got a hundred and fifty Leagues to the Northward) 
*^ he found very fj-lvage People, whofe Heads appear'd through Bear*skins and 
" Sea-Calves, By this time having Terreneuf on his Starboard, he returned back to 
" Diepe. , 

Thus ht Verra:^an lis made fome difcovery of the Coaft, which hath fince not 
onely been farther infpeded by the En^lip ^ but aifo by them Planted and call'd 
N^Til? England^ 

This Countrey, whether fiid difcover'd by the faid Verra^anm^ or together 
with the refi: of largely-taksn Vtrgma^ by Sir Walter ^lei^h^ or, as fome fay, by 
Captain Gofnald, in the Year 1601, vvzs [0 well known to the En^liJI? in the be- 
ginning of King Jrf;«e;'s Reign here, that the fetling and carrying on of Plantations i 
in this part o^ America ^ was vigoroufly promoted by many of the moR: eminent Per- " 
fons in England : v^hereupon it was about the Year \6o6. being the fourth Year of 
the faid King, granted by Patent to feveral Lords, Knights, Gentlemen and Mer^ 
chants, under the denomination of The Plymouth Qom^any^ both in favour of thofe 
generous Spirits, who ftudied and endeavored the good of the Publick by foreign 
Plantations, and indulgence to thofe, who not well farisfi'd with the Government 
of Church and State, and willingly tranfporting themfelves and Families thither, 
as to their Afyluni^ could more conveniently be fpar'd than the better affe^led part 
of the People : And although the Colonies at firll fent over fucceedcd not accord- 
ing to expectation, yet in a fhort time there Plantations were brought to very great 
perfedion. Captain Wehnouth, who had been employ'd there by the Lord Arundel _ 
o^ Warder, for the difcovery of theNorth-Wcfl; Paifage, falling (hort of his Courfe^ 1 
hapned into a River on the Coaft o^ America. ci\V<^^Femmaijmd -^ from whence he " 
brouaht five of the Natives for EuQland, three of whofe Names were Ma?wida, 
Sketn}?arroes,3,ndTapjua}itum, and Landing at ^lymGiith, prefented them to Sir Ferdt- 
7inndo Gorges, whom hemadeufe of as Infiiruments for tlie farther advancement of 
thcfe Plantations : they were all of one Nation, but of feveral parts, and feveral 
Families j he kept them wi'''> '^ - three years, andobferving in them an inclination 
to vcrtuous Dcfir^n^:, ■'' , ^' ove the Vulear, he crain'd information from 



Chap. II. 

A M E%^1 C A. 


them wliac great Rivers ran up into the Land, what Men of note were feated en 
them, what Power they were of, how Ally'd, what Enemies they had, and the 
like; and taking fome light from thence, lent away a Ship, furnifli'd with Men, 
and all kind of Neceflaries convenient for the Service intended, under the Com- 
mand of Captain Hmry Chaloung^ a Gentleman of a good Family, and very capable 
for Undertakings of this nature ; and giving him fufficient Inftrudions what to 
do, fenc along with him two of the faid Natives for his better Condud: and Di« 
redion, ordering him by all means to keep the Northerly Gage as high as Cabz 
!BWto/i, till they had difcovcr'd the Main, and then to beat it up to the Southward 
as the Coaft tended, till they found by the Natives they were near the place to 
which they were aflign'd. By that time they were about a hundred Leagues off the 
Ifland o^ CanarUj the Captain fell fick of a Feaver, and the Winds being Wefterly, 
his Company fhap'd their Courfe for the Indiesj and coming to St. John de Torto 
^coj the Captain went afliore for the recovery of his Health, whilft the Company 
took in Water, and fuch other Provifions as they had prefent need of, and fpent 
fome time in Hunting, and other Recreations j after which fteering their intended 
Courfe, they were met with by the Spanijh Fleet that came from the Havana, taken 
Prifoners and carried into Spain, the Ship and Goods being confifcated, the Voyage 
overthrown, and the Natives loft. 

Not long after the fetting out of Chaloung, ThomM Haman was fent by Sir Joh?i 
(pophanij Lord Chief Juftice ofEngla?id, towards the River o£ Sagadehoc, to the fuc- 
cour oiChalomgy if need were j but not finding him^, after he had fcowr'd the CoaO: 
all about, he returned back into En(rland, 

Captain ^nnm was likewife (Int from !BriJlolj who arriving happily in thofe 
Parts, brought back with him at his return the rnoH exad Difcovery of that Coaft 
that ever had been gain'd till then. 

A while after, at the Charge of the faid Sir JoJ?n fopham, a hundred Men were 
fent to fettle a Colony at Sagadehoc, under the Command of George Topham, ^leigh 
Gilbert, Mafter of the Ship, who feared themfelves in a feninftda^ at the Mouth of 
this River j which attempting to difcover, they met with a Wood near to an Ifland, 
diftant from the Line about forty five Degrees, and fome odd Seconds, where they 
eafily went on Shore. In the Year 1608. the Commander of the Colony deceafing, 
and not long after him the Lord Chief Juftice;, who had been the chief that had 
furnifli'd them with frefli Supplies, they returned for England in thofe Ships that 
had been fent them with Succours : At which unexpeded return, the Patrons of 
the Defign were io offended, that for a certain time they defifted from their Enter- 
prizes. In the mean while the French making ufe of this occaiion, Planted Colo= 
nies in divers places, when Sir Samuel Jrgal from Virginia difturb'd their Defigns^ 
and brought away Prifoners all he could lay hold on. 

Suddenly after Captain Hohfon and divers others were fet out with very great 
Preparations, and with them two of the Natives which had been detain'd for 
fome time in England, whom they thought to have made ufe of, the better to draw 
the reft of the Natives to their Commerce j but becaufe a little before twenty four 
of them had been treacheroufly dealt with by one Hunt, they contradcd from 
thence fo great an animofity tow^ards the Englljh, that Captain Hohfon was con- 
ftrain'd to return without effeding any thing. 

In the Year 1^14. Captain John Smith being fent to Fifii for Whales, and feek af- 
ter Mines of Gold and Silver, Landed upon the Id^nd o^ Monahlggan, where he 
found fome ftore of Whales, but not ilich as thofe by whofe Oyl they ufe to make 
fo much profit. 


AMERICA. Chap. 11. 

About the fame time (two oFthe Natives being recovered, Er^cnow of Capawick,^ 
that had efcap'd from Captain Hohfon^ and Ajfacuimt of ^cmmaquid, one of thofe 
that had been taken Prifoners with Qhaloun^) Captain Harly, with Necefiaries con- 
venient for fuch a Voyage, was difpatch'd away by Sir FerdimmU Gorges,x.\\t Earl of 
Sotithampton favouring the Defign, and furnifliing him with Tome Land=Soldiers 
under the Command of Captain Hohfon, who not difcourag'd with his former ill 
Succefs, relolv'd upon a fecond Adventure. 

In the Year 1615. Sir Richard Haktngs undertook a Voyage into thofe Parts by 
authority of the Council of the fecond Colony, but by reafon of the great Wars 
among the Natives, his Obfervations could not be fuch as might give any farther 
light than what had been already received. 

Soon after which Captain Dormer coming for England from Ne^ 'founds Land, and 
Landing at ?lymoutJy, apply'd himfelf to the Governor, by whom he was difpatch'd 
away, with Diredion to meet Captain <^croft, fent away a little before j but <2(p- 
croft being dead by that time Domer could come after him to Virginia, where he 
heard he was, he returning to (/z]?4M7id, was there fet upon by Erpeiiol^, the forc- 
mention'd Salvage, and other Indians that were Confpirators with him ; and within 
a fliort while after at FiJrW"^^, whither he went to be cur'd of the Wounds he re* 
ceiv'd in that AlTaflination, he fell fick and died. 

About the Year 1623. C2L^tz'm1{phert Gorges, newly come out of the Venetian 
War, was employ 'd by the Council of New Englands Affairs as the Lieutenant- 
General, to regulate the Abufes of divers Fifher=men and other Interlopers^ who 
without Licenfe frequented thofaCoafts : for which Service he had affign'd to him 
all that part of the main Land fituate upon the >iorth»Eafl: fide of the Bay of the 


By thefe feveral Colonies fent fo thick one after another, both a full Difcovcry ^ 
of the Countrey came to be made, and a large gap open'd to the free poffe/Iion 
thereof 5 yet in regard of the many difappointments and misfortunes the leveral 
Companies fent over met with, and counting the vaft Charges their fetting forth 
coft the Undertakers, which would have been ftill increased by the need of conti- 
nued Supplies, in all probability ISlf^ England would have been but thinly peopled 
to this day, had not a great Tide of People, poffefs'd with an averfion to the 
Church-Government of £«^/W, and fled into Holland £ov Liberty of Confcimce, ea^ 
gerly taken hold of this opportunity to make themfelves Mafters of their own 
Opinions, and of a Place where they might ered a Government fuitable there- 
unto : and though at firft there were fome Exceptions taken, as if this Countrey 
was to be made a Receptacle of Sedaries, and fuch as condemn d the Ecclefiaftical 
Government of the Nation, infomuch that Sir Ferdinando Gorgesj to whom they ap* 
ply'd themfelves, defiring him to mediate for them to the Council of 2N(fw^ Englands 
Affairs, when they perceiv'd the Authority they had from the Virgt?iia Company, 
could not warrant their abode there, had enough to do (notwithftanding his 
Apology, That thefe things hapned contrary to his expeHation) to wipe away the jea- 
loufie which was entertained of him, it being Ordered, that no more fliould be luf- 
fer'd to pafs into liew England, hwt fuch as fliould take the Oaths of Allegiance and 
Supremacy : yet at laft there was little notice taken who went, perhaps upon con- 
fideration, that the vaft refovt of People thither would be of greater advantage to 
the Plantations, than their different Opinions, at fo remote a diftance, could be pre- 
judicial, fo long as they acknowledged Obedience to the King and Civil Power : 
However, Sir Ferdmando, to clear himfelf the better, mov'd thofe Lords that were 
the chief Actors in the Bufinefs, to refign their Grand Patent to the King, and pafs 

particul ar 


Chap. IL jt^ M ET<^I C J, 

.particular Parents to themfelves of fuch part of the Countrev alonp- the Sea-Coail 
as might befufficientfor them : To this Motion there being a general Affent giveii 
by the Lords, and a Day appointed for the conclufion thereof, an Ad was made 
for the Refigiiation of the Patent, alloting to each Man their feveral Bounds. From 
theuctermoft parts began the Limits of the Lord CMoug^ra^e^ and ended at Hudfons 
^mr. To the Eaftward of which River, for the fpace of fixty Miles in length, 
was placed the Duke of (Richmond's Aflignment : Next to him was fetled the Earl 
otCarlile : Next him the Lord Edward Gorges : Next the Marquefs of Hamilton : 
Then Captain >/;» Mafon : And laftly his own, which extended to the great River 
Sagadehoc, being fixty Miles, and To up into the Main Land a hundred and twenty 
Miles, which he waspleas'd to call by the Name of The Troyince of Main. 

The Landing of the Englijh in ^/jwiowf/; Plantation was very much facilitated by 
the great Mortality thathapned amongft the India?is zhoMt that time, amongft the 
fecodsjNarraganfets, Nianticks, Tarantines, Wippanaps, SLndthoCe o{ Jbargini, Jgijfal^ang, 
and fockanekie, their (powwows, or Dodors, feeing with amazement their Wig^anis, 
or Streets, lie full of dead Bodies, and in vain expeding help from Squantam their 
good, or Ahbamoch their bad God. Not long bcfore,.that blazing Comet, fo much 
talk'd of in Europe^ apppear'd after Sun-fetting in their Horizon South- Weft for the 
fpace of thirty Sleeps, (for fo they reckon their Days). They Landed at firft 
with little or no refiftance, a handful of Men onely being fent before to keep 
poiTeflion for their Companions, who arrived eight days after.; when the Natives 
appearing with theii^ Bowes and Arrows, let fiie their long Shafts amongft them . 
whereupon one Captain J^/'/cj 5?Wi/^ with his Fowling-piece (hot the ftouteft 
Sachem amongft the Indians^ as he was reaching an Arrow from his Quiver - which 
the reft feeing, fled into the Woods and Thickets. - 

The fame Year the Merchant- Jdvenursrs in England fent forth ftore of Servants ti 
provide againftthe Wants of that place ,- amongft whom came over a mix'd Muli 
titude, who fetieS themfelves in the Bofom of the Cape now calFd Gloucefter. 

About the Year 1631. there fled to the EngUp) at Water^own the Indians that dwelt 
thereabouts, for protcdion againft the Tarratines., a fort of cruel and falvage Canni- 
bals, by whom near the Town of S'dKg«/?, in the very dead time of the Night, one 
Lieutenant Walker being ona fudden alarm'd, was fliot through his Coat and Buff 
Jacket with two Indian Arrows. That Night the Englijh ftood upon their Guard, 
and the next, Morning fent word to other parts ; who gathered together, and 
taking counfel,how to quit themfelves of thefe Indians, agreed to difcharge theit 
great Guns • whofe redoubled noife,ratling in the Rocks,ftruck terror into the Indi- 
ans, and causM them to betake themfelves to flight. The Autumn following, others 
of the Lidians, who till then had held a good correfpondence with the Planters, be- 
gan to quarrel about the Bounds of their Land ,. but a great Mortality, by the ra- 
ging of the SmalUPox, breaking out amongft them, put an end to that Contro- 
verfic : There died amongft the reft one of the chief of the Sagamores of the Matta- 
chufets, caU'd Sagamore John, who before his Death had been inftruded in the Chri- 
ftian Faith, and took care that his two Sons fliould be nurtur'd therein. 

In the Year 1635. there arrived feveral Ships with great plenty of Provifions^ 
and manyPerfons of good Quality, and amongft the reft Sir Henry Vane. 

The fame Year the People oUamhridge, otherwife callM lSleit>^town , hearing of a 
fertile place upon the River Camnico,xcmo\d thither,and ereded a new Corporati- 
on by the Name o^^aneaico, being encouragM thereunto by the Lord Say and the 
Lord Brooks, md planting a Forreft at the mouth of the River,caird it Saybrook Forreft. 

About the Year 1638, the P^^woij^ a ftout and Warlike Nation, lying to the 



tl M E %! C J. 




^omh-'Wci}: of the MattachufetSy were difcoverM upon their March within fome few 
Milts of Hartford : Their coming very much terrified all that inhabited therea- 
bouts J but they took onely three Women and returned j one of whom makina a 
violent rcfiftance, had her Brains beaten out j the other two they carried away with 
them, without abufing their Perfons, as it was fuppos'd they would, for they 
efteem'd their own Sha'^Sy being black, beyond our Women. Their chief Defign 
was to learn to make Gunpowder 5 which feeing they could not eftedt, they look'd 
upon their Prize as nothing fo precious as they imagined. 

A little after another M;^« War threatningthe EngUp^^ they refolv'd together to 
fend an Ambaffador to Cannonkus^ chief Sachem of the ISlaraganfitSj endeavoring to 
prevent him from confederating with the Tequods, who (as they had Intelligence) 
were about fending to him to joyn with them ; Cannonkus being grown old, had re- 
fign'd the Government to his Nephew ManttnemOj a ftern Man^ and of a cruel Na- 
ture. The Ambaffadors arriving at his Court, which was about eighty Miles from 
!Bo^ow, the Iwiii^w Prince ajfifembled his chief Councellors, and having Entertained 
the AmbafTadors Magnificently, and Feafted them Royally, gave them Audience ia 
his State-houfe ; where the S4ckm, to manifeft his greater State, lay aloncr upon 
the Ground, with all his Nobility fitting about him, with their Legs doubled up, 
and their Knees touching their Chin : The Englifh Interpreter havincr made his 
^Speech in the Name of the reft, both Cannonkm and the young King cave difcrcet 
Anfwers, fignifying their Refolutions to keep a fair Correfpondence with the Enq- 
lifij and yet not to fallout with the fequods : Who a little after making alfo their 
Addreffes to the fame King, he diflwaded them by many Reafons from making War 
with the Englip?^ and to deliver into their hands thofe Perfons that had murthcr'd 
any of them. The ^equods ncverthelefs, though they feem'd inclinable to his Coun- 
fel, yet they a£ted as Enemies ; for when the EiigUp? fent a Company of Soldiers 
into their Countrey to treat with them about delivering up the Murthercrs, they 
made fliew of willingnefs, but fpying their advantage, betook themfelves to 
their Heels j and whomfoever they took ftragling by furprife, they revil'd and in- 
fulted over in a moft cruel manner, vilifying the Qmftian Religion, and uttering all 
the Blafphemies they could invent. Whereupon they rais'd frefh Souldiers for the 
War, to the number of fourfcore, out of the feveral Towns in the Mattachu/ets, and 
with fome Indian Guides came to their Fort, within which they had pitch'd their 
Wigwams^ the Entrance being on two fides, with intricate Meanders to enter • at 
which were plac'd Indian Bowe-men, who fhotthe foremoft of the EnrrlijJ? . yec they 
had little to boaft of in the end, for the Bngltjh rufhing in through the winding 
Ways, and placing themfelves round the Wtgii>ams^ made a very profperous Shot, 
by direding the Muzzles of their Mufquets againfl: the Indians which lay fleeping 
on the Ground : In the midft of which rouzing terror and confufion they were 
(defeated with little ado, moft of them being either wounded, kill'd, or taken. 
The EngUfh thus animated with the firft Victory, fend their Prifoners to the Pinna- 
ces, and profecutc the War in Hand, marching againft the next Body of the Indians, 
which lay Encamped on a Hill about two Miles diftant, where they gave them a 
fecond Overthrow, flaying many more than in the firft Engagement j the reft flying 
to a very thick inacceflible Swamp or Bog, were there befieg'd by the EngUp • and 
skulking up and down, as they faw their opportunity they would Shoot at them 
with their Arrows, and then fliddenly fall flat along in the Water ; at laft the Eng* 
lt[h finding out a Paflage into the Swamp, utterly defeated them, and put an end 
to the War with the lofs of few Mens Lives, and not many wounded. 

In the Year 1640. there came over a frefh Supply of People into A^tw^ Bigland^md 



Chap. II. ^ A M E%^I C A, 

landing no place to fettle in within any of the former eieded Colonies, thgy re- 
paired to a place callM Long Iflajid, fever'd from the Continent o^NeTi>^HaVen^ about 
fixty Miles off the Sea. 

The Year following the four Colonies, namely the MaJfacJmfets, flpnouth^ Qa- 
neHicOjZnA l>leTi?*HaVe?ij taking into confideration the many Nations that were on all 
fides of them, as the French, Dutch, Jews, and native Indians j asalfo how the three 
firft went to lay claim to Lands they never had any right tO;, and the laft to be con- 
tinually quarrelling and contending, where they faw any hopes of prevailing, by 
Commi/Iioners chofen from the refpedive Colonies^ concluded a firm Confede- 
ration to affift each other in all juft and lawful Wars j upon which there came in 
certain Indian Sachems, as Tomha?n, Miantonemo, Soccanocoh, and Unc^is, who not onely 
fubmitced to the £;/g//i/? Government, but alfo, if occalion were, in matters of 
Controverfie fubmitted to their Arbitration : But the Conteft between Mianto^ 
nemo and Unca^ was too hot to be appeased, (though the English were not wanting to 
interpofc) unlefs by the Blood of one of them, as will appear by the Confequence : 
Unca6 was a Prince of For, viho^Qhi^tMiantonemo, though a much more potent 
Prince, fought to take away by treachery, hiring a young Man of the feciuod Na- 
tion to murther him, as the following Story renders fufpedledj for one dark 
Evening this Sachetn pafling from one Wigi»am to another, was Shot throuah the 
Arm with an Arrow j but recovering the Palace, had the Arrow puU'd out, and 
his Arni cur'd : the young Man that was fufpetSled being examined, how he came 
by that great ftore o^ Warn j^ompe age which was found about him, and being able to 
give no good account, it increased the fufpicion, and induced Uncos to complain to 
the English at a General Court held at 'Bofton : Whereupon the young Man was 
Examined in the prefence of Mtantonemo, who came thither with his Attendants - 
but the young Man tutor'd, as fuppos'd, by Mtantonemo, pretended that Uncos had 
enjoyn'd him to feign that he was hir'd by Mantonmo to kill him : To which Tale 
of his little belief being given, it was concluded upon farther Examination of him 
in private that he had done the Fad ; neverthelefs they let him depart with Mianto- 
nemo, advifing him to fend him home to Uncos ^ but he in (lead of returning him cut 
offhisHead, and forthwith gathered an Army of a thoufand Men to fiaht with 
U?icos 5 who met him with half theMen : the Battel being joyn'd, the Narraganfets, 
though the far greater multitude, were beaten hy the Wawhiggins, through the Va- 
lour of U«c^ their Prince; who perfeded his Vidory by poflTeffing himfelf of the 
Perfon oi Mtantonemo, whom, having put his Life-guard to flight, he carried away 
with him in triumph to the Town o^ Hartford, deSring to have the advice of the 
United Colonies what to do with his Prifoner : Whereupon the Commiflioners 
having had fufficient proof of Mtantonemo's treachery tow^ards this Prince, advis'd 
Uncos to put him to death, but not to exercife that barbarous kind of cruelty which 
is ufual amongft them in thefe Cafes. The Sachem, upon this advice, not long after 
pretended to remove him to a fafer place, but by the Way caus'd him to be Execu- 
ted : His Subjeds and Kindred were troubled at his Death, but the little Princes 
his Neighbors, over whom he had tyranniz'd, rather rejoyc'd. 

In the Year i6^^. the Sons of old Canonnkus, their Father being dead, began to 
fall into hot Contentions with their Neighbors, and being forbidden by the United 
Colonies, they did not ftick to threaten Wars to the Engltjh alfo. Whereupon the 
CommiiTioners rais'd an Army of Horfe and Foot , and made Major General 
Edward Gibbons Commm^et in Chief over them. But the Indians he^xvn^ of this 
Preparation, fent fome of their chief Nobility to the Commiflloners of the United 
Colonies, who were affembled at 'Bofton, to Treat about Peace ; to which the 

R Commif- 




The Com- 
modities of 
this Coun- 
with ths 
Trees and o- 
iher forts of 

A M E %^I C A, Chap. II. 

CommifTioners agreed, upon condition they fliould pay a part of the Charges of 
the War ; and that they ftiould fend four of their Sons for Hoftages till the Sum 
was paid'; and the Hoftages being fent back before the Wa^om was all paid, the two 
Princes, P^y/c^and Uexanmo, upon the fending a Company of Armed Men to de- 
mand it, fent the remainder of the Money. 

In the Year 1647. divers Perfons of Quality ventured tlieir Eftates upon an Iron 
Mill,which they began ^.i^ratntree^hux. it profited the Owners little,rather wafting 
their Stock, the price of Labor in matters of that nature, being double or treble to 

what it is in EnghjuL 

Thefe are the moft material Tranfadions we find delivered by any one which 
hapned from the firft difcovery till the Year before mentioned : what hath hapned 
from that time to this, chiefly relates to the feveral Revolutions that have been in 
Emland, and fhall be therefore taken notice of when we come to fpeak of the Go- 
vernment of thefe Plantations. 

Though there are, who having remained fome time, and been concerned in thofe 
Parts, affirm the Soil of 2^n> England to be nothing fo fruitful as it is believ'd and 
commonly deliver'd to be, yet we think it not improper to give a brief account of 
the Trees and other Plants ; alfo the Beafts, Birds, Fifhes, and other Commodities 
which moft Writers will have to be the produdion of this Countrey, efpecially 
fince we find them compactly fumm'd up by an unknown Writer in the Language 
of the mfes. The recital of the Plants and Trees, which (excepting the Cedtr, 
Saftfras, and Dyers Sumach) are all of the fame kind with thofe that grow in £«- 
rope^ onely differing in nature, according as the Epithets of many of them declare, 
is as follows : 

Trees both in Hills and Plains In plenty be j 
The hng'Wd Oak^ and mournful Cy^rejs Tree j 
SKte-to'^ring fines ^ and Chefnuts coated rough ; 
The lajling Cedar, Ivkh the Walnut tough ; 
The (^;^en-droppmg Fir, for Majlinufe-^ {Spremje-^ 
The 'Boat-men feek for Oars light, neat grown 
The brittle Jfy, the e^^er 'trembling Jsps j 
The broad-fpread Elm, whofe Concave harbors 
The Water'fpungy Alder. good for nought-^ {U^afj)S j 
Small Eldern by the Indian Fletchers fought -, 


The knotty Maple, pallid Birch, Ha-^thor?is j 
The Horn-bound Tree, that to be doyen f corns j 
Which from the tender Vine oft takes his Spoufe^ , 
Who twines embracing Amis about his Boughs. 
Wtthtn this Indian Orchard Fruits be fome 5 
The ruddy Qherry, and the jetty ^lumb ; 
Snake ^murthering Ha^e, with/weet Saxafrage, 
Whofe Leases in Beer allay hot FeaVers rage . 
The Dyers Shumach, "^ith more Trees there be. 
That are both good to ufe, and rare to fee. 


The Beafts peculiar to this Countrey are the Moofe, the %ackoon, and the Mw/i. 1 
(luafl} . the two firft Land«Animals, the laft Amphibious, which with others com- '^ 
mon to them with us, are thus verfifi'd by the abovefaid Author ; 

The Kingly Lyon^ and thejlrong^arm'd Bear ; 
The large limh'd Moofes, ivith the trii^fmg Veer ; 
^ill' darting forcupines, that %ackoons he 
Qaflled itV holloio of an aged Tree j 
The skipping Squirrel, (E^bhet, purblind Hare, 
Immured in the J elf fame Cafde are. 

Lefi red-eyd Ferrets y Vtly Foxes fmuld, 
^hem undermine, if%amperd hut with Mold j 
The (rrim-fac'd Ounce, and raVnous howling Wolf, 
Whofe meagre launch fucks like afwallonnng Gulph-^ 
Black <rlitterinz Otters, and rich Coated Bearer ^ 
The Cmt'fcented Muf quash fmelling eVer, 

Of fuch of thefe as are altogether unknown to us, take thefe brief Defcriptions. 
^hcMoofc, -j-|^e ge^fl. caird a Moofe, is not much unlike red Deer, and is as big as an Ox, 

flow of Foot, Headed like a Buck, with a broad Beam, fome being two Yards 




Chap. 11. . <tA M E %^I C A. 

wide in the Head, their flefh is as good as Beef, their Hides good for Clothing j 
if thefc were kept tame, and accuflom'd to the Yoke, they would be a great Com- 
modity : Firft, becaufe they are fo fruitful, bringing forth three at a time, being 
likewife very uberous : Secondly, becaufe they will live in Winter without any 
Fodder. I'here are not many of thefe in the Majfachufets Bay, but forty Miles to the 
North-Eaft there are great ftore of them* 

The (2(fjdoo«^ is a deep Furr'd Bead, not much unlike a Badger, having a Tail jheFMk<,m. 
like a Fox, as good Meat as a Lamb : Thefe Beafts in the day time lleep in hollow 
Trees, in a Moon-fhine night they go to feed on Clams at a low Tide, by the 
Sea fide, where t\\tEngli[l7 hunt them with their Dogs. 

The Mufqu^JJy is much like a Beaver for fhape, but nothing near fo bia j the 
Male hath two Stones, which fmell as fweet as Musk, and being killed in Winter, 
never lofe their fweet fmell : Thefe Skins are no bigger than a Coney^skin, yet 
arc fold for five Shillings apiece , being fent for Tokens into England ; one good 
Skin will perfume a whole houfe full of-Clothes, if it be right and good. 

The Birds both common and peculiar are thus recited. 

The Maf- 



the Princely Eagle J and the [oaring HcT^k J 
Whom in their unknown li^ays there's none can chawki 
The Humhird for fome Queens rich Qage more jit y 
Than m the "Vacant Wildernefs to Jit. 
The ftvift-lping d Swallow J weeping to and fro, 
Asfwift as Anoip from Tartarian 'Bowe. 
When as Aurora's Infant day new Springs, 
Tl?ere th' morning mounting Lark, herfl^eet lays fngs. 
The harmonious Thruf^,fwtft Tigeon , Turtle ^doye , 
Who to her Mate doth eyer conftant proye : 
TheTuvky-fheafattt, Heath=cock/Partridge rare, 
The Qarrion- tearing CroT^, and hurtful Stare, 
The lo?ig~liyd ^VeHj th' ominous Screech-O^l, 
Who tells, as old IViyes fay^ dtf afters fouL 

The drowfie Madge that leaves her day loVd Kejl, 
^nd loyes to roVe, when Day-birds he at rejl : 
Th'Eehmurthertng Hearn, and greedy Cormorant, 
That near the Creeks in morif? Marj]?es haunt. 
The hcllolping 'Bittern, with the long-leg' d Crane ^ 
^ref aging Winters hardj and dearth of Grain, 
The Siher Swan that tunes her mournful breath. 
To Jlng the Dirge of her approaching death. 
The tattering OldwiVes, and the cackling Geefe, 
The fearful Gull that fhuns the murthering ^eece. 
The flrong'wing' d Silallard, with the nimble Tealy 
And ilLfjape't Loon^who his harfl^ Notes dothfqueaL 
There Widgins, Sheldrakes and Humilitees, 
Sjiites ,Doppers jSea-Larksytn whole million fees. 

Of thefe the Humhird, Loon, and Humility are not to be pafs'd by without parti» 
cular obfervation. 

The Humhird is one of the wonders of the Countrey, being no bigger than a 
Horne^ yet hath all the Dimenfions of a Bird, as Bill, and Wings with Quills, Spi- 
der4ike Legs, fmall Claws : for Colour, (lie is as glorious as the Rain.bow ; as ftie 
flics, flie- makes a little humming noife like a Humble-bee, wherefore flie is called 
the Humbird, 

The Loon is an ilUfhap'd thing like a Cormorant, but that he can neither go nor 
flie J he maketh a noife fometimes like Sowgelders Horn. The Humilities or Sim- 
plicities (as we may rather call them) are of two forts, the biggeil being as large as a 
green Plover j the other as big as Birds we call I^ots in England, Such is the fim- 
plicity of the fmaller forts of thefe Birds , that one may drive them on a heap like 
fo many Sheep, and feeing a fit time flioot them 5 the living feeing the dead, fettle 
themfclves on the fame place again, amongO: which the Fowler difcharges again : 
Thefe Birds are to be had upon Sandy Brakes, at the latter end of Summer before 
the Geefe come in. 

No lefs Poetical a Bill of Fare is brought of the Fifii on the Sea»Coafts, and in the 
Rivers of NeM? H/ig/W in thefe fubfequent Verfes. 

R % ~ Tk 

The Muni' 

The Loan. 

The Hum'f 
lityy or Sitti' 



iSlBBEKJiLJ 11.^1 ^ 


A M E "B^I C J. 

Chap. II. 


The IQng of Waters, tht SeapouhUrvj^Whale, 
The [nuffm^ GrampM, with the Oily Seale, 
The^ftoryn prefacing TorpuSj Hern?i^-Hog, 
Lhie-fheariHg Shark, the Catfif^j and SeaVog, 
The Scak'fenc'd Sturgeon, 'U^-y- mouth' d Hollibut^ 
The floiiupjig Salmon, CodfijJ?, Greedigut : 
Cole, Had dock, Hage^the Tl.ornhack,and the Scale, 
Whoje filmy out fide makes hhn/eld In date, 
The flately Baf?, old Neptune's fleeting Toji, 
That Tides It out and In from Sea to Coajl, 
Confortlng Herrings, and the honny Shad, 
%(r.hell)'d Jlewiyes, Mackrtlls richly clad 

The Seai. 

Tht Sbarli, 


The Bafe. 


Clumms ol 

With ^ainhoy^ colours, Frojlfjlyand the Smelt, 
jis good as ever Lady Gu{}:us felt. 
The Jpotted Lam^rons, Eels, the Lamperies, 
That feekfrefl) Water-'Brooks with Argus Eyes, 
Thefe watery Villagers, with thoufands more, 
Do pafs and repajs near the "Verdant Shore. 

Kinds of Shell-fifii. 
Tl?e lufclous Lohjler, with the Qrahfish raw. 
The brinish Oyfler, Mufcle, fcriwigge, 
AndTortolfe fought for by the Indian Sqaw, 
Which to the Flats dance many a Winters fig'^s, 
TodlVe for Cocks, and to dig for Cla?ns, 
Whereby her la^e Husbands guts she crams. 

To fpeak of the mod unufual of thefe forts of Fifii j Firfl the Seal, which h 
called the Sea-Calf, his Skin is good for divers ufes, his Body being between Flefh 
and Fifh, it is not very delegable to the Palate, or congruent with the Stomack • 
his Oil is very good to burn in Lamps, of which he affords a great deal. 

The Shark is a kind of Fifli as big as a Man, fome as big as a Horfe, with three 
rows of Teeth within his Mouth, with which he fnaps afunder the Fifliermans 
Lines, if he be not very circumfpe^a : This Fidi will leap at a Mans hand if it be 
over board, and with his Teeth fnap ofFa Mans Leg or Hand if he be Swimmingj 
thefe are ofcen taken, being good for nothing but Manuring of Land. 

The Hollibut is not much unlike a Pleace or Turbut, fome being two yards long^ 
and one wide, a Foot thick j the plenty of better Fifli makes thefe of little efteem, 
except the Flead and Finns, which Stew'd or Bak'd is very good j thefe HoUihuts be 
little fet by while Baffe is in feafon. 

The 'Baffe is one of the beft Fiflies in the Countrey , and though Men are foon 
tveary'd with other Fifh, yet are they never with Baffe j it is a delicate, fine, fat, faft 
Fifli, having a Bone in his Head which contains a Sawcerful of Marrow, fweet 
and good, pleafant to the Palate, and wholfom to the Stomack : When there be 
great ftore of them, we only eat the Heads , and Salt up the Bodies for Winter^ 
which exceeds Ling or Haberdine : Of thefe Fiflies fome are three, and fome four 
Foot long, fome bigger, fome lefler j at fome Tides a Man may catch a dozen or 
twenty of thefe in three hours ; the way to catch them is with Hook and Line : 
The Fiflierman taking a great Cod4ine, to which he fafleneth a piece of Lobller, 
throws it into the Sea, the Fifli biting at it , he pulls her to him^ and knocks her 
on the head with a Stick. 

Aleiviyes are a kind of Fifli which is much like a Herring, which in the later end 
o^ April come up to the frefli Rivers to Spawn, in fuch multitudes as is almoft in- 
credible, pre/fing up in fuch fliallow Waters as will fcarce permit them to Swim, 
having likewife f ich longing defire after the frefli Water Ponds, that no beatings 
with Poles, or forcive agitations by other devices^ will caufe them to return to the 
Sea, till they have caft their Spawn. 

Clamms or Clamps, are a ShelUfifli not much unlike a Cockle, they lie under the 
Sand , and have every one of them a round hole to take Air, and receive Wa- 
ter at. When the Tide ebbs and flows, a Man running over iht^tClamtn banks will 
prefently be made all wet, by their fpouting of Water out of thofe fmall holes: 
Thefe Fiflies are in great plenty in moft places of the Countrey, which is a great 
Commodity for the feeding of Swine, both in Winter and Summer j for being 



Chap. il. ^ A M E%^1 C A. i.|.9 

once usM to thofc places, they will repair to them as duly every Ebb, as if chey 



were driven to them by Keepers : in iome places of the Coimirey there be Clcw 
as big as a Persy white Loaf, which are great Dainties amonrrr the Natives, and 
would be in great eileem amongft the EngUshy wevQ it not for better Fill]. 

Other Commodities which this Countrey is faid to yield, are, in down-ripht 

Profe, Furrs, Flax, Linnen, Iron, Pitch, Mafts^ Cables, and fome quantity of Am- 

^^ ber ; Co that if what many Authors have confented to aflert concerning ISJ^ew Eng' 

Wtiand be not a meet Fi(ftion, what e're hath been afiirm'd of the unfruitfulncfs of the 

" Country will demonftrably be found invalid. 

There are alfo to be found here fome hurtful Creatures, of which j that q. ''''"'"' 
which is mofl injurious to the Perfon and Life of a Man is the Rattle-Snake, 
which is generally a yard and a half long, as thick in the middle as the fmall of a 
Mans Leg J fiie hath a yellow Belly, her Back being fpotted with black, ruffet, 
yellow, and green colours, plac'd like Scales ; at her Tail is a Rattle, with which 
fhe makes a noife when fhe is molelled, or when (lie feeth any approach near hefj 
her Neck feems to be no thicker than a Mans Thumb, yet fhe can fwallow a 
Squirril, having a great wide Mouth, with Teeth as fharp as Needles, wherewith 
fhe biteth fuch as tread upon her, her Poyfon lyeth in her Teeth, for (he hath no 
Sting. When any Man is bitten by any of thefe Creatures, the Poyion fpreads To 
fuddenly through the Veins, and fo runs to the Heart, that in one hour it caufeth 
Death, unlefs he hath the Antidote to expel the Poyfon, which is a Root call'd 
Snake-weed^ which mull be champ'd, the Spittle fwallow'd, and the Root apply'd 
to the Sore ; this is prefcnt Cure againft that which would be prefect death with- 
out it: This Weed is rank Poyfon, if it be taken by any man that is not bitten j 
whofoever is bitten by thefe Snakes, his flefh becomes as fpotted as a Leopard, un- 
til he be perfectly cur'd. It is reported, that if the Party live that is bitten, the Snake 
will die, and if the Party die, the Snake will live. This is a moil Poyfonous and 
dangerous Animal, yet nothing fo bad as the report goes of it m England-^ for 
whereas it is faid to kill a Man with its breath, and that it can Hie, there is no fuch 
matter, for it is naturally the moil: (leepy and unnimble Creature that lives, never 
offering to leap or bite any Man, if it be not trodden on firflj and it is their deiire 
in hot weather to lie in Paths, where the Sun may fliine on them, where they will 
fleep fb foundly, that I have known four Men flride over one of them, and never 
awake it j five or fix Men have been bitten by them, which by ufing of Siiake-weed 
were all cur'd, never any yet lofing his life by them. Cows have been bitten, but 
being cut in divers places,and this Weed thruil into their fie{li,v^.ere cur'd j A fmall 
Switch will eafily kill one of thefe Snakes. In many places of the Country there be 
none of them, as at Plymouth, ]>leli^'tolimj Igowamme, Kahant, o^c. In fome places they 
will live on one fide of the River, and fwimming but over the Water, as foon as 
they are come into the Woods, they turn up their yellow Bellies and die. Up into 
the Countrey, Weftward from the Plantations, is a high Hill,which is OLlVd^ttle* 
Snake-Hill , where there are great (lore of thefe Poyfonous Creatures. 
There are likewife troublefome Flies. 

Firfi: there is a wild Bee or Wafp, which commonly guards the Grape, building 
by Cobweb habitation amongil the Leaves : Secondly a great green Flie, not 
much unlike our Horfe-Flies in England-^ they will nipp fo fore, that they will 
fetch Blood either of Man or Beafi: , and are moil troublefome where mofl Cattei 
are, which brings them from out of the Woods to the Houfes j this Flic continues 
but for the Moneth oCJune, The third is Gurnipperj which is a finall black Flie, no 
bigger than a Flea • her biting caufeth an itching upon the Hands or Face, which 

R ] pvovoketH 

■ •«—•» »^ --»- J> -■-<> i 1,^^ . nmsM 



J M E "KI C J. 

Chap. II. 

■'' niru ' 'I'l' ! 


The nature 
of the ancient 

The nature 
of the Mo-a- 

provoketh fcratching, which is troublefome to fome • this Flie is bufie but in clofe 
Mornings or Evenings, and continues not above three Weeks ; the leaft Wind or 
heat exp'els them. The fourth is a Musketor, which is not unlike to our Gnats in 
England, in places where there is no thick Woods or Smmps, there are none or ve- 
ry1"ew.' In the new Plantations they are troublefome for the firft year, but the 
Wood decaying they vaniOi : Thefe Flies cannot endure Wind, heat or cold, fo 
that thefe are only troublefome in clofe thick Weather,and againft Rain, many that 
are bitten will fall a fcratching, whereupon their Faces and Hands fwell. 

As touching the Nature of the ancient Inhabitants, they are to be confider'd ac- 
cordina to their feveral Shires or Divifions ; thofe that inhabit to the Eaft and 
North-'kafl bore the name of Churders and Tarrentems ■ thefe in the Southern parts 
wers c^Wdf equods, 2Lnd Hana^anfets ■ thofe Wellward, Conneciacuts ^nd Mowhacks -^ 
to the North. Weft, of whom were the Ahergimans, 

The MoUacksYJW ever accounted a cruel bloudy People, which were wont to 
come down upon their poor Neighbors, with more, than bruitifh Savagenefs, fpoil- 
ing their Corn, burning their Houfes, flaying Men, ravifliing Women, yea very 
Qambals they were, fometimes eating on a Man one part after another before his 
Face, and while yet living; infomuch, that the very Name of a Uoi^hack would 
ftrike the Heart of a poor Ahergmlan dead, till they had the Englijl^ on their fides to 
fuccor them j for thefe inhumane Homicides confefs that they dare not meddle 
with a white FacM Man, accompany^ with his hot-mouth'd Weapon. 

Thefe Indkns are a People of tall Stature , long grim Vifages , flender Wafted, 
and having exceeding great Arms and Thighs, wherein they fay their ftrength 
lieth J which is fuch, that one of them hath been known to kill a Dog with a fil- 
lip of his Finger, and afterwards to have flead and fod him, and eat him to his Din- 
ner. They a^e fo hardy, that they can eat fuch things as would make otht^ Indians 
fick to look upon ., being deftitute of FiOi and Flefh, they fuffice Hunger and main- 
tain Nature with the ufe of Vegetatives ; but that which theymoft hunt after, is 
the fleOi of Man : Their cuftom is,if they get a ftranger near their Habitations,not 
to Butcher him immediately, but keep him in as good plight as they can, feeding 
him with the beft Victuals they have. 

Thefe Indims are more defperate in Wars than the other W/^^:r, which proceeds 
not only from the fiercenefs of their Natures, but alfo in that they knowthemfelves 
to be better Arm'd and Weapon'd j all of them wearing Sea Horfe Skins and Barks 
of Trees, made by their Art as impenetrable, it is thought, as Steel, wearing Head- 
Pieces of the fame, under which they March fecurely and undantedly, running, 
and fiercely crying out, Hadree Hadree fuccomee fuccomee, We come we come to fuck your 
mod.not fearing the feather'd (hafts of the ftrong-armM,but like unruly 
headftrong Stallions, beat them down with their right-hand Tamahawks, and left- 
hand Javelins, being all the Weapons which they ufe, counting Bowes a cowardly 
fight. Tamahawks are^Staves of two Foot and a half long, with knobs at one end as 
round and big as a Football ; a Javelin is a ihort Spear, headed with Hiarp Sea- 
Horfe Teeth ; one blow or thruft with thefe (harp Weapons, will not need a fecond 
to haftcn death from a Mo^hacks arm. 
ue^nature 'fhc TarrentceHs faving that they eat not Mans fleOi , are little lefs Salvage and 
oftheW,.«; ^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ Cannibals • our Indians do fear them as their deadly Enemies, for fo 
many of them as they meet,they kill.Take thefe Indians in their own proper and na- 
tural difpofition, and they are reported to be wife, lofty.fpirited, conftant in 
friendfliip to one another, true in their promife, and more induftrious than many 

others. ■ ' _, 



} -I 


Chap. II. 

A M E %^ I C A. 


The Tequants are a ftately Warlike People, juft and ecjual m their dealings j not J,tvel'l 
treacherous either to their Country-men^ or En^ltjh^ to whom ( except in time of ^IJi^,^;' 
War) they were not any ways uncivil. Their next Neighbors the Karraganfets, are 
the mod numerous People in thofe Parts, the moft rich alfo^ and the moil induftri- 
ous ; being the Store^houfe of all fuch kind of wild Merchandize as is amongft 
them. Thefe Men are the mofl curious Minters of their lVa?npompeage and Mow- 
hakes, which they form out of the inmoft Wreaths of Periwinkle-fliells. The Nor- 
thern, Eaftern^ and Weflern Indians fetch all their Coyn from thefe Southern Mint- 
Mafters. From hence they have moll of their curious Pendants and Bracelets/rom 
hence they have their great Stone Pipes, which will hold a quarter of an Ounce 
of Tobacco, which they make with Steel Drills and other InftrumentS; fuch is 
their Ingenuity and dexterity, that they can imitate the EngUjhWiolA fo accuratelv, 
that were it not for matter and colour, it were hard to diftinguifii them ; they 
make them of gneen, and fometimes of black Stone -, they are much delir'd of our 
Biglifi Tobacconifts, for their rarity, ftrength, handfomnefs, and coolnefs. Hence 
likewife our Indians had their Pots, v^hereinthey us'd to feeth their Viduals before 
they knew the ufe of Brafs. Since the EngUfh came, they have employed mofl: of 
their time in catching of Beavers, Otters, and Mufquashes, which they bring down 
into the Bay, returning back loaden with English Commodities, of which they 
make double profit, by felling them to more remote Indians^ vvho are ignoranc 
at what cheap rates they obtain them, in comparifon of what they make them pay, 
fo making their Neighbors ignorance their enrichment : They were never known 
to be defirous to take in hand any Martial Enterprize, or expofe themfelves to the 
uncertain events of War ; wherefore the Tequants call them WomenAike Men, reiling 
fecure under the conceit of their popularity, and feeking rather to grow rich by in- 
duftry, than famous by deeds of Chivalry. 

Mofl: of thefe Northward Indians arc between five and fix Foot high,fl:raight Bo* 
dy'd, fl:rongly compos'd, fmooth Skin'd, merry Countenanced, of Complexion 
more fwarthy than the Spaniards^ black Hair'd, high Foreheaded, black Ey'd, out- 
Nos'd, broad Shouldered, brawny Arm'd, long and flender Handed, outBreafl:ed, 
fmall Wafl:ed, lank BeliyM, wellThigh'd, flat Kneed, with handfome grown Legs, 
and fmall Feet : In a word, take them when the Blood skips in their Veins, when the 
Flefli is on their Backs, and Marrow in their Bones, when they frolick in their an* 
tique Deportments and Indian Pofl:ures, they are more amiable to behold (though 
onely in Mam's Livery) than many a trim Gallant in the newefl: Mode j and 
though their Houfes are but mean, their Lodging as homely, Commons fcant, their 
Drink Water, and Nature their befl: Clothing, yet they fl;ill are healthful and lufty. 
Their fmooth Skins proceed from the often anointing of their Bodies with the Oyl 
ofFiflies, and the fat of Eagles, with the greafe of (^^c/:oo«y, which they hold in 
Summer the befl: Antidote to keep their Skin from bliftering with the fcorching 
Sun 5 it is their befl Armor againfl: the Musket oe s ^ and the furefl: abrafour of the 
hairy Excrement , and fl:ops the Pores of their Bodies againfl: the nipping Winters 
cold. Their black Hair is natural, yet is brought to a more Jetty colour by Oyl- 
ing. Dying, and daily dreiling 5 fom.etimes they wear it very long, hanging down 
in a loofe diflievel'd Womaniflb manner, otherwife ty'd up hard and fhort like a 
Horfe Tail, bound clofe with a Fillet, which they fay makes it grow the faflcr j 
they are not a little Phantaftical in this particular j their Boys being not permit- 
ted to wear their Hair long till lixteen years of Age, and then they mud come to it 
by degrees ; fome being cut with a long foretop, a long lock on the Crown, one 
of each fide of his Head, the reft of his Hair being cut even with the Scalp ^ the 



The nature 
aiii complexi- 
on of the A- 

■B£ a^BWim II 




Chap. II. 

Thr Appa- 
rel , Oini- 
nieius, Paint- 
ingsanl ether 
Deckings of 
the Indians. 

Their Diet, 
an J Hofpi- 
talityat their 

young Men and Soldiers wear their Hair long on the one ^At , the other being 
cue {liort like a. Screw; other cues they have as their Fancy leads them, which 
would torture the Wits of the mod exa^: Barber to imitate. But though they are 
thus proud of the Hair of their Head, you cannot wooe them to wear it on their 
Chins, where it no fooner grows, but it is ftubbM up by the roots, for they count 
it as an unufeful, cumberfome, and opprobrious excrement, infomuch as they call 
him an English Mans Baftard that hath but the appearance of a Beard. 

The Cioathing of the Indians is only a pair of hulicDi Breeches to cover their fe. 
cret Parts, which is but a piece of Cloth a yard and a half long, but between their 
Groins, ty'd with a Snakes Skin about their middles, one end hanging down with 
a flap before, the other like a tail behind. In the Winter time , the more Aged of 
them wear Leather Drawers, in form like Irish Troufes, faden'd under their Girdle 
with Buttons : They wearShooes likewife of their own making, cutout Q^a.Moofcs 
Hide; many of them wear Skins about them, in form of an /Wj/j Mantle, and of 
thefe fome are Bears Skins, Moo/es Skins,and Beaver Skins fewM together, others Ot> 
ter Skins, and %ackoon Skins ; mod of them in the Winter having his deep Furr'd Cat 
Skin, like a large Muff, which he fhifts to that Arm which lieth mod expos'd to 
the Wind. Although they are poor, yet is there in them the fparks of natural 
Pride, which appears in their longing delire after many kind of Ornaments, wear- 
incT Pendants in their Ears, in form of Birds, Beads, and Fifhes, Carv'd out ot 
Bone, Shells, and Stone, with long Bracelets of their curious wrought Wam^om^eage 
and Momhackees, which they put about their Necks and Loins j thefe they count a 
rare kind of Decking; many of the better fort bearing upon their Cheeks certain 
Pourtraitures of Beads, as Bears, Deers, Moo/es, Wolves, O^c. fome of Fowls, as of 
Eagles, Hawks, o-c. which is not a fuperdcial Painting, but a certain Incifion, or 
elfe a raifing of their Skin by a fmall fharp Indrument, under which they convey 
a certain kind of black unchangeable Ink, which makes the defir'd form apparent 
and permanent. Others have certain round Impreffions down the outfide of their 
Arms and Breads, in form of Mullets or Spur-rowels, which they imprint by fear^ 
ing Irons : Whether thefe be Foils to illudrate their unparallei'd Beauty ( as they 
deem it) or Arms to blazon their antique Gentilicy, cannot eafily be determined : 
But a Seoamore with a Bumhird in his Ear for a Pendant, a black Hawk on his Head 
for his Plume, MoHohackees for his Gold Chain , good dore of V/ampojnpeage begirt- 
ing his Loins, his Bowe in his Hand, his Quiver at his Back, with fix naked Indian 
Lacquies at his Heels for his Guard, thinks himfelf little Inferior to the great 


In Winter time they have all manner of Fowls and Beads of the Land and Wa- 
ter, Pond^fifli, with Cathaires and other Roots, Indian Beans and Clamms ; in the Sum- 
mer they have all manner of Sca-fini, with all forts of Berries. For the ordering 
of their Victuals, they Boil or Road them, having large Kettles which they Traded 
for widi the French long fince, and do dill buy of the Englijh as their need requires, 
before they had fubdantial Earthen Pots of their own making. Their Spits are no 
other than cloven Sticks, fliarpen'd at one end to thrud into the ground; into 
thefe cloven Sticks they thrud the Flcfli or Fifli they would have Roaded, behem- 
ming a round fire with a dozen of Spits at a time, turning them as they fee occafi- 
on. They feldom or never make Bread oUhdx Indian Corn, but feethe it whole 
like Beans, eating three or four Corns with a mouthful of Fidi or Flefli, fome- 
times eating Meat fird, and Corns after, filling the Chinks with their Broth. In Sum- 
mer, when their Corn is f^Qnt.Sqouterfqua^hes is their bed Bread, a Fruit like a young 
Pumpion : But as all arc fellows at Foot- ball, fo they all meet Friends at the Ket- 


Chap. II. ^ ^ ^ M E%^1 C A. 

tie, faving their Wives, that Dance a SpanicLlike attendance at their Backs for 
their Fragments. If their occajfions caufc them to Travel, the bell of their Vitluals 
for their Journey is Kocah, (as they call it) which is nothing but Indian Com 
parch'd in the hot Afiies ; the Aflies being fifted from it, it is afterwards beaten to 
Powder, and put into a long Leathern Bag, trufs'd at their Back like a Knapfack, 
out of which they take thrice three Spoonfuls a day, dividing it into three Meals! 
If it be Winter,and Snow be on the ground, they can eat when they pleafe, making 
ufeof Snow for their Drink; in Summer, they muft flay till they meet with a 
Spring or Brook ; with this ftrange ruiaticum they will travel four or five days to- 
gether. They keep no Set-Meals, their Store being fpent, they champ on the Bit, 
till they meet with frefli Supplies, either from their own endeavors, or their Wives 
induflry, who trudge to the Clanuhanks when all other means fail. Though they 
are fometimes fcanted, yet are they as free as Emperors, both to their Countrey- 
men and Eri^ltsh, be he flranger, or near acquaintance ; counting it a great difcour- 
tefie, not to eat of their high-conceited Delicates. 

Their hardinefs is much to be admir'd, no ordinary pains making them fo much 
as alter their countenance ; beat them, whip them, punch them, if they put on a 
refolution, they will not winch for it ; whether it be their benumm'd infenfible* 
nefs of fmart, or their hardy refolutions, is hard to refolve ; It might be a fertllus 
his Bull, or the Rack might force an out-cry from them , but a Turkish drubbing 
would not move them , the unexpeded approach of a mortal Wound by a Bul- 
let, Arrow, or Sword, flriking no more terror, nor caufing no more exclamation 
in them,than ifit had been a fliot into the body of a Tree; fuch Wounds as would 
be fudden death to an English yi2.n , would be nothing to them- whether it be, 
that by their rare skill in the ufe of Vegetatives,or by Diabolical Charms,they cure 
them ; neverthelefs, the very name and thoughts of death is fo hideous to them, or 
any thing that prefents it fo terrible, that a hundred of them will run from two or 
three arm'd with Guns. In the Night they need pot to be feared, for they will not 
budge from their own Dwellings, for fear of their Jbamacho (the Devil) whom 
they much fear, fpecially in evil enterprizes, they will rather lie by ai^ E?iglish fire 
than go a quarter of a Mile in the dark to their own Dwellings ; but they are well 
freed from this Scare.crow fince the coming of the English, and lefs care for his de- 

Now for the matter of Government amongfl them; it is the cuflomof their 
Kings to inherit, the Son always taking the Kingdom after his Fathers death. If 
there be no Son, then the Qiieen rules; if no Queen, the next to the Blood-Royal,, 
who comes in otherwife, is but counted an ufurping Intruder, if his fair carriage 
bear him not out the better, they will foon Unfcepter him. Some fay the chief 
^owahe is next in Dignity and Authority to the King,and when he dies, Marries the 
S^uafachemyOv Queen. 

The Kings have no Laws to Command by, nor have they any annual Revenues; 
yet commonly arc they fo either fearM or belov'd, that half their Subjeds eflate is 
at their Service, and their Perfons at his Command, by which Command he is 
better known than by any thing elfe ; for though he hath no Kingly Robes to make 
him glorious in the view of his Subjeds, nor daily Guards to fuccor his Perfon,nor 
Court-like attendance, nor fumptuous Palaces ; yet do they yield all fubmifTive 
fubjeaion to him, accounting him their Soveraign ; going at his Command, and 
coming at his Beck, not fo much as expoftulating the caufe, though it be in mat- 
ters thwarting their wills • he being accounted a difloyal Subjed that will not'ef- 
fed what his Prince Commands Whofoever is known to PlotTreafon, or to lay 



Of their 

Of their 
Kings , Go« 
and Subjefts 


<il M E %I C J. 

Chan. II. 





violent hands on his lawful King, is prefently Executed. Once a Year he takes his 
Progref:, acconnpanied with a dozen of his beft Subjeds, to view his Countrey, to 
recreate hirafelf, and eftablifli good Orders. When he enters into any of their 
Hoafes, without any more Complement, he is defirM to lit down on the Ground^ 
(for thiy ule neither Stools nor Cufhions) and after a little refpite all that are pre- 
fentcomein, and fit down by him, one of his Seniors pronouncing an Oration 
gratulacory to his Majefly for love, and the many good things they enjoy under 
his peaceful Government. A King of large Dominions hath his Vice-Roy 3, or in- 
ferior Kings under him, to agitate his State Affairs, and keep his Siabjecfts in good 
Decorum. Other Officers there are, but how to di[};inguifh them by Name is fome- 
thingdifficult. For their Laws, as their Vices come fliort of many other Nations, 
fo they have notfo many Laws, though they are not without fi^me, which they in* 
Aid: upon notorious Malefactors, as Traitors to their Prince, inhumane Murthe- 
rers,and, fome lay, Adulterers : for Theft, as they have nothing to fteal worth the 
Life of a Man, therefore they have no Law to Execute for Trivials, a Subjedl being 
more precious in the Eye of his Prince, than, where Men are fo fcarce, to be cad 
away upon fo fleight a matter. A Malefactor having deferv'd Death, and being 
apprehended, is brought before the King, and fome other of the wifefl: Men, where 
they enquire out the original of the thing, after proceeding by aggravation of Cir- 
cumftances he is found Guilty, and Caft by the Jury of their 9cndi Inquifition,- he 
is Condemned and Executed in the following manner : The Executioner comes 
in, who blind.=folds the Party, fets him in the publick view, and Brains him with a 
Tamahaukej or Club j which done, his Friends bury him. 

Now to fpeak fomething of their Marriages^ the Kings and the Toli'f^o'^s, or great 
Do(5tors, may have two or three Wives, but feldom ufe it, Men of ordinary Rank 
having but one J which difproves the report, that they had eight or ten Wives 
apiece. When a Man hatha defire to Marry, he firft gets the good will of the 
Maid or Widow, after, the confent of her Friends for her part j and for himfelf, if 
he be at his own difpofing,and if the King will, the Match is made, her Dowry of 
Wampompeage paid, the Sagamore or King (who for every Marriage hath a Fathom of 
Wampompeage, which is about the value of feven or eight fhillings) joyns their Hands, 
never to part till Death, unlefs fhe prove a Whore, for which they may put away 
their "Wives. 

As it is natural to all Mortals to worfhip fomething, fo do thefe People, but ex- 
actly to defcribe to whom their Worfhip is chiefly bent, is very difficult : They 
acknowledge efpecially two, K^etan^ fome fay Tantum, their good God, and Hoba» 
mocco, fome fay Squantum^ their evil God • \.o K^tan they Sacrifice (as the ancient 
Heathens did to Ceres) after their Garners be full with a good Crop. They like- 
wife Invocate this God for fair Weather, for Rain in time of Drought, and for the 
recovery of their Sick J but if they do not hear them, then they verrifie the old 
Verfe, FieciereftnequeoSuperosJcherontayno'\t^o')^^^o'ws betaking themfelves 
to their Exorcifmes and Necromantick Charms, by which they bring to pafs 
ftrange things, if we may believe the hidiansj who report of one Ttjfacaimaii?, that he 
could make the Water burn, the Rocks move, the Trees dance, and metamorphole 
himfelf into a f^ammg Man. In Winter, when there is no green Leaves to be got, 
he would out of the Aflies of an old Leaf, calcin'd and put into the Water, pro- 
duce a new g-rcen Leaf : And of a dead Snakes Skin, a livins; Snake, both to be 
feen, felt and heard. The manner of their acftion in their Conjuration is thus : 
The Parties that are fick or lame being brought before them, the Tcw'Pjow fitting 
down, the refl of the Indians giving attentive audience to his Imprecations and In- 

Of their 
Wor/hip, In- 


Chap. IL 

A M E%^I C 


vocations, and afcer rhe violent expre/Tion of many a liideons bellowing and groan- 
ing he makes a flop, and then all the Auditors with one voice utter a fiiort Canto - 
which done;, the ^olfo'^oip ftill proceeds in his Invocations, fomctimes roaring like 
a Bear, other times groaning like a dying Horfe, foaming at the Mouth like a cha- 
fed Boar, fmiting on his naked Bred and Thighs with fuch violence, as if he were 
mad : Thus will he continue fomctimes half a day, fpendinghis Lungs, fweating 
out his Fat, and tormenting his Body in this diabolical Worfhip, Sometimes the 
Devil, for requital of their Worfiiip, recovers the Party, to nuzzle them up in 
their devillifli Religion. But fiace the En^t^h (upon whom, and in whofe prefencc 
it is faid the Towwows could never work their Witchcrafts) frequented thofe Parts, 
they daily fall from his Colours, relinquifliing their former Fopperies, and ac- 
knowledge the Power of the EfigUjh-mzns God,as they call him. And it is reported 
of them, that at the very firft they were fo tradable to the Qlmjlian Religion, that 
they would fay King James was good, and his God good, but their Tanto nought, 
though of their two Gods he was accounted the good one. 

They ufe no other Weapons in War than Bowes and Arrovifs, faving that their of t^iejs 
Captains have long Spears, on which, if they return Conquerors, they carry the 
Heads of their chief Enemies that they flay in the Wars, it being the Cuftom to 
cut off their Heads, Hands and Feet, to bear home to their Wives and Children^ as 
true tokens of their renowned Vidory. When they go to their Wars, it is their 
Cuflom to paint their Faces with diverfity of Colours, fome being all black as Jet, 
fome red, fome half red and half black, fome black and white, others fpotted with 
divers kinds of Colours, being alldifguis'd to their Enemies, to make them more 
terrible to their Foes, putting on likewife their rich Jewels, Pendents, and Wampom^ 
page J to put them in mind that they Fight not onely for their Children, Wives and 
Lives, but likewife for their Goods, Lands and Liberties. Being: thus Arm'd with 
this Warlike Paint, the antique Warriors make towards their Enemies in a difor- 
der'd manner, without any Soldierlike Marching, or Warlike Poftures, being deaf 
to any word of Command, ignorant of falling off or on, of doubling Ranks or 
Files, but let flie their winged Shaftfmen without either fear or wit : Their Artil- 
lery being fpent, he that hath no Arms to Fight, finds Legs to run away. 

They have two forts of Games, one call'd ^uim^ the other Huhhuh^ not much un- 
like Cards and Dice, being no other than Lottery, fuim is fifty or fixty fmall Bents 
of a Foot long, which they divide to the number of their Gamefters, (huffling them 
firfl between the Palms of their Hands ; he that hath more than his Fellow, is fo 
much the forwarder in his Game : Many other Whimfies be in this Game, which 
would be too long to commit to Paper. He that is a noted Gamefter hath a Hole 
in his Ear, wherein he carries his fu'ms in deSance of his Antagoniils. Hubbub is 
five fmall Boi)es in a fmall fmooth Tray ; the Bones be like a Die, but fomething 
flatter, black on the one fide and white on the other, which they place on the 
Ground, againft which violently thumping the Platter, the Bones mount^changino- 
colours with the windy whisking of their Hands to and fro ; which action in that 
fport they much ufe, fmiting themfelves on the Breafl and Thighs, crying out 
Hub, Hub J Hub ; they may be heard play at this Game a quarter of a Mile off; 
The Bones being all black or white make a double Game ; if three of one colour, 
and two of another, then they afford but a fingle Game ^ four of a colour, and one 
differing, is nothing .» fo long as the Man wins he keeps the Tray, but if he loofe 
the next Man takes it. They are fo bewitch'd with thefe two Games, that they 
will lofe fomctimes sU they have ; Beaver, Moofe^skins^ Kettles, Wampompsage^ Mo-- 
whacksy Hatchets, Knives, all is confifcate by thefe two Games. For their Sports of 

Their Games 
and Sports of 



Of their 



aaion they have commonly but three or four, as Football, Shooting, Running, and 
Swimming ; when they play Countrey againft Countrey, there are rich Goals, all 
behuncT with V/am^ow^ea^e , Moti?hacks, Beaver Skins, and black Otter Skins : Their 
Goals are a Mile long plac'd on the Sands, which areas even as a Board j their Ball 
is no bigger than a Hand-ball, which fometimes they mount in the Air with their 
naked Feet, fometimes it is fway'd by the multitude, fomecime alio it is two days 
before they get a Goal, then they mark the Ground they win, and begin there the 
next day. Before they come to this Sport they paint themfelves, even as when 
they go to War, in policy to prevent future mifchief, becaufe no man fhould know 
him that movM his patience, or accidentally hurt his Perfon, taking away the oc 
cafion of ftudying revenge. Before they begin, their Arms arc put off, and hung 
upon fome neighboring Tree, after v^hich they make a long fcrowl on the Sand, 
over which they fhake Hands, and with loving Hearts fcuffle for Vidory. While 
the Men Play, the Boys Pipe, and the Women Dance and Sing Trophies of their 
Husbands Conquefts j all being done, a Feaft fummons their departure. ^ 

Suchis their dexterity in Shooting, that they can hit a running Hind, or flying 
Pigeon, without a ftanding paufe or left-ey'd blinking j they draw their Arrows 
between their Fingers and the Thumb^ their Bowes are quick, but not very ftrong, 
not killing at above fix or feven fcore diftance : Shooting at one another,they have 
a trick with fwift conveyance to fhun the Arrow j this they do to make them 
expert againft time of War. They are train'd up to their Bowes even from their 
Childhood, for little Boys with Bov^es made of little Sticks, and Arrows made 
of great Bents, will hit down a piece of Tobacco-pipe every time a good way 
off. As thefe Indians are good Marks-men, fo are they well experienced where the 
very Life of every Creature lieth, and know where to fmite him to make him die 
prefently. Their Swimming is not after our Englijh fafliion, of fpread Arms and 
Legs, which they hold too tirefom, but like Dogs, their Arms before them, cut- 
ting through the Liquids with their right Shoulder : In this manner they will 
Swim very Fwift and far, either in rough or fmooth Waters, fometimes for their 
eafe lying as ftill as a Log ; fometimes they will play the Dive^doppers, and come 
up in unexpected places. 

For their Hunting, it is to be noted, that they have no fwift-footed Greyhounds 
to let flip at the fight of the Deer, no deep-mouth'd Hounds, or fcenting Beagles, 
to find out their defired Prey ; themfelves are all this, who in that time of the year 
when the Deer comes down, having certain Hunting-houfes in fuch places where 
they know the Deer doth ufually frequent, in which they keep their Rendezvouz, 
their Snares, and all their Accoutrements for that Employment : when they gee 
fight of a Deer, Moofe, or Bear, they ftudy how to get the Wind of him, and ap- 
proaching within (hot, ftab their Mark quite through, if the Bones hinder 
not. The chief thing they Hunt after is Deer, >/bo/aand Bears : It grieves them 
more to fee an £:?i^/i/J;^man take one Deer, than a thoufand Acres of Land. They 
Hunt likewife after Wolves, wild Cats, %ackoons, Otters, Beavers, and Mufquashes, 
Trading both their Skins and Flefii to the English. Befide this Artillery they have 
other devices to kill their Game, as fometimes Hedges, a Mile or two Miles long, 
being a Mile wide atone end, and made narrower and narrower by degrees, lea- 
ving onely a Gap of {ix Foot long j over againft which in the daytime they lie 
lurking, to flioot the Deer which come through that narrow paftage j fo many as 
come within the circumference of that Hedge, feldom return back to leap over, 
unlefs they be forced by the chafing of fome ravenous Wolf, or fight of fome accir 
dental Paftenger : In the Night, at the Gap of this Hedge, they fet Deer«.traps, 




Chap. IL a M E%^1C A. if 

which are Springes made of young Trees, and fmooth wrought Cords, fo ftrongj 
that it will tofs a Horie if he be caught in it. 

In the Trade of Fifliing they are very expert, being experienced in the know» 

Of thdc 

ledge of all Baits for feveral Fiflies, and divers Seafons ^ being not ignorant like* 
wife of the removal of Fiflies, knowing when to Fifli in Rivers^ and when atRocks^ 
when in Bays, and when at Seas : Since the English came they are furnifli'd with 
English Hooks and Lines, for before they made them of Hemp, being more curi- 
ouily wrought,of ftronger Materials than ours, and hook'd with Bone-Hooks j buc 
lazinefs drives them to buy, more than profit or commendations wins them to 
make of their own. They make likewife very ftrong Sturgeon-nets, with which 
they catch Sturgeons of twelve, fourteen, and fixteen^ and fome eighteen Foot long 
in the day-timCp and in the night-time they betake themfelves to their Birchen 
Canoos, in which they carry a forty-fathom Line, with a fharp-bearded Dart faftned 
at the en4 thereof 5 then lighting a Torch made of Birchen Rinds, they wave it 
to and again by their Canoo fide, which the Sturgeon much delighted with^, comes to 
them tumbling and playing, turning up his white Belly, into which they thruft their 
Lance, his Back being impenetrable ; which done^, they hale to the Shore their 
ftrugling Prize. They have often recourfe into the Rocks whereupon the Sea beats, 
in warm Weather, to look out for fleepy Seals, whofe Oyl they much efleem, ufing 
it for divers things. In Summer they FiOi any where, but in Winter in the frefli 
Water onely, and Ponds ; in frofty Weather they cut round Holes in the Ice^ about 
which they will fit like fo many Apes with their naked Breeches upon the cold Ice, 
catching of Pikes, Pearches, Breams, and other forts of frefli-Water Fifli, 

Their Arts and Manufactures are divers, as firft their drefling of all manner oftheirArti 

or Skms, wnicK they do by Icrapmg and rubbing, arcer-wards pamtmg them <^ures 

with antique Embroiderings in unchangeable Colours; fometimes^they take 

off the Hair, efpecially if it be not kill'd in ieafon. Their Bowes they make of a 

handfom fhape, llrung commonly with the Sinews of Moofes ^ their Arrows of 

young Elder, feathered with Feathers of Eagles Wings and Tails, headed with 

Brafs in fliape of a Heart or Triangle, faRned in a {lender piece of Wood fix or 

eight Inches long, which is fram'd to put loofe in the pithy Elder , aftewards \ 

bound fail for riving : Their Arrows are made in this manner, becaufe it might 

(hake from his Head, and be left behind for their finding, and the Pile onely rc^ 

main to gaul the wounded Beafl:. Their Cordage is fo even, foft, and fmooth, that 

it looks more like Silk than Hemp. Their Sturgeon Nets arc not deep, nor above 

thirty or forty Foot long, which in ebbing low Waters they fl:ake fall to the 

Ground where they are fure the Sturgeon will come, never looking more at it till 

the next low Water, Their Canoos are made either of Pine-trees, which before they 

were acquainted with English Tools, they burn'd hollow, fcraping them fmooth 

with Clara-ihells and Oyfl:er-ftiells, cutting their out»fides with Stone Hatchets. 

Thefe Boats are not above a Foot and a half, or two Foot wide, and twenty Foot 

long. Their other Canoos be made of thin Birch Rinds, clofe Ribb'd, and on the 

in-fide with broad thin Hoops, like the Hoops of a Tub 5 thefe are made very 

light, a Man may carry one of them a Mile, being made purpofely to carry from 

River to River, and from Bay to Bay, to fliorten Land«=pafiages. In thefe cockling 

Flysboats, wherein an E?igl'isluxn2,n can fcarce fit without a fearful tottering, they 

will venture to Sea, when anH«g/«/; Shallop dare not bear a Knot of Sail, fcuddiog 

over the over-grown Waves as fad as a wind-driven Ship, being driven by their 

Paddles, being much like Battle*doors ; if a crofs Wave (which is fcldorn) turn her 

Keel up-fide down, they by fwimming free her, and fcramble into her again. 

» S • • i Their 

^rrrr^ -i-^fidkrs&X^BarsR 


Of their Lan- 

Of their 
waths, Bu- 
ials and 

ents, llfage 
their Hus- 
nds, Appa- 
1, ami Mo- 
:fty of the 


Their Language, is onely peculiar to themfelves, not inclining to any of the 
more refined Tongues. Sonne have thought they might be of the difperfed Jeiipsy 
becaufe fome of their words are near unto the Hebrew ; but by the fame rule they 
may conclude them to be fome of the gleanings of all Nations, becaufe they have 
words which found after the Grcek^ Latine, French, and other Tongues. Their Lan- 
guage is hard to learn, few of the English being able to fpeak any of it, or capable 
of the right pronunciation, which is the chief grace of their Tongue : They pro- 
nounce much after the Diphthongs, excluding L and (^, which in our English 
Tongue they pronounce with as much difficulty, as mofl of the Dutch do Tand H 
calling a Lobfter a ISlphJiann. Every Countrey doth foniething differ in their Speech, 
even as our Northern People do from the Southern, and Weflern from them j efpe- 
cially thcTarrentinej whofe Tongue runs fo much upon (?^, that they wharle much 
in pronunciation. When any Ships come near the Shore;, they demand whether 
they are King Charles's Torries, with fuch a rumbling found, as if one were beating on 
an unbraced Drum. In ferious Difcourfe our Soutliern Indians ufe feldom any fhort 
Colloquies^ but fpeak their minds at large, without any interjeded Difcourfes 
from any, the reft giving diligent audience to his utterance j which done, fome or 
other returns him as long an Anfwer ; They love not to fpeak jnulta, fed multum • 
feldom are their words and their deeds ftrangers. According to the matter of their 
difcourfe, fo are their a(5ting Gefturcs in their Expreflions. 

The Indians are of lufty and healthful Bodies^ not experimentally knowing thofc 
Difeafes which are incident to other Countreys, as Feavers, Pleurifies, Calentures^ 
Agues, Confumptions, Convulfions, Apoplexies, Dropfies, Gouts, Pox, Meafles, 
or the like, but fpin out the thred of their Days to a fair length, numbering fixty, 
eighty, fome a hundred years : But when any one lies a dying, the doleful cries_, 
and throbbing fighs of the Friends and Relatione, exprefs unfpeakable forrow • 
and when the Party is dead and laid in the Ground, they not onely weep and howl 
for a good fpace over the Grave, but alfo keep Annual Solemnities of Mourning, 
rubbingtheir Faces with black Lead all about the Eye-brows, and part of their 
Cheeks ; yet do they hold the Immortality of the Soul, in which their Indian Faith 
jumps much with the Turkish Jlchoran, dreaming of a certain Paradife, or South- 
Weft £/>/i«wi, wherein they fliall everlaftingly abide, folacing theml"elves in odori- 
ferous Gardens,fruitful Corn-fields, green Meadows, bathing their tawny Hides in 
the cool Streams of pleafant Rivers, and fheltering themfelves from Heat and Cold 
in the fumptuous Palaces framed by Nature, concluding, that neither care nor pain 
fliall moleft them, but that Natures bounty will adminifter all things with a vo- 
luntary contribution from the Store-houfe of their H/))y/«?« j at the Portal whereof, 
they fay, lies a great Dog, whofe churlilli fnarlings deny adraiilion to unworthy 
Intruders : wherefore it is their cuftom to bury with them their Bowes and Arrows, 
and good ftore of their Wamj^om^cage and Mol^hacks, the one to affright that affront- 
ing Gr^er//5, the other to purchafe more immenfe Prerogatives in their Paradife. 
For their Enemies and loofe Livers, whom they account unworthy of this imagi- 
nary Happinefs, they fay that they pafs to the infernal Dwellings of Ahamocho, to 
be tortur'd according to the Fictions of the ancient Heathen. 

The drudgery of all laborious forts of Work, and the management of all dome- 
ftick Aifairs, lies wholly upon the Indian Women, who are made meer Slaves by 
their Husbands j they build the Houfes, fowe and reap the Corn, provide Lobfters 
for their Husbands to bait their Hooks when they go a Fifliing for ^ajfe or Cod ; 
and for thefe Lobfters they are many times forc'd to dive in the extreameft Wea- 
ther, then lug home a great weight of them upon their Backs, as alfo all the FiOi 

\ whicb 


€.liap. 11. A M ERIC A. 

which their Husbands catch for pleafure, from the places where they were caught : 
They drefs all the Meat, ferve it up to their Husbands, and waiting till they have 
fiUM their Bellies, are glad of their leavings. In Summer they gather Flags, of 
which they make Mats for Houfes^ and Hemp and Ruflies, with Dying Stuff^ of 
which they make curious Baskets, with intermixed Colours and Poiirtraic1:ures oif 
antique Imagery. Thefe Baskets are of all fizes from a Quart to a Quarter, in 
which they carry their Luggage. In Winter they are their Husbands Caterers, 
trudging to the Clam^banks for their Belly-timber, and their Porters to lug ic 
home. They like wife few their Husbands Shoes, and weave Coats of Turky Fea« 
thers, befides all their ordinary HouOiold drudgery which daily lies upon them^ 
infomuch that a great Belly hinders no bufinefs, nor doth a Child-birth take much 
time, but the young Infant being greas'd and footed, wrapp'd in a Beavers Skio, 
bound with his Feet up to his Bum,upon a Board two Foot long and one Foot broad 
and his Face exposed to all nipping Weather^this little (P^/?po//g travels about with his 
bare- footed Mother to paddle in the Icy Clam»banks, after three or four days of 
Age have confirmed her recovery. For their Carriage, it is very civil, Smiles beina 
the greateft grace of their Mirth. Their Mufick is Lullabies in Rocking their Chi^ 
dren, who generally are as quiet as if they had neither Spleen or Lungs. Their 
Voices are generally both fweet and well ordered, fo far as pure Nature teacheth 
fhem. Their Modefty drives them to wear more Clothes than the Men, having al- 
. ways a Coat of Cloth or Skins, wrapp'd like a Blanket about their Loyjis, reaching 
down to their Hams, which they never put off in Company. 

There are to be reckon'd up forty five chief Towns, befides what others there 
may be of lefs note, built or made habitable by the Englijh fince their firfl arrival 
inNcH? England f till about the Year \6^o. 

Firfl, St. Georges Fort, where the firfl Plantation was fetled, at the Mouth of the 
River Sagadehock, in a kind of Toi'mfula, or half Ifland. 

The fecond, New Plymouth, feated no lefs commodioufly upon a large Bay,caird 
by the Natives Tautuxed ; where they firfl fetled that went over out of diilatisfa- 
clion to the Church-Government of England. 

The third, Salem, caird by the Indians, SMahumheak -, which flands on the middle 
ofa Neck of Land very pleafantly, having a South River on the one fide, and a 
North River on the other fide. This Town feems to have been built in the Year 
1628. by a part of that Company, who,being fent over by the Merchant^ Jdventurers, 
fetled themfelves in this Cape. 

The fourth Maflawmut, or Charles-to-^n, fituateon a Neck of Land on the Norths 
fideofthe River CW/ey. The form of this Town, in the Frontifpiece of ic, re- 
fembleth the Head, Neck, and Shoulders of a Man j through the right Shoulder 
whereof runs the Navigable River Mtpck, which by its near approach to Charles 
River in one place, makes the chief part of the Town a Teninfula : It confifls of 
a hundred and fifty Dwelling-houfe$, many of them beautified with pleafant Gar« 
dens and Orchards: Near the Water^fide is a large Market-place, forth of which 
iffue two fair Streets j and in it flands a large and well built Church. 

The fifth, Mata[>an, or Dorchefter, a Fronteer Town, flanding over againfl the 
Ifland near the Sea-fide : It is watered with two fmall Rivers, and is built in the 
form ofa Serpent turning its Head Northward • it hath Orchards and Gardens 
full of Fruit-trees. . 

Thefixth is Lofton, anciently Acowfowf/Vw^^ the Center and Metropolis of therefl, 
built in the form of a Heart, and fortifi'd with two Hills on the Front-part 
thereof, the one having great flore of Artillery mounted thereon, the other havincr 

-St a 


Towns builf 
by the Englip 
in New Eng- 

St. GeoTgts 

New Plj' 






^». u-' ^ipi " I 


i ■imi^ 



A M E "Kl C A. 

Chap. II. 





Hitrverd Cetz 





a ftrona Battery, built of whole Timber, and fill'd with Earth : At the Defcent 
of th^ Hill lies a large Cave or Bay, on which the chief part of this Town is buiic, 
over-toppM with a third Hill, all three like over-topping Towers, keeping a con. 
ftant Watch to forefee the approach of foreign Dangers. The chiefeft part of this 
City-like Town is crowded upon the Sea Banks, and wharf'd out with great Indu. 
dry and Coft, the Edifices large and beautiful, whofe continual enlargement pre- 

fao-eth fome fumptuous City. , , • l i 

The [cY^mh, ^oxbury, fituated between ^ofion and Dorchefter, water d with cool 
and pleafant Springs iffuing from the Rocky Hills, and with fmall Frefhets water- 
ina the Valleys of this fertile Town : The form of it refembleth a Wedge double 
pointed, entring between the two above-mentioned Towns • and m the room of 
ihofe Swamps, or tearing Buflies which were there before, they have now goodly 
Fruit-trees, fruitful Fields and Gardens. 

The eighth is Lynm, or (according to the Indian Name, Sau^us) fituated between 
Sdem and Charles-tol^n, near a River, whofe ftrong Frefliet at the end of Winter fills 
all her Banks, and with a violent Torrent vents it felf into the Sea. This Townis 
almoft fquare, confiding many years ago of above a hundred Dwelling-houfcs, ha. 
Vina alfo an Iron Mill in conftant ufe : The Church being on a level Land, unde- 
fended from the North.Weft Wind, is made with Steps defcending into the Earth. 
The ninth is call'd Water-town, anciently figfgujfet, fituated upon one of the 
Branches oi Q^arles^V^ivtt, watered with many pleafant Springs and fmall Rivulets, 
running like Veins throughout her Body. This Town began by occafion of Sir 
(^chard Saklngjlall, who arriving with fl:ore of Cattel and Servants, Wintered in 

thefe Parts. 

In the Year 1633. there^was ereded between Charles-tom and Water^toi^n , a Place 
cM^ilSLeW'Aoi^n, ^n^hy t\it Indians, Amongcangm, fince nam'd Gm^r%, being the 
tenth in order: It is in form like a Lifl: of Broad^^cloth, reaching to the moft Sou. 
therly part o^Merrimeck River j it hath comely and well orderM Streets, and two 
fair Colledges • the firft call'd Haryerd CoUedge, from Mr. John Hamrd, who at his 
Death gave a thoufand Pounds to it j to the other Mr. J9hn Barnes was the chief Be- 
nefador. This Town was appointed to be the Seat of the Government, but it 

continued not long. 

The eleventh call'd Ij>fwich, or Sawacatuc by the Indians, is fituated on a fair and 
delightful River, ifl^uing forth from a very pleafant Pond, and afterwards breaking 
its Courfe through a hideous Swamp of large extent ; it lies in the Sagamorefiip, or 
Earldom o^Jggawan, now by the EngUp? call'd EJfex, 

Twelve Miles from Ipf^Vich, near upon the Streams of Mcrrimeck River, is fitua- 
ted the twelfth, call'd ]s[e-\Uury, , . r 

The People o^ Newtown, or Camhridge,uip on their removal of the Plantation ot 
Canecltco, pafling up the River, built a Town, which they call'd Hartford, the thir. 
teenth in number, divers others coming in the room of thofe that departed from 


The fourteenth,feated upon a fair freOi Rivcr(whofe Rivulets are fill'd with frelh 
Marfli, and her Streams with Fifli, it being a Branch of that large River ^f ^J'"^- 
meek Allwi-ves) is built in the Inland Countrey, and call'd Concord', It confifted at 
firft ofabove fifty Families: Their Buildings are for the moft part conveniently 
plac'd on one ftreight Stream under a Sunny Bank, in alow Level. The People 
that firft fet forth to build this Town, fuftain'd great hardfliip and mifery, by rea- 
fon of the uncouth Ways, and extremity of the Weather, it being the firft Inland 

Town that was built. 



Chap. IL ^A M E %^I C A 

SoutK-Eaft of C/;dr/^j.Rivcr, upon the Sea.Coan:, is /Iciiated the fifceenth Town 
Bingham ; the form whereof is fomewhat intricate to defcribe, by reafoii of the Sea- 
wafting Crooks^ where ic beats upon a moultring Shore; yet in fome places the 
Streets arc compleat : It confifted at firft of about fixty Families. 

The fixtccnth is in Tlymouth Government, fituate upon the Sea^Coaft, firft nam'd 
Dukesohury^SLkctv^atds Sa?idwich. 

About the year 1617. a new Supply coming over into thefe Parts, and not find- 
ing in the Matiachufets Government any commodious place to fettle in, they after 
much fcarch took up a place fomewhat more Southerly, near the Shalies of (^a^ecod, 
where they found a commodious Harbor for Shipping, and a fit place to ered a 
Town in, which they built in a fhort time, with very fair Houfes and compleat 
Streets . and fliortly after feveral others : Amongft which they ereded a new 
Government, which from their firft Fronteer Town, being the feventeenth, was 
caird ISlewhayen. 

The eighteenth is inUc Government of the Mattachufets , and call'd Vedham, being 

an Inland Town, fituate about ten Miles from ^opn in the County oiSujfolk, well 

water'd with many pleafant Streams, and abounding with Gardens and Fruic- 

Trees: It confifted at firft of about a hundred Families, being generally given to 

The nineteenth being alfo in this Government is callM Weymouth, batter'don the 
Eaft with the Sea Waves ; on the South- Weft Rocks and Swamps make it delight- 
ful to the Deer, as the ploughable Meadow.Lands to the Inhabitants. 

About the Year 1 638. Printing was brought over into A[(?^ England. 

About £iyi Miles from Ipfwkh, North.Eaftward, was eredted another Town 
call'd %oiply^ being the twentieth. 

About the Year 1639. began the one and twentieth Town Hampton, in the 
County o£l>lorfolky to be built : It is fituate neat the Sea-Coaft-, not far from the 
Kiwct o£ Merrimeck: The great ftorc of fait Marfli ^id entice the People to fee 
down their Habitations there. 

Not far from this Town oi Hampton, was ere^ed the two and twentieth, call'd 
Salisbury, feated upon the broad fwift Torrent o( MerrimechKi\cv : It lieth on the 
Northern fide, over againft the Town of 2vre.ii;^«r>, the River between them being 
about half a Mile broad, but hath an Ifland in the midft thereof, which makes it 
the more eafily pafTable. The fituation of this Town is very pleafant, the Skirts 
thereof abounding in fair and goodly Meadows, with good ftore of ftately Tim- 
ber in many places upon the Uplands. 

About the-Year 1640. by afrefli Supply of People that fetled in Longl/Iand, was 
there eteded the twenty third Town, call'd Southampton^ by the hidtans,Jgait>om. 

The fame Year alfo the Town of Sudim% being the twenty fourth, began to be 
built in the Inland Countrey : It is furnifli'd with great ftore of frelli Marili, but 
lying very low, it is much endammag'd with Land-floods. 

Aboutthistimethere was built at Mount Wolleflone, by fome old Planters and 
certain Farmers of the great Town of ■Bo/o«, a Town nam'd ^rAintree, being the 
twenty fifth, within the Mattachufets Government; It is well peopled, and hatH 
great ftore of Land in Tillage. 

In the Year 1641. Mr. (^chard mndman coming from Green Harbour, a Place in 
Plymouth Patent, with fome few People of his acquaintance, fetled in Cape June ^ 
where they built the twenty fixth Town, and nam'd it Gloucefter. ^ 

There is alfo fituate upon fufcataque River, to the North.Eaft of iBo/?o;/, a Town 
cal 'd Dover, being the twenty feventh, the People by voluntary refignacion beinc 
under the M^^f^W^^i/^fj Government. S j la 
























The prefent 


jamong the 

A M E%1 C J. Chap. 11. 

In the Year 1^42. was ereified the eight and twentieth Town, callM Woohirn. 

In the Year i644.%^^/72g the nine and twentieth Town was built, being in the 
Government of the Mattathufets -^ it is well water'd and fituated about a great 
Pondj having two Mills, a Saw-Mill, and a Corn-Mill, which ftand upon two 
feveral Streams. 

A little after was built the thirtieth Town in this Colony, call'd Wenham^ fituate 
between Salem and Ipfwich 5 it is very well water'd, as moft Inland Towns are, and 
the People live altogether on Husbandry. 

About the Year 1645. one Mr. fmch'mj having out of defire to improve his 
Eftate by Trading with the hdians, fetled himfelf in a place very remote from any 
of the Towns of the Mattachufcts Colony, yet under their Government, and great 
ftore of People ftill reforting to him, they at lafl: erected a Town upon the River 
CaneclkOy calling it Spring-field, being the one and thirtieth Town 5 it is very fitly 
feated for a Beaver Trade with the Indians^ in regard it is fituate upon this large 
Navigable River, and upon fome Rivulets of the fame. 

In the Year 1648. was founded the Town of Haverhill^ being the two and thir- J 
tieth, about a Mile or two from the place where the River o( Menimeck receives in- 
to it felf the River Shawshin, which is one of her three chief Heads. 

Not long after, the Town of Maiden, being the three and thirtieth Town, was 
built by certain People that came out of CharlespToipn • thcfe two Towns beincrfe- 
ver'd the one from the other by the large River o^Mtflkk, 

The reft we (hall onely name, as 34. 'Berwick^ alias ChaTi>un. 35 Oxford, alias Sa?Q-. 
anas, Falmouth jSlizs Totam. 1^6,'Briftol. 37. Hull, alias Tajfataquack, 38. Dartmouth, 
alias Johanna. 3^. "Korwlch^ alias Segocket, 40. 'Taunton, alias Qohannet. 41. Greens* 
Harbour, ^i.Iartnouth. ^'^, Northam^ z\ia.s^ajcata(^ua. j^^, Exeter. /^'), Weymouth, 

The chief Rivers of Neiv England a.\-c,^afcataipay, Sagadahoc, Temmaquidy Jgamentico, 
Merrimeck , T'achohacco , Mtjlick , Narraganfet , Mtflmwin , Comis^acut , ]S[eu>ichwa^'och^ 

The Ltdian Natives are now become fo weak in number, and in fome meafure 
reduc'd to a dread of the growth of the Englijh, that of late years they have not 
pradis'd any thing againfi: them , or at lead, not juftifi'd them by numbers in • 
open Hoftility, willing rather to purchafe their Peace and buy off Injuries com- 
mitted by them at the Price of their Lands and PoflefGons. 

And although care and expence hath been many years apply'd to the Converfi- 
on of Indians to the Faith, however inclinable they feem'd at firfl: to the imbracing 
thereof, not then fo well difcerning the infincerity of its Profeflbrs j yet there are 
fo few of late who do imbrace it or perfevere in it (wanting a good Foundation for 
inftrudtion in Moral Honefl;y,and perhaps the example of it in thofe that undertake 
to inftru(5t them in Religion ; ) that Chrijlianity to them feertis a Chimera, Religion a 
dehgn to draw them from the libidinous Pleafures of a lazy Life ; however, fome 
there are who make Profeffion of Chrijlianity, and fome who are educated in the 
Schools of Nw Qamhridge, to entitle them to Preach the Gofpel in their own Lan- 

One great hindrance to the Propagation of the Faith amongfl thofe Heathens, is 
the diverfity of their Languages j for it is commonly known, that the Natives 
themfelves do not underfland one another, if their Habitations are but at forty 
Miles diftance. 

Their Church-Government and Difcipline is Congregational and Independent, 
yet in fome places more rigid than others, for in many Towns there yet remains 
fome leaven ofTreshyteryj from which Se(^s our Independency had its Original ^ info- 


Chap. II. M M E'B^IC A. j^3 

much, that one of the mod remarkable Oppofers of Epi/copal Goyerment, Doaox: 
(Bafiwick (who, fpoird fo much Paper in railing at the Church. Government oF 
Bngla?id, and crying up Liberty of Confcience) finding the Apoflacy of his own Bre- 
thren of Lofton from their firft Principles, and his,generally prevail over them, even 
to the denying that liberty to others, which they feem'd only to aim at, did write 
a large and vehement Dehorutory Ep'tflle to them from their Nei\? Lights or '<Paths, fay- 
ing, That according to their prefent Tenents, they could not pretend to he better, or other than a 
Chriftian Synagogue. 

Their Laws and Methods of Government are wholly of their own framinfr .^ThdrGva 
each Colony tor themlelves, makes an Annual choice of Governor, Deputy Go». """^ ^'- 
vernor, and a certain number of Affiftants, by the plurality of Suffrages colleded 
from their feveral Towns, the Elcdors are only Free-men and Church-Membersj 
for he that h not a Member of their Church, can neither chufe, nor be chofen a 
Magiftrate, nor have his Children Baptiz'd j befides the lofs of many other Pri- 
viledgcs,and liable moreover to frequent^if not conftant Mulds for abfenting them- 
felves from I)iVwe rrory/?/> (fo caird) in their Meeting houfes. 

Since the tranlmitting of the Patent in Ke-^ England, the Eleaion is not by Voi- 
CCS, nor eredion of Hands as formerly, but by Papers, thus : 

The general Court-eledory fitting, where are prefent in the Church, or Meet^ 
ing-houfe at :Bo/?o«, the old Governor, Deputy, and all the Magiftrates, and two 
Deputies or Burge{fes for every Town , or at leaft one j all the Freemen are bid 
to come in at one Door, and bring their Votes in Paper for the new Governor, 
and deliver them down upon the Table, before the Court, and fo pafs forth ac 
another Door ; thofe that are abfent, fend their Voces by Proxies. All being de- 
liver'd in, the Votes are counted, and according to the major part, the old Gover- 
nor pronounceth. That Juch an one is chofen Go-vernor for the year enfuing. Then the 
Freemen, in like manner, bring their Votes for the Deputy Governor, who being 
alfo chofen, the Governor propoundeth the Affiftants one after another. New 
Afliftantsare, of late, put in nomination, by an Order of general Court, before, 
hand to be confiderM of: If a Freeman give in a Blank, that rejeds the Man 
nam'd J if the Freeman makes any mark with a Pen upon the Paper which he 
brings, that eleds the Man nam'd : Then the Blanks and raark'd Papers are num. 
ber'd, and according to the major part of either, the Man in Nomination Hands 
eleded or rejefted ; and fo for all the Affiftants. And after every new Eledion, 
which is, by their Patent, to be upon the laft Wednefday in Eafter Term, the ntw 
Governor and Officers arc all new Sworn. The Governor and AlTiftants chufe the ; 

Secretary. And all the Court confifting of Governor, Deputy, Affiftants, and De- 
puties of Towns, give their Votes as well as the reft ; and the Miniflcrs and El- 
ders, and all Church-Officers, have their Votes alfo in all thefe Eledions of chief ' 
Magiftrates : Conftables, and all other inferior Officers, are fworn in the general, 
quarter, or other Courts, or before any Affiftant. ' '^ 

. Every Freevman when he is admitted, takes a ftrid Oath, to be true to the So- 
ciety or Jurifdidion. • ' 

There are two general Courts, one every half year, wherein they make Laws or 
Ordinances : The Minifters advife in making of Laws, efpecially Ecclefiaftical,and 
are prefent in Courts, and advife in fome fpecial Caufes Criminal, and in framing 
of Fundamental Laws. 

There are befides four Quarter=Courts for the whole Turifdidion, befides other 
petty Courts, one every quarter at Lofton, Salem, and Ipfipich, with their feveral Ju* 
rifdidions J befides every Town, almoft, hath a petty Couri: for fmall Debts and 
Trelpafifes, under t¥;ent:y Shillings. ' la 



ani Caul'es. 



<a M E %I C J. Chap. II. 

In the general Court, or great quarter Courts, before the Civil Magidrates, arc 
trvM all Actions and Caufes Civil and Criminal, and alfo Eccleliaftical, cfpecialiy 
touching Non»members : And they thcmfelves fay, that in the general and quarter 
Courts, they have the Power of Parliament, Kings-Bench, Common-Pleas, Chan- 
eery, High-Commiffion, and Star-Chamber^ and all other Courts o^ England j and 
in divers Cafes have exercis'd that Pov/er upon the Kings Subjeds there, as is not 
difficult to prove. They have put to death, banifii'd, fin'd Men, cut off Mens 
Ears, whip'd, imprifon'd Men, and all thefe for Ecclcfiaftical and Civil Offences, 
and without fufficicat Record. In the leffer quarter Courts are try'd, in fome, Acti- 
ons under ten Pounds, in 'Bofton^ under twenty, and all Criminal Caufes not touch- 
ing Life or Member. From the petty quarter Courts, or other Courts, the parties 
may appeal to the great quarter Courts, from thence to the general Court, from 
which there is no Repeal. 

Twice a year, in the faid quarter Courts held before the general Courts, are two 
Grand-Juries fworn for the Jurifdi(5i:ion, one for one Court, and the other for the 
other ; and they are charg'd to enquire and Prefent Offences reduc'd by the Gover- 
nor who gives the Charge. 

Matters of Debt, Trefpafs, and upon the Cafe, and Equity, yea and of Hcrcfic 
alfo, are try'd by a Jury. 

The Parties are warn'd to challenge any Jury-man before he be fworn ; but bc- 
caufe there is but one Jury in a Court for trial of Caufes j and all Parties not pre- 
fent at their Swearing, the liberty of challenge is much hindered, and fome incon- 
veniences do happen thereby. Jurors are return'd by the Marflial, he was at firft 
caird T/;e Beadle of the Society, 

The Parties in all Caufes, fpeak themfelvcs for the mofl part, and fome of the 
Magiftrates where they think caufe requireth, do the part of Advocates without 
Fee or Reward. 

Though among the feveral Colonies which were founded here by the conflu- 
ence of dilfenting Zealots, this Government is exercis'd, differing from that of the 
Church and State oi England : yet in thofe Provinces which are granted by parti- 
cular Perfons, the Government is much more conformable to that o^ England • but 
as the Mattachufets or Bojloners were from the beginning the mofl Potent and Predo- 
minant of all the reft of the Colonies, (infomuch, that Bofion may well be accoun- 
ted the Metropolis of all T^ew England^) fo of late years they have ftill ufurp'd more 
and more Power and Authority over the reft j and efpecially have not ftuck to give 
Laws to the forefaid Provinces allotted to particular Perfons, and have gone about 
wholly to fubjugate thofe places to themfelves, intrenching upon the rights of the 
true Proprietors • and that, even contrary to the Kings expreis Commands by his 
Officers, there, and as it were in open defiance of his Majefty and Government, as 
is evident from this following Narration, of their behavior upon a bufinefs of this 

t>i the Matta- 
tfmftts againli 
kis Majcfties 

N the Year of our Lord 1665. his Majefties Commiflioncrs for the Affairs of 
l:^ew England^ being in the Province of Mrywe, the People being much unfctled 
in Point of Government , by reafon the Mattachufets Colony, or Bofwi Govern- 
ment, did ufurp compullively a Power over them contrary to their wills; and the 
rioht of Sir Perdmando Gorges Heir, v;ho had his CommifSon then in the place, did 
unanimoufiy Petition to his Majefties ComniilTioners to fettle the Government 5 
upon which the faid Commi/fioners examined the Bounds and Right of Mr. Gorges 
Patent, with all the Allegations and Pretendons on boch fides, and [o according 



Chap. II. A M E%^I C A. 

to their Inftrudion from his Majefty, did fettle a temporary Government under his 
Majefty's immediate Authority, until fuch time as his Majefty fliould give his final 
determination thereof ; and for that end did Inftitute Juftices of the Peace to Go- 
vern the Province according to the true Laws of England, Aifo his Majefty Was 
pleas'd by his Mandamus in Jpril 1666, to the Governors oi^opn, to fignifie that it 
was his will and pleafure, That. the Province oi Main (Iiould fland good as his 
Commiffioners had fetled it, until he had more leifure to determine it 5 yet not- 
Withftanding, after three years quiet pofTeflion, and exercifing of Government by 
the Kings Juftices, according to their Commiflion granted by hisMajefty's Com- 
mifTioners, x.\ic 'Boftomrs, without any Conference with the faid Juftices, did in a 
hoftile manner oppofe the King's ?owct,July 16^8. which was as foUoweth; 

The General Court of (Bofion fent their Warrants to keep Court at York under 
their Authority, and for that purpofe Commiffionated Magiftrates by their own 
Authority, namely Major General John Leyeret, Mr. Ed^rd Tmg, Captain (I{ichard 
Walden, and Captain ^hert <Pike ; Whereupon the King's Juftices did oppofe their 
Warrants, and fent Poft to Uew York, with an Addrefs to General Nicholas, for Ad» 
vice what to do therein j who forthwith difpatch'd away to the Governors of 
Lofton, informing them of the danger of their Proceeding, it being an open breach 
of Duty, to fubvert the Government eftablifli'd by his Majefty's Power j alfo fent 
the King' s^MW^w^, April 1666, that will'd to the contrary. Notwithftanding 
the Lofton Magiftrates in July 166%. in order to their <Bofton CommiiTion, came to 
York Town in the faid Province, with feveral Armed Men, Horfe and Foot, to keep 
Court under their Authority ; Oppofition was made by the King's Juftices, and 
his Majefty's Power was urg d, but little regard thereunto fhewn ; his Majefties 
Mandamm was like wife much infifted upon, and produced by the Juftices, who ask'd 
the Bofioners what they thought of it ? and how they durft ad fo contrary to the 
King's Will and Pleafure.^ Major General Lmm told them. That he believ'd ic 
might be the King's Hand, but he had a Commiflion from the general Court at 
^oflon^ which he would follow and obferve by the help of God. The fame day 
in the Afternoon the faid Major General Leveret, with the reft of the ^oflon Magi- 
ftrates, feiz'd and imprifon'd the Province Marfhal in doing his Office, and then 
forthwith went in warlike pofture to the Court=houfe, where the King's Juftices 
fat in Judicature, and putting them from their Seats, fat down themfelves in their 
Places, and Executed their 'Bofton Commiflion. The King's Juftices drew a ^roteft 
againft their Proceedings, and fo left the Decifion to God's Providence, and his 
Majefty's good Pleafure. Then they turn'd out all Officers, both Military and Ci- 
vil, and Swore others in their Places under their Authority j they forc'd the whole 
Record of the Province out of the Recorders Houfe contrary to his Will, by 
vertue of a Special Warrant from that Court. They imprifon'd the Mayor of the 
faid Province about three weeks, forcing him to give in five hundred Pound Bonds, 
not to ad according to his Commiflion 5 which with fome Refervations , he was 
forc'd to deny for the fecurity of his Eftate. 

Thefe riotous Proceedings thus aded with fuch a precipitate fury, fo incens'd 
his Majefty,that fpeedy care had been taken to reduce them to reafon, had they not 
upon mature confideration bethought themfelves afterwards to yield Obedience to 
his Majefties Orders. 

Having treated at large of all that concerns ISlew England in general, both in re- 
ference to the Natives and the Englip7 Planters, we fhall conclude with a brief view 
of the Provinces o^ Laconia and Main^ as they are truly Defcrib'd (among other in- 
genuous Colledions and Obfervations of the Affairs of America^ and efpecially 





A brief Ds- 
fcripcion of 
I.aconi.i, a 
Province in 
NfW -twg- 

A M E "B^l C A. Chap. II. 

thefe Parts) by Fenlhimdo Gorges Efq; Heir to the abcve^tnention'ci Sir Feydiuaitdo ^ 
and thereby fole Lord of the faid Provinces, cnely contradiing what hath been by ^ 
him deliver'd more at large. 

Among divers Plantations of the BigUf? happily Founded in New England^ is a 
Province to the Landward, namM LaconiUj fo call'd by reafon of the great Lakes 
therein, but by the ancient Inhabitants thereof it ;s cali'd The Countrey of the Troquois : 
It lies between the Latitude of forty four and forty five Degrees, having the Ri- 
vers of Sagadehock and Mcnimeck on the Sea-Coaft of New England^ Southerly from 
it; into each of which Rivers there is a fliort Paflage, frequented by the Salvages 
inhabiting near the Lakes. Alfo it hath the great Lakes which tend towards Cali- 
/on/i<i in the South Sea on the Weft thereof: On the North thereof is the great 
River of 0«^^^, into which the faid River difgorgeth it felf by a fair large River, 
well replenifliM with many fruitful Iflands : The Air thereof is pure and wholefom, 
the Countrey pleafant, having fome high Hills, full of goodly Forrefts, and fair 
Valleys and Plains, fruitful in Corn, Vines, Chefnuts, Wallnuts, and infinite forts 
of other Fr uits/large Rivers well ftor'd with Fifli, and inviron'd with goodly Mea- 
dows full of Timber-trees. 

One of the great Lakes is cali'd The Lake of Troquois ^ which together with a Ri^- 
ver of the fame Name, running into the River of Qanada^ is fixty or feventy Leagues 

in length. 

In the Lake are four fair Iflands, which are low and full of goodly Woods and 
Meadows, having ftore of Game for Hunting, as Stags, Fallow»Deer,*Elks, Roe* 
Bucks, Beavers, and other forts of Beads which come from the Main Land to the 
faid Iflands. 

The Rivers which fall into the Lakes have in them good flore of Beavers j of 
which Beafts, as alfo of the Elks, the Salvages make their chiefeft Traffick. 

The faid Iflands have been inhabited heretofore by the Salvages, but are now 
abandon'd by reafon of their late Wars one with another : They contain twelve 
or fifteen Leagues in length, and are feated commodioufly for Habitation in the 
midft of the Lake, which abounds with divers kinds of wholefom Fifh. 

From this Lake run two Rivers Southward, which fall into the Eaftern and 
Southern Sea-Coaft of New England. 

Into this Lake there went many years fince certain Trench of Ou_eheckj who fided 
with the JlgoVmquins , with the help of their Canoos, which they carried the fpace of 
five Miles over the hnpofihle Fallsj to Fight a Battel in revenge of fome former In* 
juries done by the Troquois to the Jlgovijiquins, who had the Vi(5tory ; for which caufe 
the Fre?ich havebeen fo hated ever fince by the Nation of the Troquois, that none of 
themdurft ever appear in any part of that Lake. But their Trade, faid to be fixteen 
thoufand Beavers yearly , is partly fold to the Dutch , who Trade with the Weft- 
end of the faid Lake over Land by Horfes, from their Plantation upon Hudfons 
<I{iyer : and another part is conceiv'd to be purchas'd by the Hiroons, who being 
Newters, are Friends both to the one and the other ; and thefe Hiroons bring down' 
the greatefl: part of all by the River o^ Canada, 

The Way over Land to this great Lake, from the Plantation of Tafcata'^ay, hath 
been attempted by Captain Walter Neale, once Governor, at the Charges of Sir Fer^ 
dinando Gorges, Captain Mafon, and fome Merchants of London, and the Difcovery- 
wanted but one days Journey of finifliing,becaufe their Victuals w^as fpent, which, 
for want of Horfes, they were enforced to carry with their Arms, and their Clothes, 
upon their Backs : They intended to have made a fettlement for Trade by Pinnaces 
upon the faid Lake, which they reckon to be about ninety or a hundred Miles from 
the Plantation over Land. The 



The People of the Coiintrey are givea to Hunting of wild Beafts, which is their 
chicfefl Food. ' 

Their Arms are Bowes and Arrows. Their Armor is made partly of Wood, 
and partly of a kind of twilled Stuff like Cotton-Wool. 

Their Meat is Flour o£ Lidian Corn, of that Countreys growth^ fodden to Pap, 
which they preferve for times of Neceflity when they cannot Hunt, 

This Province of L^co/zi^p however known by a diilin^t Name, is included v;ithin 
the Province of Main, which offers it felf next to our confideration. 

All that part of the Continent of Neip EngUml, which was allotted by Patent to 
Sir Ferdmando Gorges and to his Heirs, he thought fit to call by the Name of T/;e fro- 
yince of Main, It takes it beginning at the entrance of fafcatoway' Harbor, and fo 
paffeth up the fame into the River o^KeiVichll^a'Voch j and through the fame unto the 
fartheft Head thereof J and from thence North- Weftwards for the fpace of a hun- 
dred and twenty Miles 5 and from the Mouth of Tafcatolt^ay Harbor aforefaid. 
North. Eaftward along the Sea=Coaft, to Sagadehpck -, and up the River thereof to 
E^nibeciuy River^, even as far as the Head thereof; and into the Land North- Weil= 
wards, for the fpace of a hundred and twenty Miles. 

To thefe Territories are alfo adjoyn'd the North half of the Ifles of Sholes^ toge* 
ther with the Ifles o^ Capawick and ISlauticaUj as alfo all the little lOands lying within 
five Leagues of the Main, all along the Sea=Coaft, between the aforefaid Rivers of 
^dfcatolDay and Sagadehock' 

He no fooner had this Province fetled upon him, but he gave publick notice^ 
That if any one would undertake by himfelfand his AlTociates, toTranfporca 
competent number of Inhabitants, to Plant in any part of his Limits, he would 
aflio-n unto him or them fuch a proportion of Land,, as fhould in reafon fatisfie them, 
referving onely to himfelf fome fmall High-Rent, as is. or 2 j. 6 d. for a hundred 
Acres per Annum : and if they went about to build any Town or City, he would 
Endow them with fuch Liberties and Immunities^ as fhould make them capable to 
Govern themfelves within their own Limits, according to the Liberties granted to 
any Town or Corporation within this Realm of H;/^/.W(i. And as for others of the 
meaner lore who went as Tenants, that they fhould have fuch quantities of Land 
aflign'd them as they were able to manage, at the Rate of 4 d, or 6 d. an Acre, ac- 
cording to the nature or fituation of the Place they fettle in. 

And for the Diviiion of the Province, and the Form of Government which he 
intended to Eftablilh, he firft divided the Province into feveral Parts ; and thofe 
again he fubdivided into diftind- Regiments, as Eail, Weft, North, and South ; 
thofe again into feveral Hundreds, Parifhes and Tythings, and thefe to have their 
feveral Officers to Govern, according to fuch Laws as fhould be agreed upon by 
publick Aflent of the Free-holders, with the approbation of himfelf or Deputy, and 
the principal Officers of the publick State. 

The fetled Government for the general Statc^ to whom all Appeals were to be 
made, and from whom all Inftru(5tions for the welfare of the Publick were to ifluC;, 
were to confift of himfelf or his Deputy, who w^as to be chofen every three year 
by himfelf, with the advice of his Council : Next a Chancellor for the determina* 
tion of all Caufes ; A Treafurer, to whom the care of the publick Revenue v^^as 
to be committed ^ A Marfhal, whofe Office was to overfee the Regiments^ and to 
provide Men for publick Service ; An Admiral, to take care of all Maritime Af«= 
fairs, to whom a Judge of the Admiralty was to be joyn'd to determine all Mari- 
time Caufes ; A Maftei' of the Ordnance, to look to the publick Arms and Am- 
munition ; A Secretary, to receive Intelligence, and to acquaint himfelf or Deputy 




of the Pro' 
vince of 

therewith. To thefe belong all their feveral Officers and Miniflers for the Execu- 
tion of all Matters proper to their feveral Places. 

The chief Town of this Province is call'd Gorgiana, which is Governed by a 
Mayor, the reft areonely inconfiderable Villages or fcatter'd Houfes j but throuoh 
Encouragement given to Adventurers and Planters, it may prove in time a very 
flourifliing Place, and be replenifli'd with many fair Tov^ns and Cities, it being a 
Province both fruitful and pleafant. 

Sect. IL 

New Netherlands now call'd New York. 

THat Trad of Land formerly call'd The l^'-^ TSletherUnd, doth contain all 
that Land which lieth in the North parts o^ America, betwixt l>leii? England 
and 'Mary-Land j the length of which Northward into the Countreyy as ic 
hath not been fully difcover'd, fo it is not certainly known : The breadth "of ic is 
about two hundred Miles. The principal Rivers within this Trad, are Hudfons- 
River, ^aritan-KivtXj Deto^re-S^j^River. The chief Iflands are the Manhatans- 
Ifland, Low^-Ifland, and St^t^n-Ifland. 

The firft which difcover'd this Countrey was Henry Hud/on^ who being hir'd by 
the EaJiJndia Company to feek a Paffage in the ISlprthern Jmerka to China, [tt Sail 
Anno i6op. in the Half -Moon Frigat j coming before Terre-neujf , he ftood about to- 
wards the South-Weft, where Sailing up a great River, he found two Men Clad in 
in ^ffelo's Skins ; and from thence arrived fafe at Amjlerdam. 

2>lew ]S(etherla}td thus difcover'd, invited many Merchants to fettle a firm Plan- 
tation there ; to which purpofe they obtain'd Letters Patents in 1614, gi^anted 
them by the States in the Hague, That they might onely Traffick to IS^ew Nether* 
land '^ whereupontheyearneftly profecuting the Defign, fent out Adrian 'Block ^nd. 
Godyn, who difcover'd feveral Coafts, Ifles, Havens, and Rivers. 

The Countrey, as they faid, being then void, was therefore free for any body 
that would take poffeffion of it : Notwichftanding which pretence, they were 
icarce warm in their Quarters, when Sir Samuel ^rgal. Governor o^ Virginia^ having 
firft fpoil'd the Vrench in Accadicj as we faid, difputed the PolTefrion with thefe alfo. 
And although they pleaded Hudfons Right (who by Commiflion from King James y 
and upon an English Account, had lately diicover'd thofe Parts) and pretended they 
had not onely bought all his Cards and Maps of the Countrey, but all his Intereft 
and Right alfo, and had fully contented him for all his Pains and Charges in the 
Difcovery 5 yet the faid Hudfon being an Engli$h'ma.n, and acting all that he did 
by CommijTion from the Kingof £;7^/W, upon Debate it was concluded, That the 
Land could not be alienated after Difcovery without the King o^ England's confent, 
efpecially it being but a part of the Province of Virgijiia, already pofTefs'd by the 
Subjects of England : So that they were forc'd to wave that Title, and the Dutch Go» 
vernor fubmitted his Plantation to His Majefty of &i^/rf?zJ, and to the Governor of 
Virginia, for and under him : Upon which Terms for a good while they held it. 
Afterwards, upon confidence, it feems, of a new Governor fent ixom Amjlerdam ^thty 
not onely fail'd to pay the promised Contribution and Tribute, but fell to fortifie 
themfelves, and to entitle the Merchants oi Amjlerdam to an abfolute Propriety and 
Dominion of the Country, independent of any other 5 buildingTowns, as Ke'^,^ Am^ 
jlerdam • raifing Forts, d-sOrafige Fort, near the Branch of the Nordt ^iver, which they 
cAl Hell-Gate. Complaint whereof being made ioK'm^ Charles, and by his Am* 







« --^X 





!, 1; 


;Cliap. II. <iJ M E \^I C J. 

baffador reprefented to the States, they difown the biifinefs, and declare by Publick 
Inftrument , that it was onely a private Undertaking, y,^. of the IVcJl-hdu Com- 
pany oiAmprdm. Whereupon a Commiirion was granted to Sir George Cahert, 
made Lord SMmore in Ireland, to Poflefs and Plant the Southern parts therwf, lyin<T 
towards rirpma, by the name of Marj-Uiid ■ and to Sir Edmund Loyden, to Plant the 
Northern parts towards New England, by the name of WoV« Mion : Which makes 
the Dutch the fecond time feem willing to compound ; and for the Sum of two 
thoufandand five hundred Pounds, they offer to be gone, and leave all they had 
there. But taking advantage of the troubles in B/g/W, which then began to appear, 
and foon after foUow'd , they not only go back from their firft Propofitions, and 
make higher Demands , but alfo moft mifchievoufly ( as fome report ) fu'rnifli 
,- the Natives with Arms, and teach them the ufe of them, as it may be thought, ex- 
peding to ufe their help upon occafion, againft the Englip. 

.After His Majefties Reftauration , His Majefty being truly inform'd of his juft 
Pretences to all that Ufurp'd Territory call'd New ^etherland, ( the fame having 
, been formerly part of New England) and of how great prejudice to the Aft of Na"^ 
vigation, and how dangerous Intruders the Dutchmen are generally upon other 
Princes Dominions, what mifchief might enfue to all our £«g;,/; plantations in 
time of War , if the Dutch were permitted to ftrengthen themfelves in the very 
heart of His.Majefties Dominions, being Mafters of one of the moft commodious 
Ports and Rivers in Anerka : His Majefty refolv'd to feize upon the fame, as his 
undoubted Right, and in May 1664. having defign'd four Commiffioners to the 
perfeamg of Affairs in New England, Collonel <^chard Njchoh, Sir ^ofort Carr, 
George Qartwright, and Samuel Malt,rick Efquires, with three Ships of War to convey 
them to Softon : The matter was fo order'd, that the fame Ships ferv'd for the re- 
ducing of the Town and Fort of 2n{.* Jmfterdam, upon conditions, advantageous 
to His Majefty, and eafie to the Dutch. 

Now begins New Netherland to lofe the Name, for His Majefty having conferr'd 
by Patent upon his Royal Highncfs the Duke oilork and Jlbany, all the Acquifiti. 
ons made upon Foraigners , together vi kh Long-IJland , the Weft end whereof 
was wholly fetled and Peopled by Dutch-men ■ his Royal Highnefs impower'd by 
Commiffion as his Deputy-Governor, Colonel Nichols, Groom of his Bed-chara- 
ber, to take the Charge and Direaion of Reducing and Governing all thofe Terri. 
toriesjit was by h.m thought fit,to change fome principal denominations of Places,' 
y>K- New Netherland into York-fiire-, New Amftcrdam into New York; Fort-Jmfcel into Fort, 
james; Fort-Orange into Fort.Albany ., and withal, to change !Burgomafters,Schepen, and 
Scho,^, into Mayor, Aldermen, and Sheriff, with Juftices of the Peace ; fo that all 
the Civil Policy is conformable to the Methods and Praftife of England, whereas 
K'w England retains only the name of Onftahle in their whole Rolls of Civil Offi- 
cers, o 

I: is plac'd upon the neck of the Iftand Manhatans, looking towards the Sea ■ en- 
compafs'd with Hud/on s River, which is fix Miles broad ; the Town is compaft 
and oval, with very fair Streets and feveral good Houfes ; the reft are built much 
aher the manner of Holland, to the number of about four hundred Houfes, which 
m thofe pamoate held confiderable : Upon one fide of the Town is James-Fort, 
capable to lodge three hundred Souldiers and Officers ; it hath four Baftions, forty 
Pieces of Cannon mounted; the Walls of Stone, lin'd with a thick Rampart of 
tarth ; we 1 accommodated with a Spring of frefh Water, always furnift'd with 
Arms and Ammunition, againft Accidents : Diftant from the Sea feven Leagues, 
It affords a fafe Entrance, even to unskilful Pilots , under the Town fide, Ships of 
.' ■ ' ' * any 






any Burthen may Ridefecure againft anyStorms, the Current of the River being 
broken by the interpofition of a fmall Ifland, which lies a Mile diftant from the 


About ten Miles from Nelo York is a Place call'd Hell-Gate, which being a nar- 
row Paffage, there runneth a violent Stream both upon Flood and Ebb ; and in the 
middle lie fo me Rocky Iflands, which the Current fets fo violently upon, that 
it threatens prefent Shipwrack j and upon the Flood is a large Whirl wind^, which 
continually fends forth a hideous roaring, enough to affright any Stranger from 
paffing farther, and to wait for fome Charon to condud him through j yet to thofe 
that are well acquainted,little or no danger : It is a place of great Defence againft 
any Enemy coming in that way, which a fmall Forticfiation would abfolutely 
prevent, and neceffitate them to come in at the Weft end o^ Long-lfland by Sandy 
Hook.vvhtre Ts^utten IJland forces them within the Command of the Fort at New Yorky 
which is one of the beft Pieces of^Defence in the North parts o^ America, It is built 
moft of Brick and Stone, and covered with red and black Tyle, and the Land being 
high, it gives, atadiftanceapleafingprofpea to the Speaators, The Inhabitants 
confift moft o^ English and Dutch, and have a confiderable Trade with Indians for 
Beaver, Otter, and ^ackoon^Skms, with other Furrs j as alfo for Bear, Deer and 
£/^e'Skins • and are fupply'd with Venifon and Fowl in the Winter, and Fifh in 
the Summer by the Indians, which they buy at an eafie Rate ; and having the Coun- 
trey round about them, they are continually furnifli'd with all fuch Provifions as 
is needful for the Life of Man, not onely by the Englljh and Dutch within their own, 
but likewife by the adjacent Colonies. 

The Manhattans, or Great (I(i>er, being the chiefeft, having with two wide Mouths 
'waQi'd the mighty Ifland Watouioaks, falls into the Ocean. The Southern Mouth 
is caird fort May, or Godym 'Bay. In the middle thereof lies an Ifland call'd The 
States Ifland -, and a little higher the Manhattans, fo call'd from the Natives, which 
on the Baft fide of the River dwell on the Main Continent. They are a cruel Peo- 
ple, and Enemies to the Hollanders, as alfo of the Sanhikans, which refide on the 
Weftern Shore. Farther up are the Makwaes and Mahikans, which continually War 
one againft another. In like manner all the Inhabitants on the Weft fide of the Ri* 
\er Manhattan ^rQ commonly ^t Enmity with thofe that pofl'efs the Eaftern Shore j 
who alfo us'd to be at variance with the Hollanders, when as the other People 
Weftward kept good Correfpondency with them. 

On a fmall Ifland near the Shore of the Mah^aes, lay formerly a Fort, provided 
with two Drakes and eleven Stone Guns, yet was at laft deferred. 

This Countrey hath many removable Water-falls, defcending from fteep Rocks, 
large Creeks and Harbors , frefh Lakes and Rivulets, pleafant Fountains and 
Spdngs, fome of which boyl in the Winter, and are cold and delightful to drink in 
Summer. The Inhabitants never receive any damage by Deluges j neither from 
the Sea, becaufe the Water rifes not above a Foot j nor by the fwelling Rivers, 
which fometimes, for a few days covering the Plains, at their deferring them, 
leave them fat and fruitful. The Sea»Coaft is Hilly, and of a fandy and clayic 
Soil, which produces abundance of Herbs and Trees. 

The Oak grows there generally fixty or fevency Foot high,and for the moft part 
free from Knots, which makes it the better fit for Shipping. 

The Nut.trees afford good Fuel, and a ftrange Profped when the Wood is fet 
on fire;, either to hunt out a Deer, or to clear the Ground fit to be Till'd. 

Some Plants brought hither, grow better than in Holland it felf, as Apples, Pears, 

Cherries, Peaches, Apricocks, Strawberries^ and the like. 



Chap. II. 

d M E%_^1 C A. 


Their Vines grow wild in moll places, and bear abundance of blue, white," and 
Muskadine Grapes : Sometime fince the Inhabitants made a confiderable advan. 
tage by the Wine of chem, which is not inferior to either 1(hemJhot French. 

All manner of Plants known in Europe grow in their Gardens : The Water, 
Lemmons, no lefs pleafing to the Palate than healthfuL^hen grown ripe • they are 
about the bignefs of an indifferent Cabbage : the Englijh prefs a Juice out'of them, 
which if It did not turn fowre in a fliort time, might well be compar'd with Spa- 
mp Wine. 

The Calabajhes which grow there, made hollow, ferve for Water.cups. 

Pumpions are alfo there in great abundance. 

Their Wheat though Set fix Foot deep, grows very fpeedily : Kidney-Beans 
being planted amongft it, they will wind about the Stalks thereof. 

Gray Peafe grow here fo faft, that they gather them twice a year. 

In one Field Phyfical Herbs and Indigo grow wild in great abundance ; and Bar. 
ley Iprings above a Mans heighth. - 

Moreover, there are divers forts of fwcet-fmelling Flowers. 

The Hills are mod of a fat and clayie Soil, fit to make Pots, Tobacco-pipes, or 
any other fort of Earthen Ware. ' 

In fome places alfo isftore ofMountain Cryftal, and that fort of Mineral which 
we call Mufcoyla Gla/s : Others afford Marble, Serpentine Stone, and other forts 
ot hard Stone. And though theNatives did not think it worth their while, or were 
not in a^capacity to dig for Minerals themfelves, yet it remains without contradi- 
ction, that the Mountains inclofe both Gold and Silver. 

When Captain W,ll,am Qief, Anno .645. us'd the Indum Interpreter J^heroenfc 
(to decide the Differences which arofe between the Weft-l„d,a Company and the wild 
1 eopie call'd JW«W«,) heobferv'd him to paint his Face with a yellow dittering 
colour which he judg'd to be of fome rich Mineral : whereupon buying fome of 
the laid Jgheroenfe, he put it into a Crufible, and gain'd two fmall pieces of Gold 
»utoftneiame,valu-d at fix Shillings; but keeping it private, and purchafing a 

' Vin!?si 

Water Lem= 

Wheat/ ^ 


Soy! of tb^ 

Gold and SiJ. 

T % 


j»3 - ■■ 


Paint after a 
itraiige man- 




£lack Sears, 



<a M E % I C J. ' Chap. II. 

great quantity ofthefaid Mineral from^^/;fro?;2/e (who had (liowMhim the Moun- 
tain which produced the fame) extraded good (tore of Gold out of it ; which pof- 
fe/Ting CZ/V/f with a belief of having found out a bufinefs of great confequence, he 
fent Jrent Qorfen of New-haye?! with the fort-mention'd Mineral to Holland j but the 
Ship being never heard of afcerw^ards, and the Princefs Pink, in which Captain 
Clicjfwas himfclf, with ftore of the new=found Mineral, being call away, the Bu« 
iineil came to nothing. 

The Inhabitants, though divided into feveral Nations^, yet agree in many things, 
as in painting their Bodies, Shields, Clubs, and other Utenfils in their Houfes, 
The Colours wherewith they paint themfelves they prefs out of Plants, or 
make them of certain Stones grownd into very fine Powder. The chiefeft Plant is 
not unlike the Myrtle, onely it hath more Boughs, and bears red Berries ^ the Juice 
of which beina dry'd in the Sun, is afterwards preferv'd in little Bags. The Na- 
tives temper their Colours with Water, and paint their Bodies with the fame : It 
is as good a Purple as can be found. They alfo draw Ships, Trees, and Beafts after 
a very rou<7h manner : In Head of Feathers they wear pleited Hair, which' being 
coloured red, hath an excellent glofs, which never fades though it Rain on the 


The Horfes bred in this Countrey, being either brought thither from En^» 
land or Utrecht, far exceed thofe of H«g/i/7? breed ; but are both of them fubje(5t to a 
ftrancre Difcafe, of which many die in few hours. The fame Diftcmper alfo feizes 
on Cattel if they go into Forrefl: Pafture : But the onely thing to cure the fame, is 
Hay from fait Marfliy Grounds. ^ 

The Oaken Woods have ftore of Hogs, which if taken and fatned with Turkijh 
Wheat, are moft delicious Meat. 

The Sheep, though they breed well there, yet are very fcarce, becaufe the Plan- 
ters not being able to fpare Men to watch them, they are often devoured by 

There are alfo abundance of Deer^ all forts of Fowls, Turkies, Gcc[e, Ducks, 
Pigeons, and the like. 

The Lyons, whofe Skins the Indians bring to Market, are taken on a high Moun- 
tain fifteen days Journey South«We(l from thence. 

There are likewife many black Bears, fearful of humane kind, but if Hunted, 
they run dired: on thofe that purfue them : they deep all the Winter, lying fix 
Weeks on one fide, and fix on the other, and fucking their Feet all the time : They 
generally lurk among Brambles, or in the Concavities of fome hollow Mountain. 

On the Borders of Canada there is feen fometimes a kind of Bead which hath 
fome refemblance with a Horfe, having cloven Feet, fliaggy Mayn, one Horn juft 
on their Forehead, a Tail like that of a wild Hog,, black Eyes, and a Deers Neck : 
it feeds in the ncareft Wildernefies : the Males never come amongft the Females 
except at the time when they Couple^, after which they grow fo ravenous, that they 
not onely devour other Beafts, but alfo one another. 

Towards the South of New York are many Biiffles, Beafts which (according to 
Erafmm Stella) are betwixt a Horfe and a Stag : though they are of a ftrongConfti- 
tution, yet they die of the fmalleft Wound, and are fubjed: to the Falling=fick- 
nefs : they have broad branchy Horns like a Stag, fhort Tail, rough Neck, Hair 
coloured according; to the feveral Seafons of the Year, broad and lone Ears, hang- 
ing Lips, little Teeth, and Skin fo thick, as not eafie to be pierced : The Females 
differ from the Males, for they have no Horns ; both may eafily be made tame : 
when Hunted, they vomit out a fort of fcalding Liquor on the Dogs: they have 





Chap. II. 

A M E%^1C A, 

- :>i 


great force in tjeir Claws, for they can kill a Wolf with the fa«e at o5e blo«r : 

ficknef! '" °' ' '' ' ^°°*^ °'" ■" ''''" ^''''' ''*'"° -^"^ "^^ f ^"'"g- 

But no Beafts are more plentiful here than Harts and Stags, which feed up and «""• 
down in great Herds : when they are Hunted by Wolves or Men, they immedi. 
ate y take the next R'ver. where they are caught feveral together, by being crofs'd 
m the.r S, and affrighted by the Eccho which comes from the Mountains 
made by the Hunters hollowing on the other Shore, which makes them fearful of 
Landmg : whilft the Huntfmen joyning feveral pieces of Wood together get up- 
on^them, and Rowing towards thefe Deer, intercept them, being tir'd and out of 

Moreover this Countrey breeds many Musk Cats, efpecially in Marfhy Mu.t-o.. 
Grounds. Thefe Beafts are beautiful to the Eye, having black fpeckled Skins^ 

theurMouths fuUoffliarpTeeth.andtheirTailsbeinglongtrailafcerthem. ' 
Many of the Learned maintain a Difpute concerning Civet, Whether it be the 
Seed of the Civet-Cat ? the Affirmative, which C.Mnus maintained, is contradided 
by JuUus Scahffr. MmMm, an Author of no little credit, fuppofes that Civet is 
the Sweat of the Cat, becaufe it is moll chiefly taken when thefe Beafts arc exceed- 
ingly vex d and weaned .• But fince the Sweat runs from all parts of the Body 
which neverthelefs do not all produce Civet, it is impoflible that Sweat fliould be 
Civet. Others account Civet to be the Dung of the Cars ; which laft feems to 
come neareft to truth: for certainly ic is nothing elfe but an Excrement in the 
flefiiy parts about their Pizzle, or near the Fundament. The Cats being in pain 
to be difcharg d of this Civet, free themfelves from it by rubbing a Tree a.d alfo 
fawn on thofe which take it from them with a Spoon. , • o 

Belides all other wild Crcafurps fli» <^«. .„,..„ i- 

T> i J 1 , '^'"'"'^"> the Countrey according to Ailrmn Fander 

Vonk, produces yearly eiehtv thoufanH Rpavpr. tpn . „! .11,- „ 

^ff ■ n- 1 J t '&"7 '^"°"'»"'' "savers, 'i 'w;i relates, that thefe Beafts bite "'•■• ■'''•s'' 

offtneir P«^les and throw them to the Hunter, which are an .xceedmg good Me- """ to help Abortion, ftop die Monethly Flowers, Giddmefs m the Head 

I Gouc. 



<l£ M E %rC A. 

Chap. II. 

Fowls in 

Nevct Torkj. 

Gont Lamenefs, Belly and Toothcach, Rhumes, Poyfonj and the Evil.' But <?% 
makes a great miftake herein, for the Beavers have a fmall Piflel faften'd to their 
Back-bone, in fuch a manner, that they cannot loofc them but with hazard of their 
lives : They live in the Water, and on the Shore, in great companies together, in 
Ncfts built of Wood, which deferve no fmall admiration , being m^ade after this 
manner : The Beavers firfl gather all the loofe Wood, which they find along the 
Banks of the Rivers, of which, iftherebenot enough, they bite the Bark off from 
the Trees in the neighboring Woods, then with their Tusks, of which two grow 
above, and two below in their Mouths, they gnaw the main body of the Tree fo 
long, till it drops afunder : Their Nefts very artificial, are fix Stories high, covered 
on the top with Clay to keep out Rain j in the middle is a paflagc which goes to 
the River, into which they run fo foon as they perceive a Man j to which purpofe 
one of them ftands Sentinel, and in the Winter keeps open the Water from freez- 
ing, by continual moving of his Tail, which is flat without Hair, and the moft 
delicious Meat that can be had. The Beavers go big fixteen Weeks, and once a 
year bring forth four young, which fuck and cry like young Children , for the 
Dam of them rifes on her hinder Feet, and gives her Teats, which grow between 
the fore-legs to two of her young, each of them one ; the foremoft legs of a Beaver 
refemble thofe of a Dog, the hindermoft thofe of aGoofe ; on each fide of the vent 
are two fwellings within two thin Skins ; out of their vent runs generally an Oily 
moyfture, with which they anoint all the parts of their body which they can reach, 
to keep them from being wet ; within they are like a cut-up Hog ; they live on the 
Leaves and Barks of Trees ; they love their young ones exceedingly j the long 
Hairs, which fliining,-ftick out on the back, fall off in Summer, and grow again 
againft Harveft; they have (hort Necks, ftrong Sinews and Legs, and move very 
fwiftly in the Water, and on the Land ; if incompafs'd-by Men or Dogs, they bite 
mofl feverely • the right CaHorewn,Co highly efteem'd by Phyficians, is a long Veftca, 
not unlike a Pear,within the body of the female Beaver, the hdiaris mince the Cods 
of the Male Beavers amongft their Tobacco, becaufc they produce no Cafionunu 

This Country abounds alfo with Fowls ; for befides Hawks, Kites, and other 
Birds of Prey, there are abundance of Cranes, of fevcral forts, fome grey, fome 
brown,others auite white ; all of them have firm Bodies, and Bones without Mar- 
row, Claws of a finger long, ftrong and crooked Bills, their Brains dry, their Eyes 
little and hollow, hard Features, the left Foot lefler than the right, both dcform'd, 
their Blood thick, and the Excrements of a horrid fmell ; they breed moft in old 
Woods, whofe ground is without Brambles, and alfo near the Water, for they 
feed on Fifli, and devour all forts of Fowls, nay, fnatch up Hares, Rabbets, Tor- 
tels andfeveral other forts of Animals, which they carry away with them in the 
Air ; nay, when hungry, they feize on one another 5 fome of them fly abroad for 
their prey about noon, others at Sun-rifing ; they fall like Lightning on what e're 
they purfue ; they drink little, except the Blood of thofe Creatures which they de- 
vour • they are very libidinous, coupling above thirty times a day, not only with 
their like, but alfo with the Hens of Hawks, and other Birds j they lay their big- 
geft Eggs in thirty days, and the lefler in twenty days ; they generally bring forth 
three youn<T J thofe of them that cannot endure to look full againft the Sun, are 
thrown out of their Nefts ; the young ones when they begin to be fledg'd, are by 
the old carry'd into the Air, and let flie, but fupported by them ; their fight is 
wonderful quick j for though they flie as high as ever they are able to be difcern'd^ 
yet they can fee the leaft FiOi that is in the Water, and a Hare lying in the Buflies: 
their Breath ftinks horribly , wherefore their Carcafes fuddenly rot- though the) 




CKap. IL 

^ M E X^I C A. 

are libidinous, yet they live long j moft of them die of hunger, becaufe their Bills 
when they grow old_, grow fo crooked, that they cannot open the fame, where- 
fore they flie up into the Air againft the Sun , and falling into the coldeft Rivers 
loofe their Feathers and die. , > 

Befides the foremention'd Birds of prey, there are abundance of Storks, Ravens, 
Crows, Owls, Swallows, Gold-finches, Ice-birds, Kites, Quails, Pheafants, and 
Winter iQ'wgi, and which are mofl: remarkable for their rich Feathers, the Sbechtes, 
they pick great holes in Trees, and make a noife as if a Man were cutting down a 
Tree. The Pigeons flie in fuch flocks, that the Indians remove with them to the 
place where they make their Nefl:SjWhere the young ones being, taken by hundreds, 
ferve them for a Moneths Proviflon. 

Moreover, ]>lew York breeds a ftrange Bird about a Thumb long, full of gli- 
ftering Feathers j it lives by fucking of Flowers like a Bee, and is fo tender, that 
it immediately dies if water be fpirted upon it j the Carcafe being dry'd, is kept 
for a Rarity. 

But this Countrey abounds chiefly inTurkies, whofe plenty deferves no lefs 
admiration than their bulk, and the delicious tafte of their Flefli,for they go feeding 
forty or fifty in a flock, and weigh fometime forty or fifty pound apiece ; the Na- 
tives either flioot them, or take them with a Bait fl:uck on an Angle : In March Sind 
Harvefl: the Waters fwarm with Gcefcj Teal, Suites, Ducks, and Pelicans, befides 
many fl:range forts of Fowls not known in Europe. 

The Rivers and Lakes produce Sturgeon, Salmon, Carps, Pearch, Barbils, all 
forts of Eels, and many other Fifh which are taken near Water.falls : The Sea af- 
fords Crabs with and without Shells, 'Sea-cocks, and Horfes, Cod, Whiting,Ling, 
Herrings, Mackrel, Flounders, Tar-buts, Tortels, and Oyfl:ers, of which fome are 
a Foot long, and have Pearl, but are a little brownifh. 

Amongfl: the Poyfonous Creatures which infefl; New hrk, the chiefefl: and moft 
dangerous is the ^ttle-Snake , whofe defcription we have already had at larae in 
tie"^ England, 

The Inhabitants have their Hair black as Jet , harfli like Horfe-hair ; they are 
broad Shoulder'd, fmall Wafl:ed, brown Ey'd, their Teeth exceeding white j with 
Water they chiefly quench their Thirfl: : Their general Food is Flefli,Fifli,and Indian 
Wheat, which fl:amp'd, is boyl'd to a Pap, by them call'd Sappaen : They obferve 
no fet time to Eat, but when they have an Appetite their Meals begin. Beavers 
Tails are amongfl: them accounted a great Dainty : When they go to Hunt, they 
live feveral days on parch'd Corn, which they carry in little Bags ty'd about their 
middle ; a little of that faid Corn thrown into Water fwells exceedingly. 

Henry Hud/on relates, That Sailing in the River Montains^ in forty Degrees, he 
faw the Indians make fl:range Geftures in their Dancing and Singing j he obferv'd 
farther, that they carry'd Darts pointed with fliarp Stones, Sodder'd to the Wood- 
that they flept under the Sky on Mats or Leaves ; took much Tobacco, and very 
ftrongj and that though courteous and friendly, they were very Thieves. He 
Sailing thirty Leagues further, went in his Boat to an old hdian Commander of 
forty Men and feventeen Women, who conduced him to the Shore, where they all 
dwelt in one Houfe, artificially built of the Barks of Oak-trees j round about it 
lay above three Ships load of Corn, and Indian Beans to dry, befides the Plants 
which grew in the Fields. No fooner had Hudfon enter'd the Houfe , but he was 
receiv'd on two Mats fpread on the ground j and two Men immediately were fent 
out to (hoot Venifon or Fowls ; and inflantly returning, brought two Pigeons j a 
/at Dog, whom they nimbly flea'd with fliells, was alfo laid down to the fire ; 



Pretty Birds.' 



Kattk- Snaked 

on cf the In- 

Their DietJ 

r emarkabJe. 


A M E "Kl C A. 

Chap. !!• 


Theit houfes. 

They alfo made other Preparations for Hudfons Entertainment, but not willing to 
venture himfelf amongft them, that Night.tafted not of it, notwithftandingthe I«- 
dtans breaking their Darts, threw them into the fire, that thereby they might drive 
away all fears and jealoufies from him. 

The Habits of the Natives,efpecially of the Men,arefeW; the Women go more 
neat than the Men ; and though the Winter pinches them with exce/Tive cold, yet 
they go naked till their thirteenth year : Both Men and Women wear a Girdle of 
Whale-fins and Sea^Jhells j the Men put a piece of Cloth, half an Ell long , and 
three quarters broad, between their Legs, fo that a fquare piece hangs behind be- 
low his Back, and another before over his Belly. The Women wear a Coat which 
comes half way down their Legs,fo curioufly wrought with Sea-Jhelh ytha.t one Coac 
fometimes cofts thirty Pounds. Moreover, their Bodies are cover'd with Deer- 
skins, the lappets or ends of which hang full of Points ; a large Skin button'd on 
the right Shoulder, and ty'd about the middle, ferves for an upper Garment, and 
in the Night for a Blanket : Both Men and Women go for the moft part bare- 
headed ; the Women tie their Hair behind in a tuft, over which they wear a fquarc 
Cap wrought with Sea-jhelh, with which they adorn their Foreheads, and alfo wear 
the fame about their Neck and Hands, and feme alfo about their middle. Before 
the Hollanders were Planted here, they wore Shoes and Stockings of S«/Wo'j-skins ; 
fome likewife made Shoes of Wheaten:.ftraw , but of late they come nearer to our 
Fafhions : The Men Paint their Faces with feveral Colours j the Women only 
put here and there a black Spot j both of them are very referv'd. 

Their Houfes are moft of them biiilt of one fafhion, oncly differing in length ; 
all of them agree in breadth of twenty Foot : They build after this manner , they 
fet Peel'd Boughs of Nut-Trees in the ground, according to the bignefs of the 
place which they intend to build , then joyning the tops of the Boughs together, 
they cover the Walls and top with the Bark of Cyprefs, Afhen, and Cheft-nut- 
Trees , which arc laid one upon another , the fmalleft fide being turn'd inwards : 
according to the bignefs of the Houfes, feveral Families, to the number of fifteen 



Chap. II.. ^ ^ M E %^I C A, 

dwell together, every one Iiaving his Apartment. I'heir Fortifications are moft of 
them buik on deep Hills , near Rivers ^ the s-ccti^s to them is onely at one place, 
they arc buik after this manner : They let great Poles in the Ground, with Oaken 
fpallifadoes on each fide, crofs-urays one amongft another j between the crofles they 
fet other Trees, to ftrcngthen the Work : Within this inclosM they generally build 
twenty or thirty Houfes, of which fome are a hundred and eighty Foot long, and 
fomelei'ijdl of them full of People : In the Summer they pitch Tents along by 
theRiver fide to Fifii J againfl: Winter they remove into the Woods, to be near 
their Game of Hunting, and alfo Fuel. 

To take many Women is not cuftomary here , only amongft Military Officers, 
whoMarry three or four Wives, which fo well agree, that there is never any dif- 
ference betwixt them ; thofe that are not of Age, never Marry but wkh the confent 
and advice of their Parents : Widows and unmarry'd Men follow their own opini- 
on and choice 5 only they take Cognizance of their Eftates and Extraaion : The 
Bridegroom always prcfents the Bride 5 for the leail offence, the Man after Laving 
foundly beaten his Wife, turns her out of Doors, and Marries another, infomuch, 
that fome of them have every year a new Wife: On breach of Marriage, the Chil- 
dren follow the Mother j from vvhom they account their Generation : They ac- 
count Adultery, if committed under the bare Canopy of Heaven, a great Sin : 
Whoring is Licenced to fingle Women, if they receive Money for it, artd no Man 
fcruples to Marry them 5 nay, thofe that are Marry'd, boall how many they have 
enjoy'd before their Marriage : She that is inclined to Marry, covers her whole 
body, and fets her felf wrapt up in the middle of the way , where a Batchelor 
paffing by fees her, and makes up the Match blindfold : When impregnated, they 
take great care that their Fruit receives no hindrance nor prejudice : When the 
time of their Delivery approaches, (which they knowexadily) they go to a Mclan- 
cholly place in the Woods, though in the coldeft Weather, where they raife up a 
Hut of Mats, and bring the Child into the World without any help or Company, 
wafh the Child in cold Water, and wrap it up in Mats j then a few days after go- 
ing home , they bring up the Infant with great care, none putting them out to 
Kurfe : So long as a Woman gives fuck, or is quick with Child, fhe will not ad- 
rak of Copulation ; one who hath the Flowers, never comes abroad : In time of 
ficknefs they faithfully affift one another: When any die , the nearefl Relations 
fliut their Eyes ; and after having watched them fome days, they are Interred after 
this manner : The Corps is placM fitting with a Stone under ks Head, near k they 
fet a Pot, Kettle, Difli, Spoons, Money^^ and Provifions to ufe in the other Worldj 
then they pile Wood round about it, and cover it over with Planks, on which 
throwing Earth and Stones, they fee ^aliifadoes, and make the Grave like a Houfe^ 
to which they fliew Veneration, wherefore they account it a great piece of villany 
to deface any thing of k : The Men make no fliew of forrow over the Dead, but 
the Women mourn exceedingly, and carry themfelves very Rrangely, beating theit 
Breads, fcratching their Faces, and calling night and day on the name of the De- 
ceas'd : The Mothers make great Lamentation at the Death of their Children, ef- 
pecially Sons , for they fliave off the Hair of their Heads, which at the Funeral is 
burnt in the prefence of all their Relations ; which is alfo performed by the Wo- 
men when their Husbands die ; befides, they black all their Faces, and putting on 
a Hart-skin Shirt, mourn a whole year, notwichftanding they livM very conten- 
tioully together. 

On fome occafions they go a WorOiipping of the Devil, to a certain place where 
the Sorcerers (hew Rrange Feats of A^ivky, ttimblin-g over andover, beating 



Many Wiveir 


Whoring f er= 

Strange Mir. 


Child- bear-' 
ing Womeng 
grange afti-«j 


over the dead 




^^^^Mii^ ak t% 7 ' 


Language of 
the iyifw Xe- 


Vices and 



aftions of 
fome Prifon- 



themfelves, and not without great noife leaping in and about a great Fire : at lad 
they make a great Cry all together j upon which (as they fay) the Devil appears to 
them in the fhape either of a tame or wild Bcaft : the firft fignifies bad ,and the other 
good fortune j both inform them of future Events, though darkly ; and if the bu- 
iinefs fall out contrary, they affirm that they have not rightly underftood the De- 
vil's meaning. Moreover they bewitch fome in fuch a manner, that they foam at 
the Mouth, throw themfelves into the Fire, and beat themfelves feverely • and fo 
foon as they whifper in the Ear of thofe whom they have bewitched, they immedi- 
ately recover their former health. 

The Language of this Countrey is very various, yet it is divided intoonely four 
principal Tongues, as the Manhattans ^ Waj^j^anoo, SiaVanoo, and hfrnqua's^ which are 
very difficult for Strangers to learn, becaufe they are fpoken without any Grounds 
or Rules. 

Their Money is made of the innermofl: Shells of a certain ShelUfifli, caft up 
twice a year by the Sea : Thcfe Shells they grind fmooth, and make a Hole in. 
the middle, cutting them of an cxa6t bignefs, and fo put them on Strings,, which 
then ferve in ftead of Gold, Silver, and Copper Coin. 

Now to fay fomethingof the Vices and Vertues of the Inhabitants. They arc 
in the firft place very flovenly and nafty, ftubborn, covetous, revengefuljand much 
addid:ed to filching and ftealing. Some appear referv'd, ufing few words, which 
they utter after ferious confideration, and remember a long time. Their Under- 
flandings being improved by the Hollandersj they are quick of apprehenfion, to di- 
ftinguifh good from bad : they will not endure any OppreiIion,but are very patient 
of Heat, Cold, Hunger and Thirft. They have a ftrange way of ufing Stoves, which 
are fet in the Ground and cover'd with Earth, into which they go through a little 
Door. A fick Perfon coming into the fame» fets himfelf down, and places hot 
Stones round about him ; which done, and having fweat a confiderable time, he 
leaps into cold Water, by which he finds eafe of all his Diftempers. 

Though thefe People know no great diftindtion between Man and Man, as 
other Nations, yet they have noble and ignoble Families amongft them - fuperior 
and inferior Offices, which they enjoy by Inheritance ^ but fometimes the Martial 
Offices are beftowed according to the Valour of the Perfons : Their Generals fel- 
dom give their Enemies a Field-Battel, by drawing or dividing their Men into Re- 
giments or Companies, but make it their whole Defign to defeat their Enemies by 
fudden Sallies from Ambulcado's; for they never ftand outak;lofe Fight, unlefs 
compeird to it, but if encompafs'd round, they fight to the laft Man. When any 
danger threatens, the Wcmien and Children are conveyed to a fecure place. Their 
Arms formerly were Bowes and Arrows, and Battel-axes, but now they ufe Muf* 
quets, which they have learned to handle with great dexterity. Their fquare 
Shields cover all their Bodies and Shoulders. About their Heads they tie a Snakes 
Skin, in the middle of which fi:icks either a Fox's or Bear's Tail. They cannot be 
known by their Faces, they are all over fo befmear'd with Paint of divers colours. 
They feldom give Quarter to their Enemies, except Women and Children, which 
the Conquerors ufe as their own, that by that means they may' increafe and 
fi:rengthen themfelves : and if any Prifoner is not kilTd prefently after the Battel, 
but falls into the Hands of one whofe Relations have formerly been (lain by his 
Party, he is Roafi:ed three days by degrees before he gives up the Ghoft. It de- 
ferves no fmall admiration, that the Sufferer during the whole time of his Torture, 
Sings till he breathes his laft. They have few or no Punifliments for any Offence, 
committing few Crimes which are by them accounted Capital. If any one fteal, 


ChapJI. ^ A M E R I C A. 

and the Goods be found in his cuftody, the Governor of the place where he rc/ides 
commands him onely to reftore the fame to the Owner. If any one miirther or kill 
the other, the Relations of the flain, if they can take the Malefador in twenty four 
hours, may without Examination or delay put him to death alfo • but that time 
being once expir'd, the Revenger is liable to be kiil'd in the fame time by his Rela- 
tions whom he flew. All Obligations have their power and vertue from certain 
Prefents delivered upon the making of a Contrad, which is done thus : They dry 
as many Sticks as they have Articles, which if they agree upon^ every Man on the 
concluding of the Difcourfe lays a Prefent before the others Feeto Sometimes they 
hang up the Prefents^ becaufe they are often three days in C®nfultation before they 
refolve j after which if the Prefents be taken down, it is a certain fign of their 
Agreement J but if not, they proceed no farther, unlefs the Articles and Prefents 
are altered. On Bufinefies of confequence the Commonalty repair to their Gover- 
nor's Houfe, there to hear and enquire what the Nobility there aflembled have 
concluded or lefolv'd on j at which the bell Orator (landing up, tells them their 
Intentions. It happens fometimes that a turbulent Perfon making a Mutiny, and 
refufing to hearken to reafon, is immediately beheaded by one of the Nobility j 
in contradi6tion of which none dare prefume to fpeak the lead word. 

There are fcarce any fteps of Religion found amongft thefe People, onely they 
fuppofe the Moon to have great influence on Plants. The Sun, which overlooks 
all things, is call'd to witnefs whene're they Swear. They bear great refpea:, and 
ftand much in fear o^ Satan j becaufe they are often plagued by him when they go a 
Hunting or Fifhing : wherefore the firft of what they take is burnt in honor of 
him, that he to whom they afcribe all wickednefs might not hurt them. When 
they feel pain in any part of their Body, they fay that the Devil fits in the fame. 
They acknowledge that there refides a God above the Stars, but troubles not him^ 
felf with what the Devil doth on Earth, becaufe he continually recreates himfelf 
with a moft beautiful Goddefs, whofe original is unknown : She on a certain time 
(fay they) defcended from Heaven into the Water, (for before the Creation all 
things were Water) into which (lie had inftantly funk, had not the Earth arofe un- 
der her Feet, which grew immediately to fuch a bignefs, that there appeared a 
World of Earth, which product all forts of Herbs and Trees ; whilft the Goddefs 
taking to her felf a Hart,Bear,and Wolf, and Conceivingby them, flie was not long 
after delver'd of feveral Beafts at one time : and from thence proceeded not onely 
the diverfity of Beafts, but alfo Men, of which fomeare black, white, or fallow; 
in nature fearful like a Hart, or cruel and valiant like a Bear, or deceitful like 
Wolves: after this the Mother of all things afcended up to Heaven again, and 
fported there with the Supream Lord, whom they fay they know not, becaufe they 
never faw him : wherefore they fliall have lefs to anfwer for than Qmftians, which 
pretend to knowhim tobe the PuniOier of things both good and bad, which are 
daily committed by them: and for this ridiculous Opinion they can hardly be 
brought to embrace the Qmfiian Faith. 

Concerning the Souls of the Deceafed,they believe, that thofe which have been 
good m their life-time, live Southward in a temperate Countrey,where they enjoy 
all manner of pleafure and delight 5 when as the Wicked wander up and down in a 
miferable Condition. The Eccho which refounds from the Cries of wild Beafls in 
the Night, they fuppofe to be the Spirits of Souls tranfmigrated into wicked 

htthtu Canticas, or Dancing-Matches, where all Perfons that come are freely 
Entertain'd, it being a Fellival time. Their Cuftom is when they Dance, for the 




;Ji 210111. 


lous Opinion 
of God. 

As alfo of the 

Of the Tm- 
mortality of 
the Soul. 

Their CamL 
fdV/or Dan» 





A M E'Kl C A. 

Cliap. 11. 


Their fitting 
ia Ccuncil. 

Spe(5latoi-s to havefhort Sticks in their Hands, and to knock the Ground and Sing 
altoaethei-, whilft they that Dance fometimes adt Warlike poftures, and then they 
come in painted for War with their Faces black and red, or ionie all black, fome all 
red, with fome ftreaks of white under their Eyes, and fo jump and leap up and 
down without any order, uttering many Exprcflions of their intended Valour, 
For other Dances they onely fhew what antick Tricks their ignorance will lead 
them to, wringing of their Bodies and Faces after a ftrange manner, fometimes 
jumping into the Fire, fometimes catching up a Firebrand, and biting off a live 
Coal, with many fuch tricks, that will affright rather than pleafe an EngUp^mzn 
to look upon them, refembling rather a company of infernal Furies than Men. 

When their King or Sachem fits in Council, he hath a Company of Arm'd Men to 
guard his Perfon, great refped being fhewn him by the People, which is princi- 
' pally manifefted by their filence. After he hath declared the caufe of their Con- 
vention, he demands their Opinion, ordering who fliall begin : The Perfon or- 
dcr'd to fpeak, after he hath declar'd his mind, tells them he hath done : no Man 
ever interrupting any Perfon in his Speech, nor offering to fpeak, though he make 
never fo many long flops, till he fays he hath no more to fay. The Council having 
all declar'd their Opinions, the King after fome paufe gives the definitive Sentence, 
which is commonly feconded with a fhout from the People, every one feeming to 
applaud andmanifeft their Affentto what is determined. 

If any Perfon be condemned to die, which is feldom, unlefs for Murther or In- 
cefl, the King himfelf goes out in Perfon (for you mufl underfland they have no 
Prifons, and the guilty Perfon flies into the Woods) where they go in queft of him, 
and having found him, the King flioots firfl, though at never fuch a diflance, 
and then happy is the Man that can fhoot him down ; for he that hath the for- 
tune to be Executioner, is for his pains made fome Captain, or other Military 

They greafe their Bodies and Hair very often, and paint their Faces with feve- 
ral Colours, as black, white, red, yellow, blue, <^c^ which they take great pride in, 
every one being painted in a fevcral manner. 

Within two Leagues of Kew lork lieth Stateiulfiand ^ it bears from 2^n> lork Wefl 
fomething Southerly : It is about twenty Miles long, and four or five broad, mofl 
of it very good Land, full of Timber, and producing all fuch Commodities as 
Long'Ijland doth, befides Tin and ftore of Iron Oar ; and the Qalamine Stone is faid 
likewife to be found there : There is but one Town upon it, Vonfiflingof Engltjh 
and French J but it is capable of entertaining more Inhabitants. 

Betwixt this and Long-Ifland is a large Bay, which is the coming in for all Ships 
and Veffels out of the Sea. 

On the North-fide of this Ifland After-shdl River puts into the Main Land, on 
the Wefl^fide whereof there are two or three Towns, but on the Eaft.fide but one. 
There are very great Marfhesor Meadows on both fides of it, excellent good Land, 
and good convenience for the fetling of feveral Towns. There grows black Wal- 
nut and Locufl, as there doth in Virginia, with mighty,tall,flreight Timber, as good 
as any in the North of ^wenc^ : It produceth any Commodity wh'ich Longlpajtd 

Hudfon's River runs by 2N(^D7 York Northward into the Countrey, towards the 
Head of which is feated NeTi? Jlhajiy, a Place of preat Tr.^de with the Indians^ be- 
twixt which and Heiv TorA, being above a hundred Miles, is as good Corn Land as 
the World affords, enough to entertain hundreds of Families, which in the time of 
the Vutch Government of thcfe Parts could not be fetled by reafon of the hdians^ ex- 


Chap. II. A M E Fx. I C A, 

cepting one Place, call'd The Sobers, which was kept by a Garrifon, but ilnce the Re- 
duccment of thefe Parts under His Majefties Obedience, and a Patent granted to 
his Royal Highnefs the Duke of Tork, which is about fix years, by the care and dili^ 
genceof the Honorable CollonelN/W;o/x, fent thither as Deputy to his Highnefs 
fuch a League of Peace was made, and Friendfhip concluded betwixt that Colony 
and the Indians^ that they have not refiiled or difturb'd any Chriftians there, in the 
fetling or peaceable poiTeffing of any Lands within that Government, but every 
Man hath fat under his own Vine,and hath peaceably reapM and enjoy'd the Fruits 
of thek own Labors, which God continue. 

Weflward of Jfter- skull River before mentioned, about eighteen or twenty Miles, J^^rhan-Rj-: 
runs in <S^aritan River Northward into the Countrey fome fcores of Miles . both '^'* 
fides of which River are adorned with fpacious Meadows,enough to feed thoufands 
of Cattel : The Wood-Lsund is very good for Corn, and ftor'd with wild Beafts, 
as Deer, Elks, and an innumerable multitude of Fowl, as in other parts of the 
Countrey. This River is thought very capable for the ereding of feveral Towns 
and Villages on each fide of it, no place in the North of Jmerica having better con- 
venience for the maintaining of all forts of Cattel for Winter and Summer Food. 

Upon this River is no Town fetled, onely ons at the Mouth of it j but next to it 
Weftward, is a Place call'd Nei^afons 5 where are two or three Towns and Villages 
fetled upon the Sea-fide, but none betwixt that and Veluware-^ay^ which is about 
fixty Miles, all which is a rich Champain Countrey, free from Stones, and indiffe- 
rent level, having ftore of excellent good Timber, and very well watered, having 
Brooks or Rivers ordinarily, one or more in every Miles travel. This Countrey 
is peopled onely with wild Beafls, as Deer, Elks, Bears, and other Creatures, fo 
that in a whole days Journey you fliall meet with no Inhabitants except a few 
Indians. It is alfo full of flately Oaks, whofe broad==branch'd tops ferve for no other 
ufe, but to keep off the Suns heat from the wild Bcafts of the Wildernefs, where is 
Grafs as high as a Man's Middle, which ferves for no other end, except to main- 
tain the Elks and Deer, who never devour a hundredth part of it, than to be burnt 
every Spring to make way for new. How many poor People in the World would 
think themfelves happy, had they an Acre or two of Land,whilft here is hundreds, 
nay thoufands of Acres that would invite Inhabitants. 

2)^/^«.^/'e.%, the Mouth of the River, lieth about the mid way betwixt Kew ^^w., 
Torks^n^thtCaj^es of Virginia. ^''^• 

The befl Comn^odities for any to carry with them to this Countrey is Clothing, 
the Countrey being full of all forts of Cattel, which they may furnifli themfelves 
withal at an eafie Rate, for any fort of Englifi Goods, as likewife Inftruments for 
Husbandry and Building, with Nails, Hinges, Glafs, and the like. They get a Live- 
lihood principally by Corn and Cattel,which will there fetch them any CommodL 
ties : Likewife they Sowe fl:ore of Flax, which they make every one Cloth of for 
their own wearing j as alfo Woollen Cloth, and Linfey-wooUey ; and had they 
more Tradefmen amongft them, they would in a little time live without the help 
of any other Countrey for their Clothing ; for Tradefmen there are none but live 
happily there, as Carpenters, Blackfmiths, Mafons,Taylors, Weavers, Shoemakers, 
Tanners, Brickmakers, and To any other Trade : Them that have no Trade be. 

take themfelves to Husbandry, get Land of their own, and live exceeding well 

We fliall conclude our Difcourfe of this Countrey with a notable Charader gi» 
ven thereof by a late Writer, as to the great advantage of happy living in all re- 
Ipeds, for whoioever fliall be pleas'd to betake himfelf thither to live. 

V. ' , If , 



A M E%I C A. 

Cliap-. 11' 

The Chara- 
Tterofa hap- 
py Coi5:".rri.7. 



F there be any teneftrialhappinefs (faith he) to be had by any People, efpeci. 
ally ofan inferior rank, it muft certainly behere. Here any one may furn.fli 
"himfelf with Land, and live Rent-free, yea, with fuch a quantity of Land, that 
"he tnay weary himfelf with walking over his Fields of Corn, and all forts of 
" Grain, and let his Stock amount to fome hundreds ; he needs not fear there want 
« of Pafture in the Summer, or Fodder in the Winter, the Woods afFordmg fuffic- 
"entfupply where you have Grafs as high as a Man's Knees, nay, as high as his 
" Wafte interlac-d with Pea-Vines, and other Weeds that Cattel much delight in, 
- as much as a Man can pafs through : And thefe Woods alfo every M,le or half. 
« Mile are furnift'd with frefli Ponds, Brooks, or Rivers, where all lorts ol Cattel, 
« during the heat of the day, do quench their thirft, and cool themfelves. Thefe 
" Brooks and Rivers being inviron'd of each fide with feveral forts of Trees and 
" Grape- Vines, interchanging places, and cioffing thefe Rivers, do (hade 
" and flielter them from the fcorching beams of the Sun. Such as by their utmoft 
" Labors can fcarcely get a Living, may here procure Inheritances of Lands and 
" Poffefllons, ftock themfelves with all forts of Cattel, enjoy the benefit of them 
" whilft they live, and leave them to their Children when they die. Here you need 
" not trouble the Shambles for Meat, nor Bakers and Brewers for Beer and Bread, 
<'nor run to a Linnen-Draper for a fupply, every one making their own Linnen, 
« and a great part of their woollen Cloth for their ordinary wearing. And how 
"prodigal (if I may fo fay) hath Nature been to furnifh this Countrey with all 
« fortsof wild Beaftsand Fowl, which every one hath aninteieftin,and may Hunt 
" at his pleafure • where, befides the pleafure in Hunting, he may furnifli his Houfe 
« with excellent fat Venifon, Turkies, Geefe, Heath=hens, Cranes, ^wans Ducks, 
" Pigeons, and the like ; and wearied with that, he may go a Fifliir where the 
" Rivers are fo furnifli'd, that he may fupply himfelf with Fifii befor he canleave 
"off the Recreation. Here one may travel by Land upon the fame Continent 
'< hundreds of Miles, and pafs through Towns and Villages, and never hear the 
« leaft complaint for want, nor hear any ask him for a Farthing. Here one may 
" lodge in the Fields and Woods, travel from one end of the Countrey to another 
«< with as much fecurity as if he were lock'd within his own Chamber : And it 
" one chance to meet with an Indtan Town, they fliall give him the beft Entertain. 
« ment they have, and upon his defire direft him on his Way. But that which 
"addshappinefs to all the reft, is the healthfulnefs of the Place, where many Peo. 
« pie in twenty years time never know what Sicknefs is ; where they look upon it 
" as a great Mortality, if two or three die out of a Town in a years time. Befides 
"thefweetnefsoftheAir, the Countrey it felf fends forth fuch a fragrant fmell, 
" that it may beperceiv'dat Sea before they can make the Land : No evil Fog or 
" Vapor doth any fooner appear, but a North^Weft or Wefterly Wind immediately 
" dilfolves it, and drives it away. Morcover,you fliallfcarce fee a Houfe but th« 
« South-fide is begirt with Hives of Bees, which increafe after an incredible man. 
" ner : So that if there be any tetrcftrial Canam, 'tis furely here, where the Lane 
" floweth with Milk and Honey. 

A NE ^ 



(Xhu9\ortkeyrrie vartof^^lhrauucL(tkc LutvLtts ( 
wke^-rcof c.octe-n2 jcLrtkeyr J outknrarc[sf,)is kecre 
I ^ infcrtcdfor-fkc Matter de^jcyrv^tion oj^ tke^ 


Ai taJbula 

7, It 






\eUf Thefituatipa^ 







I a 


! nuey:g^. 

Chap. II. 

A M E%^I C A. 




O F 


S E C T« II I. 

EforeWe proceed to the Defcription of this Countrey, it 
will be firft requifite to relate the true occafion and means, 
whereby this part o£ Jmerica came to be eres^ed into a Pro- 
vince, and call'd Maryland, 

In the Year of our Lord 1631. George Lord 'Baltemore ob- 
tain'd of King Charles the Firft, of Grf^jt 'Brittairij^c, a Grant 
of that part of Jmerica, (firft difcover'd by the Englijh) 
which lies between the Degrees of thirty feven and fifty 
Minutes^, or thereabouts, and forty of Northerly Latitude ; which is bounded on 
the South by Virginia j on the North, by Kew EngUnd, and Kewjerfey, part of Nem Thefituatioa; 
York, lying on the Eaft fide of Velai^are ^Bay-^ on the Eaft, by the Ocean ; and on 
the Weft, by that part of the Continent which lies in the Longitude of the firft 
Fountains of the River caird 'P^^o;«6'd. _ i 

In purfuance of this Grant to his faid LordOiip, a Bill was prepared, and brought 
to His Majefty to Sign, who firft askM his Lordfliip, what hefliould call it, there 
being a Blank in the Bill defignedly left for the Name, which his LordOiip inten«. 
ded fhould have hzznCrefcentk ; but his Lordfhip leaving it to His Majefty to give 
it a Name, the King propo^'d to have it CallM Terra-Man^, in English, Maryland, m 
honor of his Qiieen, whofe Name was Mary-^ which was concluded on, and infers 
ted into the Bill, whtch the King then Sign'd j and thereby the faid Trad of Land 
was ereded into a Province by that Name. 

His LordfLip fomewhat delaying the fpeedy paffing of it under the Great Seal 
o^ England, dy'd in the interim, before the faid Patent was perfected • whereupon a 





A M E 1^1 C J. 

Chap. II. 


The Bounds. 


The fii-ft 

Patent of the laid Province was fliortly afterwards pafs'd to his Son and Heir^ 
(who was Chviften'd by the Name o( C(£cil^ but afterwards conlirm/d by the Name 
o[ (^(£ciinis,) the now Lord ^altemore, under the Great Seal oi England^ bearing Date 
June 20. 1632. in the eighth Year of His faid Majeflies Reign, with all Royal Ju. 
rifdidtions and Prerogatives, both Military and Civil in the faid ProvincCj as Pow- 
er to Ena(5t'Laws, Power of pardoning all manner of Offences^ Power to confer 
Honors, c?c. to be held of His laid Majefty, His Heirs and SucceiTors, Kings of Ew^- 
land in common Soccage, as of His Majeflies Honor of Windfor in the County of 
'Berks in England-^ yielding and paying yearly for the fame to His Majefty and to His 
Heirs and SucceiTors for ever, two Indiaii Arrow^s of thofe parts^ at the Caftle of 
Windfor aforefaid, on Tuefday in Eafler Weekj and the fifth part of all Gold and Sil- 
ver Oar^ which fliall happen to be found in the faid Province. 

*' By the faid Patent is Granted to his Lordfhipj his Heirs and A/Iigns, .all that 
*'' part of a ^efwifula, lying in the parts of Amerlcay between the Ocean on the Eaft, 
'' and the Bslj o^ Qief ape ack on the Weft j and divided from the other part thereof 
^' by a right Line drawn from the Promontory, or C^pe of Land call'd Watkins* 
*■' ^o'mtj ficuate in the aforefaid Bay, near the River o^Wigcho oti the Weft;, unto the 
" main Ocean on the Eaft, and between that bound on the South, unto that pare 
'^ o^ Delaware Say on the North, which lies under the fortieth Degree of Northerly 
^'^ Latitude from the Equinodial , where NeTfo England ends 5 and all that Tra6l of 
'•^ Land between the bounds aforefaid, that is to fay, paffing from the aforefaid 
'^ Bay caird Delali^are (Bay^ in a right Line by the Degree aforefaid, unto the true 
^' Meridian of the firft Fountains of the River of Tatomeck ; and from thence ftretch- 
'' ing towards the South, unto the furtheft Bank of the faid River, and foUowintr 
^^ the Weft and South fide thereof, unto a certain place call'd Cinquack , near the 
'^ Mouth of the faid River, where it falls into the Bay of Ck/^pe^c^j and from thence 
" by a ftreight Line unto the aforefaid Promontory, or place call'd Watkins-Toint, 
" which lies in thirty feven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, of Northern - 
" Latitude. 

By this Patent his Lordfliip and his Heirs and Affigns are Created the true and 
abfolute Lords and Proprietaries of the faid Province, faving the Allegiance and 
Soveraign Dominion due to His Majefty, His Heirs,and Succefibrsj fo that he hath 
thereby a Soveraignty Granted to him and his Heirs, dependant upon the Sove- 
raignty of the Crown o^ England, 

His Lordfhip, in the Year 1633. fent his fecond Brother Mr. Leonard G/v^rt, and 
his third Brother Mr. George Qahert^ with divers other Gentlemen of Quality, and 
Servants to the number of two hundred Perfons at leaft, to fettle a Plantation 
there ; who fet Sail from the Colpes in the Ifle of Wight in England , on 'JS[o'Vemb, 22. 
in the fame Year j having made fome ftay by the way, at the Barhadoes and St. Chri* 
ftophers in Jmerka^ they arriv'd at foint Comfort in Virginia^ on Eehniaryz^. following; 
from whence fhortly after they Sail'd up the Bay of Chefapeack, and TatomeckKi- 
ver : And having reviewed the Country, and given Names to feveral places, they 
pitched upon a Town of the Indians for their firft Seat, call'd foacomaco, (now Saint 
Maries) which the then Governor Mr. Leonard Cahert, freely Purchased of the Na- 
tives there, for the Lord Proprietaries ufc , with Commodities brought from 

That which facilitated the Treaty and Purchafe of the faid place from the hu 
diansj was a refolution which thofe Indians had then before taken, to remove higher 
into the Countrey where it was more Populous, for fear of the Sa?ifqueha?iocksy 
(another, and more Warlike People of ihc Indians , who were their too near Neigh- 

'"^^"-'"— *• 


CMp.ll. A M E K I L A, \^% 

bors, and inhabit between the Bays o^ Qhefapeack and T>da-^are) there being theft 
adual Wars between them, infomuch, that many of them were gone thither before 
the Ettglisb arrived : And it hath been the general pradice of his Lordftiip, and 
thofe who were employed by him in the Planting of the faid Province, rather to 
purchafe the Natives Intereft, (who will agree for the fame at eafie rates) than to 
take from them by force^^that which they feem to call their Right and Inheritance^ 
to the end all Difputes might be remov'd touching the forcible Incroachm.ent upoa 
others, againft the Laws of Nature or Nations. 

Thus this Province at the vaft Charges, and by theunweary'd Induftry anj en- 
deavor oftheprefent Lord ^akemore, the now abfolute Lord and Proprietary of 
the fame was at firft Planted , and hath lince been fupply'd with People and other 
Ncceffaries, fo effedually , that in this prefent Year 167 1. the number of 5«^/ii^ xhenumber 
there amounts to fifteen or twenty thoufand Inhabitants, for whofe Encouraae* ''^^"^^^'"' 
ment there is a Fundamental Law eftablifh'd there by his Lordfiiip, whereby Li- 
herty ofConfcience is allowed to all that Profefs to believe in Jefus Chrifl j fo that no 
Man who is a Chrijlian is in danger of being diflurb'd for his Religion j and all 
Perfons being fatisfi'd touching his Lordfhips Right, as Granted by his Superior So* 
veraign, the King of Great ^Brittain, and poffefs'd by the confent and agreement of 
the firft Ltdian Owners, every Perfon who repaireth thither_, intending to become 
an Inhabitant, finds himfelf fecure, as well in the quiet enjoyment of his Property, 
as of his Confcience. 

Mr. Charles Calvert, his Lordfhips onely Son and Heir, was in the Year i66u 
fent thither by his Lordfliip to Govern this Province and People, who hath hi- 
therto continued that Charge of his Lordfhips Lieutenant there, to the general fa- 
tisfadtion and encouragement of all Perfons under his Government, or otherwife 
concern'd in the Province. 

The precedent Difcourfe having given you a fliort Defcription of this Province 
from its Infancy to this day, together with an account of his Lordfhips Patent and 
Right, by which he holds the fame; we will here fpeak fomething of the Kature of 
the Countrcy in general, and of the Commodities that are either naturally afforded 
there, or may be procured by Induftry. 

The Climate is very healthful , and agreeable with English Conftitutions ^ but 
Kew*comers have moft of them heretofore had the firft year of their Planting there 
in July and Ju^ujl, a Sicknefs, which is call'd there A Seafomng, but is indeed no 
other than an Ague, with cold and hot Fits, whereof many heretofore us'd to die 
for want of good Medicines , and accommodations of Diet and Lodging , and by 
drinking too much Wine and Strong-waters ; though many, even in thofe times, 
who were more temperate , and that were better accommodated , never had any 
Seafonings at aU- but of late years, fince the Countrey hath been more open'd by 
the cutting down of the Woods, and that there is more plenty of English Diet, 
there are very few die of thofe Agues, and many have no Seafon'mgs at all, efpecially 
thofe that live in the higher parts of the Country, and not near to the Marflics and 

In Summer, the heats are equal to thofe of Spain, but qualified daily about Noon,' 
at that time of the Year, either with Tome gentle Breezes, or fmall ShoWres of 
P^ain : In Winter there is Froft and Snow, and fometimes it is extremely cold, 
infomuch, that the Rivers and the Northerly part of the Bay o( Chef ape ack are Fro- 
zen, but it feldom lafts long j and fome Winters are fo warm, that People have 
gone in half Shirts and Drawers only at ChriftmM : But in the Spring and Autumn, 
(Vi;^.) in March, April, and May^ September, Ociohsr, and November^ there is generally 

V 5 



J M E %I C J. 


The natural 
of the Coun- 

mofl pleafant temperate Weather : The Winds there are variable, from the South 
comes Heat, Gufts, and Thunder ; from the Korth or North.Weft, cold Weather ; 
and in Winter, Froft and Snow ; from the Eaft and South-Eaft, Rain. 

The Soyl is very fertile, and furnifli'd with many plcafant and commodious 
Rivers, Creeks, and Harbors. 

The Country is generally plain and even, and yet diftinguifli'd with fome pret- 
ty fmall Hills and Rifmgs, with variety of Springs and Rivulets : The Woods are 
for the moft part free from Underwood, fo that a Man may Travel or Hunt for his 


The ordinary entrance by Sea into this Country is between two Qapes , diftant 
each from the other about feven or eight Leagues • the South Cape is call'd Cape 
Henry -^ thcl^onh, Cape Charles -^ within the C^;?^y you enter into a fair %, Navi- 
gable for at leaft two hundred Miles, and is call'd Chefapeack ^ay ■, ftretching it felf 
Northerly through the heart of the Countrey, which adds much to its Fame and 
Value : Into this Bay fall many ftately Rivers, the chief whereof is fatomeck, which 
is Navigable for at leaft a hundred and forty Miles : The next Northward, is Ta- 
tuxent, at its entrance diftant from the other about twenty Miles, a River yielding 
great Profit as well as Pleafure to the Inhabitants 5 and by reafon of the Iflands and 
other places of advantage that may Command it , both fit for Habitation and De- 
fence : Pafllng hence to the Head of the Bay, you meet with feveral pleafant and 
commodious Rivers, which for brevity we here omit to give any particular ac- 
count of : On the Eafl:ern Shore are feveral commodious Rivers, Harbors, Creeks, 
and Iflands ; to the Northward whereof you enter into another fair Bay, call'd 
Delaware 'Bay 5 wide at its entrance about eight Leagues, and into which falls a very 
fair Navigable River. 

This Countrey yields the Inhabitants many excellent things for Phyfickand 
Chyrurgcry ; they have feveral Herbs and Roots which are great Prefervatives 
againft Poyfon, as SnAe-^ot, which prefently cures the bitings of the 1(at tie -Snake, 
which are very Venomous, and are bred in the Countrey ; others that cure all 
manner of Wounds j they have Saxafras , Sarfaparilla , Gums and Balfoms, which 
Experience (the Mother of Art) hath taught them the perfca ufe of. 

An Indian feeing one of the English much troubled with the Tooth=ach, fetched a 
Root out of aTree,which apply'd to the Tooth, gave eafe immediately to the Par- 
ty ; other Roots they have fit for Dyers, wherewith the Indians Paint themfelvcs as 
Tacoone (a deep red,) <^e. 

The Timber of thefe parts is good and ufeful for Building of Houfes and Ships, 
the white Oak for Pipe-ftaves, the red for Wainfcot j there is likewife black Wall- 
Nut, Cedar, Pine, and Cyprefs, Cheft-nut, Elme, Afli, and Popelar, all which arc 
for Building and Husbandry : Fruit-trees, ^s Mulhcvvks, ferfimons, with feveral 
kind of Plumbs, and Vines in great abundance. 

Of Strawberries there is plenty, which are ripe in Jpril, Mulberries in May, Raf- 
berries in June, and the Maracok, which is fomething like a Lemon, is ripe in Jugufl, 
In Spring time there are feveral forts of Herbs, as Corn-fallet, Violets, Sorrel, Pur* 
flane, and others which are of great ufe to the English there. 

In the upper parts of the Countrey are Bufeloes, Elks, Tygers, Bears, Wolves, and 
great ftore of Deer ; as alfo Beavers^ Foxes, Otters, Flying^Squirils, (I{acoo?is, and 
many other forts of Beafts. 

Of Birds, there is the Eagle, Gofliawk, Falcon, Lanner, Sparrow-hawk, and Mar* 
lin-^ alfo wild Turkies in great abundance, whereof many weigh fifty Pounds in 
weight and upwards, and of Partridge great plenty : There are likewife fundry 



A M E%^I C J. 

forts of finging Birds, wJiereof one is call'd a MockMrd, becaufe it imitates all 
other Birds, fomearered, which fing like Nightingales, but much louder .others 
black and yellow, which laft fort excels more in Beauty than tune, and is by the 
English there callM the !Bahemore^^ird, becaufe the Colours of his Lordfiiips Coat of 
Arms arc black and yellow : Others there are that refemble moll of the Birds iit 
England, but not of the fame kind, for which we have no names : In Winter there 
are great plenty of Swans, Cranes, Geefe, Herons, Duck, Teal, Widgeons, Brants^ 
and Pidgeons, with other forts, whereof there are none in England. 

The Sea, the Bays of Chef ape ack and Delaware, and generally all the Rivers, do 
abound with Fifli of feveral forts ; as Whales, Sturgeon, Thorn-back, Grampufes^ 
Porpufes, Mullets, Trouts, Soules, Plaice, Mackrel, Perch, Eels, Roach, Shadd' 
Herrings,Crabs,Oyfters,Cocklcs,Mu(fels, ^c, but above all thefe, the FiOi where! 
of there are none in England, as Tirums, Sheeps^head, Cat-fish, (yc. are beft, except Stur- 
geon, which are there found in great abundance, not inferior to any in Europe for 
largenefs and goodnefs. 

The Minerals may in time prove of very great confequence, though no ricH 
Mines are yet difcover'd there j but there is Oar of feveral forts, yi^. of Tin, Iron, 
and Copper, whereof feveral trials have been made by curious Perfons there with 
good fuccefs. 

The Soyl is genera^lly very rich, the Mould in many places black and rank, in- 
fomuch, that it is necelfary to Plant it firft with Indian Corn, Tobacco, or Hemp, 
before it is fit for English Grain , under that is found good Loam, whereof has beeri 
made as good Brick as any in Europe : There are ftore of Marfli-grounds for Mea- 
dows ; great plenty of Marie , both blue and white; excellent Clay fbr Pots and 
Tiles : To conclude, there is nothing that can be reafonably expe^ed, in a place 
lying in the fame Latitude with this , but what is either there found naturally, or 
may be procur'd by Induftry, as Oranges, Lemons, and Olives,o-c. 

We need not here mention Indian Corn, (calFd May^) Peafe and Beans of feveral 
forts, being the peculiar produ^s Planted by the Indians of that part of America. 

All forts of English Grain are now common there, and yield a great encrcafe- as 
Wheat, Rye, Barley, Oats, Peafe, Beans, <^c. good Beer of Wheat or Barley Malt, 
after the English Mode, is made, even in the meaneft Families there ; Some drink 
Beer of Indian Corn, others of the Stalks thereof, or of the Chipps of the Tockykerry- 
Tree, all which make a fort of frefli and pleafant Drink j but the general Diet of 
the Country is now English, as moll agreeable to their Conllitutions. 

There are few able Planters there at prefent, but what are plentifully fupply'd 
with all forts of Summer and Winter Fruits ; as alfo of Roots and Herbs, of all 
forts out of their Gardens and Orchards, which they have Planted fortheir Profit as 
well as Pleafure : They have Pears, Apples, Plumbs, Peaches, O'c. \n great abun. 
dance, and as good as thofe of Italy . fo are their Mellons, Pumpions, Apricocks^' 
Cherries, Figgs, Pomegranates, crc. In fine, there is fcarce any Fruit or Root that 
grows in England, France, Spain, or Italy, but hath been try'd there, and profper^ 
well. ' V r r 

You may have there alfo Hemp, Flax, Pitch, and Tar, with little labor, the 
Soyl IS apt for Hops, Rape-feed, Annice.fecd,Woad, Madder, Saffron, o^c. 'there 
may be had Silk- worms, the Country being flor'd with Mulberry»trees, and the fu. 
perfluity of the Wood will produce Pot^aflies. 

There is a great quantity of Syder made there at prefent, and as good as in any 
other Countrey; good Perry and Quince-drink is there likewife made in greac 
plenty t The Ground doth naturally bring forth Viriesin great quantities^ the ^uali^ 


which are, or 
may be pro- 
cur'd by iri« 

g^w-"*^---, ^-»^^»*- — T#iJ*^i' 


The Govern-- 

ty whereofbeing fomechingcorreaed by Induftry, (as there have been fevcral trials 
thereofalready made there) may no doubt produce good Wine, to the great en- 
couragement and advantage of the Undertakers. 

Brave Ships may be built there with little charge, Clab-board, Wainfcot, Pipc- 
ftaves, and Mafts for Ships, the Woods will afford plentifully j fome fmall Vef- 
fels have been already built there : In fine, Beef, Furrs, Hides, Butter, Cheefe, 
Pork, and Bacon, to Tranfport to other Countreys, are no fmall Commodities, 
which by Induftry, are, and may be had there in great plenty, the English being al- 
ready plentifully ftock'd with all forts of Cattcl and Horfesj and were there no 
other Staple-Commoditie s to be hop'd for, but Silk and Linnen (the materials of 
which apparently will grow there) it were fufficient to enrich the Inhabitants. 

But the general Trade o^ Mary-land at prefent depends chiefly upon Tobacco, it 
being the Planters greateft concern and ftudy to ftore himfelf betimes with that 
Commodity, wherewith he buys and fells, and after which Standard all other 
Commodities receive their Price there 5 they have of late vented fuch quantities of 
that and other Commodities, that a hundred Sail of Ships from England^ !Barbado€Sy 
and other English Plantations, have been ufually known to Trade thither in one 
Year - infomuch, that by Cnftom and Excize paid in England for Tobacco and 
other Commodities Imported from thence;, Mary-land alone at this prefent, hath by 
his Lordfliips vaft Expence, Induftry, and Hazard for many years, without any 
charge to the Crown, improved His Majefties,the King o^Englands Revenues,to the 
value of Forty thoufand Pounds 5^er/.]?^r annum at leaft. 

The general way of Traffick and Commerce there is chiefly by Barter, or Ex- 
change of one Commodity for another; yet there wants not , befides English and 
other foraign Coyns, fome of his Lordfhips own Coyn, as Groats, Sixpences, and 
Shillings, which his Lordfliip at his own Charge caus'd to be Coyn'd and difpers'd 
throughout that Province j 'tis equal in finenefs of Si'a^er to English Sterling, being 
of the fame Standard, but of fomewhat Icfs weight, and hath on the one fide his 
Lordfliips Coat of Arms ftamp'd , with this Motto circumfcrib'd, Crefcite <(^ MuU 
tiplicamini, and on the other fide his Lordfliips Effigies , circumfcrib'd thus, decilius 
Dominus "Terrie-Mariiej Sec. _ 

The Order of Government and fettled Laws of this Province,is by the Prudence 
and endeavor of the prefent Lord Proprietary, brought to great Perfedion . and as 
his Dominion there is abfolute (as may appear by the Charter aforementioned) fo 
all Patents, Warrants, Writs, Licenfes, Aa:ions Criminal, e?-c. Iflue forth there in 
his Name : Wars, Peace, Courts, Offices, <(src. all in his Name made, held, and ap- 

Laws are there Enaded by him, with the advice and confent of the General Af- 
fembly, which confifts of two Eftates, namely, the firft is made up by the Chan, 
cellor, Secretary, and others of his Lordfliips Privy-Council, and fuch Lords ol 
Mannors, and others as fliall be call'd by particular Writs for that purpofe, to be 
Iffu'd by his Lordfliip : The fecond Eftatc confifts of the Deputies and Delegates 
of the refpedive Counties of the faid Province, eleded and chofen by the free voice 
and approbation of the Free-men of the faid refpedive Counties. 

The Names of the Governor and Council in this prefent Year 1671. are as fol- 
loweth, Mr. Charles Cahert, his Lordfliips Son and Heir, Governor ; Mr. Thilip CaU 
-vert, his Lordfliips Brother, Chancellor ; Sir Wdliamralbot Baronet, his Lordfliips 
Nephew, Secretary ; Mr. William Cahert, his Lordfliips Nephew, Mufter-Mafter- 
General 5 Mt. Jerome FTtojSurveyor-Generalj Mr. !Bakcr ^rooke,his Lordfliips Ne- 
phew ; Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. Henry Conrfey, Mr. Thomas Trueman, Major Edwarc 


Cliap. II. <iJ M E%^ iC A. 

His LordOiip, or his Lieutenant there for the time being, upon due occafion> 
Convenes, Prorogues, and DifTolves this Affembly . but whatfoever is by his 
Lorddiips Lieutenant there, with the confent of both the faid filiates Enaded, is 
there of the fame Force and Nature as an Ad of Parliament is in England, until his 
^ Lordfliip declares his dif-aflent ; but fuch Laws as his Lordfhip doth aifent unto, 
Sare not afterwards to be AlterM or Repeal'd but by his Lordfhip, with the confent 
of both the faid Eftates. 

Their chief Court of Judicature is held at St. Maries Quarterly every Year, to 
which all Perfons concerned refort for Jullice , and is calFd The (provincial Court, 
whereof the Governor and Councilare Judges : To the Court there doth belong fe' 
veral fworn Attorneys, who coijftantly are prefent there, and ad both asBarrifters 
and Attorneys J there are like wife chief Clerks, BayliflFs, and dther Officers, which 
duly attend the Court in their refpedive places. 

The Province is divided at prefent, fo far as it is inhabited hy English, into 
Counties, whereof there be ten, Vi^. St, Maries, Charles, Qahert, Jnne Jrande], and 
!Bahemore Counties, which firft five lie on the Weft fide of the Bay of Che/apeack • on 
the Eaftern fide whereof, commonly called The EaJlern^Shore, lies Sommerfet, Dorche- 
fter, Talbot, C^cil, ^n^ E^nt Counties, which laft is an Ifland lying near the Eaftern- 
fliore of the faid Bay. ';• , 

Befides the Provincial Court aforenana'd, there are other inferior Courts ap- 
pointed to be held in every one of the Counties fix times in the year, for the dif* 
patch of all Caufes, not relating to Life or Member, and not exceeding the value 
of three thoufand weight of Tobacco ; the decifion of all other Caufc^ being re« 
ferv'd to the Provincial or higher Court beforcmention'd, and there lies Appeals 
from the County-Courts, to the Provincial Court. 

There are Sheriffs, Juftices of the Peace, and other Officers appointed by the 
Lord and Proprietary, or his LordOiips Lieutenant for the time being, in the faid 
refpeaive Counties j and without four Juftices, of which one to be of the Quorum, 
none of the faid refpedive County-Courts can be held; any o^hh LordfliipTprivy 
Council may fie as Judge, in any of the faid County^Courts, by vertue of his 

^ Thefe Courts are appointed to be held at convenient Houfes in the faid Coun- 
ties, which commonly are not far diftant from fome Inn, or other Houfe of Enter- 
tainment, for accommodation of Strangers ; one of the faid fix County Courts in 
each County is held for fettling of Widows and Orphans Eftates. 

There are Foundations laid of Towns, more or lefs in each County, according 
to his Lorddiips Proclamation, to that effed lifu'd forth in the year i66%. In CaU 
vert County, about the River o^(patuxent, and the adjacent Cliffs, are the Bounds of 
three Towns laid out, one over againft Point Patience, called HarVy ToTVn, another in 
^atteUreek, calPd Caherton, and a third upon the Cliffs, calFd Berrijigton, and Hou- 
fes already built in them, all uniform, and pleafant with Streets, and Keys on the 
Water fide. In the County of St. Maries, on the Eaft fide of St. Georges River, is the 
prmcipal and original Seat of this Province, where the general AlTembly, and Pro- 
vincial Courts are held, and is calFd St. Maries, being ereded into a City by that 
Name, where divers Houfes are already built : The Governor hath a Houfe there 
caird St, Johns . the Chancellor Mr. Philip Culvert, his Lorddiips Brother, hath an- 
other, and in this place is built and kept the Secretaries Office, where all the Re- 
cords are kept, all Procefs, Grants, for Lands, Probates of Wills, Letters of Admi^ 
niftration are iifuM out : the Plat of a Fort and Prifon is lately laid there, upon a 
point of Land, termed WmdmiUPomt, from a Windmil which formerly ftood there, 





4tns in Mary- 

ipo AMERICA. Chap. 11. 

the (ituation is proper, for that it commands the breadth of the faid River of Saint 
Gzor^ns ; fo that when it is finifii'd, all Shipping may fafely Ride before the Town, 
without the leaft fear of any fudden Aflauk;, or Attempt of Pirats or other Enemy 
whatfoever. This City has formerly been the ufual place of abode for his Lord- 
{hips Lieutenants, and their Retinue ; but of late years the prefenc Governor, 
Mr. Charks Cahert, hath buihhimfelf a fair Houfe of Brick and Timber, with all 
Out^houfes, and other Offices thereto belonging, at a place call'd Mattapany^nesLi the 
River o^Tatuxent before.mention'd, where he and his Family refide^being a pleafant, 
healthful,and commodious Seat,about eight Miles by Land diflant from St.Maries, 

The Indians in Mary'land arc a People generally of ftreight, able, and well pro- 
portioned Bodies, fomething exceeding the ordinary pitch of the £w^//j/?, their Coma 
plexion Swarthy, their Hair naturally long and black, without Curie, which ge* 
nerally they cut after fome flrange Fantaftical Mode j nay, fometimcs they Dye 
it. with red and other prepoflcrous Colours : They Liquor their Skins with Bears 
Greafe, andother Oyls_, which renders them more tawny, and lefs apt to receive 
injury from the Weather : They are fubtile from their Infancy, and prone to learn 
any thing their Fancy inclines them to, in other things flothful. 

There are as many diftin(5t Nations among them as there are hdian Towns, 
(which are like Countrey^Villages in England, but not fo good Houfes) difpers'd 
throuahout the Province : Each Town hath its King (by them term'd WeroH^ance) 
and every forty or fifty Miles diflance differs much from its Neighbors in Speech 
and Difpofition : The Safquahanocks, though but few in number, yet much exceed 
the reft in Valor , and Fidelity to the Eii^lish-^ the reft being generally of a more 
Treacherous Spirit, and not fo ftout, and the number of the English do already ex- 
ceed all the Indians in the Province. 

The Wero'^ance is a/Ilfted by Councellors, called Wtfoes, who are commonly of 
the fame Family, and are chofen at the pleafure of the Werowance: They -have Cap- 
tains in time of War which they term Cockoroofes, 

Moft of their Governments are Monarchical, (except the SaJ'quaha}iocksj which is 
a Re-publick) but for fucce/fion they have a peculiar Cuftom, that the Iffue of the 
Males never fuccecd, but the Iflue-Male of the Female fucceed in Government, as 
the furer fide : They all fubmit to, and are prote(5i:ed by the Lord Proprietaries 
Government j and in cafe of any Aflault or Murder, committed on any Englijh, the 
Party offending is try'd by the Laws of the Province • and in cafe of any new Ele- 
aion of King or Emperor among them, they prefent the Perfon fo Ele<5ted to the 
Governor for the time beins, who as he fees caufe, either alters or confirms their 

In the Year 1663. at the Wi^w^Requeft, the prefent Governor Mr. Q?arles Cahert, 
and fome others of his Lordfliips Privy-Council there, went to Tafcatoway, in this 
Province, to be prefent at the Election of a new Emperor for that Nation : They 
prefented a Youth nam'd jS[attawajfoj and humbly Requefted to have him confirmed 
Emperor o^ Tafcatoipay ^hy the Name o^ IVahocajfo -^ which after fome charge given 
them in general, to be good and faithful Subjects to him, the Governor according- 
ly did, and received him into his Proteilion. 

They pay great Refped and Obedience to their Kings and Superiors, whofe 
Commands they immediately Execute, though with an apparent hazard of their 

The Mens chief employment is Hunting, and the Wars, in both which they 
commonly ufe Bowes and Arrows ^ fome of late have Guns and other Weapons, 
by a private Trade with fome E.nglijh Neighboring Plantations : They are excel- 



Chap. II. ' A M ET^I C A. .. i^i 

lent Marks-men, it being tfie onely thing they breed their Youth to : The Women 
plant and look after the Corn, make their Bread, and drefs what Provifions their 
Husbands bring home. Their way of Marriage is by agreement with the Womens 
Parents or Friends, who for a certain Sum of their Money, or other Goods, deliver 
her to the Man at a day appointed, which is commonly fpent in jollity. 

There are two forts of Money, Wampompca^e and ^a?ioackj thefe ferve TheirMoney, 
among them as Gold and Silver do in EuropCy both are made of Fifli^fliells, which 
they firing like Beads j Wampompeage is the largeft Bead, fixty whereof countervails ^ 

an Arms length of (l(p.i;w^d, which is valued at fix Pence 5fer//?/g;j with this they 
purchafe Commodities of the £«g/i//?, as Trading-Cloth, <7*c. of which they make 
themfelves Mantles, which is fomething fiiaggy, and is call'd Vutch Duffels ^ this 
is their Winter Habit ; in Summer they onely wear a narrow flip of the fame to 
cover thofe parts , which natural modefty teaches them to conceal ; the better 
fort have Stockings made thereof, and pieces of Deer-Skin, ftitch'd together about 
their Feet in flead of Shooes : The Womens Apparel is the fame, but thofe of the 
bell Quality among them bedeck themfelves with Wampompeage or (^anoack, or fome 
other toy. 

Their Houfes are rais'd about the height of a large Arbor , and covered v/ith Manner ©f 
Barks of Trees very tite, in the middle whereof is the Fire-place, they lie generally 
upon Mats of their own making, plac'd round the Fire, a Woodden^bowl or two, 
an Earthen Pot, and a Mortar and Peftle, is their chiefeft Houfliold^fluff j he that 
hath his Bowe and Arrows, or Gun, a Hatchet, and a Canoo, (a term they ufe for 
Boats) is in their minds rarely well provided for ; each Houfe contains a diflind; 
Family, each Family hath its peculiar Field about the Town, where they Plant their 
Corn, and other forts of Grain afor€=mention'd. 

They are courteous to the H«W//7?, if they chance to fee anv of them comin? to- ci^iJ^y ^ 

1 T • TT r 1 ' T 1 1 1 ir ^ tkcEnilifi. 

wards their Homes, they immediately meet him half-way, condud him in, and 
bid him welcome with the bell Cates they have : The Englif? giving them in like 
manner civil Entertainment, according to their Quality. 

The Werolfcince of fatuxent having been Treated for fome days at Stc Maries^ by 
the then Governor, Mr. Leonard Cahert, his Lordfhips Brother, at his firfl coming 
thither to fettle that Colony, took his leave of him with this Expreflion, I bye the 
Englifh/oH?e//, thatiftheypOQuUlgoahouttoKiUme, if I had fo much breath as to J^eaky I 
would (Command my People not to revenge my death j for I know they would not dofuch a thuK^y 
except It were through my own default. 

In Aifairs of concern, they are very confiderate, and ufe few words 'm declaring 
their intentions -, for at Mr. Leonard Qaherts firfl arrival there, the Werol^ance o[Taff> 
catoway being ask'd by him, Whether he l^ould he content ^ that the Englifh fhould fit do^n 
in his Qountrey ? returned this anfwer, That he i^ould not hid him go, neither fhould he hid 
himjlay, hut that he might ufe his own difcretion, Thefe were their expre/Iions to the 
Governor at his firfl entrance into Mary-land, whom then they were jealous of, 
whether he might prove a Friend or a Neighbor, but by his difcreet Demeanor to. 
wards them at firll,and friendly ufage of them after wards,they are now become,no£ 
only civil, but ferviceable to the Englifh there upon all occafions. 

Th^ Indians of the Eaflern fhore are mofl numerous, and were formerly very re- 
fradory, whom Mr. Leonard Calvert fome few years after his firfl fettling the Colo« 
ny, was forc'd to reduce, and of late the Emperor of N^wfico^e, and his Men were 
defervedly defeated by the prefent Governor, Mr. Charles Cahert, who reduc'd hini 
about the year 1668. which has fince tam'd the ruder fort of the neighboring Mi-' 
dnsy who now by experience, find it better to fiihmk and be procbded by the Lord 
■ (Proprietaries 



A M E %^I C A. 

Chap. II, 

Situation of 

Firft Difcove- 


Proprietaries Government, than to make any vain attempt againft hisPower. 

Thefe People liveunder no Law, but that of Nature and Reafon, which not. 
wichftanding leads them to the acknowledgement of a Deity, whom they own to 
be the Giver of all good things, wherewith their Life is maintain'd, and to him 
they Sacrifice the firft Fruits of the Earth, and of that which they acquire by Hunt- 
ing and Fifliing : The Sacrifice is performed by their Priefts, who are commonly 
ancient Men, and profefs themfelves Conjurers j they firft make a Speech to thcii 
God, then burn part, and eat and diftribute the reft among them that are prefent- 
until this Ceremony be ended, they will not touch one bit thereof^ they hold the 
Immortality of the Soul, and that there is a place of Joy, and another of Torment 
after Death, prepared for every one according to their Merits. 

They bury their Dead with ftrange expreflions of Sorrow (the better fort upon 
a Scaffold, ereded for that end) whom they leave covered with Mats, and return 
when his flefli is confum'd to Interr his Bones j the common fort are committed to 
the Earth without that Ceremony ; but they never omit to bury fome part of their 
Wealth, Arms, and Houfliold^ftuff with the Corps. 

Sect. IV. 

THe moft Southerly part of Virginia (for all that Trad of Land, reaching 
from KoYumhega to 'Florida, and containing New-England^ Kcw-Iork, Mary" 
land, and this part we are now about to Treat of, was by Sir Walter %aw- 
leigh term'd Vtrgmiaj in Honor of our Virgin-Queen EliR;aheth) lies between Mary- 
land, which it hath on the North, and Carolina^ which it hath on the South, from 
thirty fix, to near thirty eight Degrees of Northern Latitude j and with the reft of 
thofe Countries which werecoTiprehended under the fame Denomination, was by 
the Encouragement, and at the i^xpence of the faid Sir Walter ^wleighy firft Difco- 
ver'd (as fome fay) by Captain Francis Drake, for his many notable and bold Ex- 
ploits, afterwards Knighted by the Queen : But upon examination we find little 
reafon to afcribe the firft Difcovery thereof to Sir Francis Drake, whofe chief per- 
formances, from the time he firft made himfelf Eminent at Sea, were againft the 
Spaniards, and for the moft part in the Spanip?dndies'^ as his taking o^Nombre de Dios, 
and Vinta Cru;^, with an infinite mafs of Treafure j his taking of Santo Domingo in 
Hi^miola, and of Carthagena in CaUella Anna ; and that which feems to have given 
occafion of attributing to him the firft Difcovery of thefe parts , was his touching 
upon the North part of the Ifle of California , where being nobly Entertain'd by 
Hioh, a King of that Countrey, and having a Surrendry thereof made to him, 
in behalf of the Queen of England, he upon a Pillar creded, Infcrib'd the Arms of 
England, with the Queens Name and his own, and call'd the place ISlo'Va Mhion : 
Certain indeed it is, that Sir Walter ^a^Ueigh was the firft Promoter of this Difco- 
very . for, after Mr. Martin Forhijher had been fent by Queen Eli:^aheth to fearch for 
the North- Weft Pafiage, which was in the year 1576. and for which he alfo was 
by the Queen advanc'd to Knight- hood, and nobly rewarded 5 and Sir Humphrey 
GiZ/'frr obtaining the Queens Letters Patents, for attempting a Plantation, had 
reached Ncn^'foundAand (though perifliing in his return)he upon thefe Relations and 
Inducements undertook by others (for his employments would not permit him to 
go in Perfon) to gain Difcoveries to the Southward j and accordingly in the year 
of our Lord 1584. obcajn'd a Commifilon from the Queen, to difcover and Plant 


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5 liad 
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ity Mi» 
and on 

filing a 

'd Mar» 
3 Ships, 


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Chap. II. ^ M E'R^t C A. 

new Landisin ^msrlcd^ nocadlually poiTefs'd by any 'Chrifaamy who/ with the afli^ 
ftaace of Sir ']^/(:/;jr6i GrmzVi/ and others, provided two Imall Barques, under the 
Command of Captain 'PA//i/5 ^wiJ^H;, and Captain ^/t/;«r S^zr/o/i?, who fecting Sail 
fhe 27. of Jprtl, fell the i^ of July following with the Coaft of Floridd^ and made 
Difcovery of the lOe ofWokohn^ ^wioacky and the Continent of Wingandacoay which 
they left j and arriving in England about the midfl of September following, Her Ma^ 
jefty upon the relation of their Difcoveries, was pleasM to call this Countrey 

Jpril 9. 1585. Sir ^ichdrd Greenvil, with feven Sail, and feveral Gentlemen, lefs" 
Plymouth J and on May i6. Anchor'd at Wokokoji^ but made their firfl: Seat at ^anoack 
on Augufl 17. following, which lies in thirty fix Degrees of Northerly Latitude, or 
thereabouts, where they continued till June 1586. during which time they made 
feveral Difcoveries in the Continent and adjacent Iflands ; and being endangered 
by the treachery of the Salvages, returned for Englaiid^ and Landed at ^ortfmouth on 
July 27. following. ^ 

Sir Walter %awkigh and his Aflbciates, in the year 15 8<^. fent a Ship to relieve that 
Colony, which had deferted the Countrey fome while before, and were all re- 
turned for Enzland as is before.=mention'd. 

Some few days after they were gone, Sk (Richard GreenVil^ with three Ships, ar- 
rived at the Plantation at ^oanoackj which he found deferted, and leaving fifty Men 
thereto keep Pofleflionof that Countrey^ returned for England. 

The year following, Mr. John V/hite, with thrq^e Ships, came to fearch for the 
fifty EnglijJ) at %oanoackj but found them not, they having been fet upon by the Na- 
tives, and difpers'd fo, as no News could be heard of them, and in their room left 
a hundred and fifty more to continue that Plantation. 

In Atigtifl 1589. Mr. John V/hite went thither again, to fearch for the lafl: Colony 
which he had left there j but not finding them^^ returned for England in Septemh. 6. 

This ill Succefs made all further Difcoveries to be laid afide, till Captain Gofnol 
on March i6. 1602. fet Sail from Dartmouth^ and on May 11. following, made Land 
at a place, whsxe fome 'Bifcaners, as he guefs'd by the Natives information, had 
formerly fifli'd, being about the Latitude of forty eight Degrees Northerly Lati- 
tude; from hence putting to Sea, he made Difcovery of an Ifland which he cairdMjr= 
thas Vimyardj and fhortly 2i f zc^ of EU:^aheth's Ifle, and fo return'd for England^ June 183 

In the Year 1603. the City of ^j/iJIqI raisM a Stock, and furnifii'd out two 
Barques for Difcovery, under the Command of Captain Martin fringe who abouE 
June 7, fell with the North of Vtrgima in the three arid fortieth Degree, found plenty 
of good Fifli, nam'd a place Whitf on-Bay, and fo return'd* 

In the Year 1605. ^^^ ^^g^^ Honorable Thomas Arundel the firft. Baron of Warder^ 
and Count of the %oman Empire, fet out Captain George Waymouth, wnth twenty 
nine Sea-men, and neceffary Provifions, to make what Difcoveries he could- who 
by contrary Winds, fell Northward about one and forty Degrees and twenty Mi» 
nutes of Northerly Latitude, where they found plenty of good Fifii - and Sailing 
further, difcover'd an Ifland, where they nam'd a H^xhor yfentecofi-Harbor j and on 
7«/> 18. following, came back for £?2^/W. 

In the Year 1606. by the foUicitation of Captain Go/iiol, and feveral Gentlemen^ 
a Commi/Tion was granted by King James of Great Brittam, <^c. for eflabliihing a 
Council, to dired thofe new Difcoveries 5 Captain Njipport (a well pradic'd Mar- 
riner) was intruded with the Tranfportacion of the Adventurers in two Ships, 

X and 




Chap. II. 

andaPinace, who on Decemh. 19. \6o6, fet Sail frcm 2lack-fi^all, and were by 
Storm contrary to expedlatiooj caft upon the firft Land, which they calTd Cr,pe 
Henry, at the Mouth of the Bay of Q?e/apeack, lying in thirty feven Degrees , or 
thereabouts, of Northerly Latitude : Here their Orders were opened and read, and 
eight declared of the Council, and impower'd to chofe a Prefident for a year, who 
with the Council (hould Govern that Colony : Till May 13. they fought a place 
to Plant mj Mr. Winkfield was chofe the firft Prefident , who caus'd a Fort to be 
rais'd at folt?hata?t, now cMd James -Toiipn : In June following, Captain Newport re- 
turn'd for En'^laml, leaving a hundred Men behind him ; fince which time they have 
been fufficiently fupply'd i\om E?igland , and by the indefatigable Induftry and Cou- 
i-age of Captain John Smith, (one of the Council at that time, and afterward Prefi- 
dent of the Colony) they made feveral Difcoveries on the Eaflern fliore, and up to 
the Head of the Bay o^ Che/apeack, and of the principal Rivers which fall into the 

faid Bay. 

T/rgmi^being thus Difcover'd and Planted, Kino James by his Letters Patent 
bearing Date Jpril 10. in the fourth year of his Reign, 1607. Granted Licence to 
Sir Jhomas Gates ^ Sir George Summers, and others, to divide themfelves into two fe- 
veral Colonies, for the more fpeedy Planting of that Countrey, then call'd Vtrgt* 
nia between the Degrees of thirty four and forty five of North Latitude, that is to 
fay, taken in that large extent^ mentioned in the beginning : The firfl: Colony to 
be undertaken by certain Knights^ Gentlemen, and Merchants, in, and about the 
City ofloji^o?z : The fecond to be undertaken, and advanced by certain Knights, 
Gentlemen, and Merchants, and their Alfociates, in, or about the City of Bnjlol, 
ExGUy Plymouth, and other parts. 

At the firft Colonies Requeft, in the feventh year of the fame Kmg, a fecond 
Patent was Granted to feveral Noblemen and Gentlemen , ( including Sir Thomas 
Gates ^ and fome of his former Fellow-Patentees) bearing Date May 23, 161 o. where- 
by they were made a Corporation, and Body Politique, and ftiFd, The Treafurer, 
and Company of Advetiturers and planters of the City of London, for the firft Colony of Vir- 
ginia : And by this Patent, there was Granted to them, their Succefibrs and Af. 
figns, two hundred Miles to the Southward, from a Cape of Land in Virginia, cAVd 
fo'int Comfort ; and two hundred Miles to the Northward of the faid C ape, 2\ox\<^thz 
Sea»fliore, and into the Land from Sea to Sea. 

And on March ix. 1612. the faid King, in the ninth year of his Reign, Grants 
them a third Patent, of all Iflands lying in the Sea, within two hundred Miles of 
the Shore of that Trad of Land on the Continent, granted to them by the faid for. 
racr Patent, y.ic. 7. 

In the Year 161 5. Captain Smith procured by his Intereft at Court, and the 
King's Favor, a Recommendation from His Majefty, and divers of the Nobility, 
to all Cities and Corporations, to Adventure in a (landing Lottery, which was 
ereded for the benefit of this Plantation, which was contrived in fuch a manner, 
that of looooo. Pounds which was to be put in, 50000. onely, or one half was to 
return to the Adventurers, according as the Prizes fell out ; and the other half to 
be difpos'd of for the Promotion of the Affairs o^ Virginia, in which, though it were 
three years before it was fully accompliflf d, he had in the end no bad Succels. 

In the eighteenth Year of the faid King's Reign , at the Requeft of the fecond 
Colony, a Patent was Granted to feveral Noblemen and Gentlemen, ot all that 
Trad of Land lying in the parts o^ Jmerica, between the Degrees of forty and for- 
ty eight of Northerly Latitude, and into the Land from Sea to Sea, which was 
caird by the Patent ?(e> Bigland m America : For the better Government whereof, 



Chap. 11. . ^ AI E Ts^I C A. 

one Body-Politick and Corporate was thereby appointed and ordain'd in flymouth^ 
confiftingof the faid Noblemen, Gentlemen, and others, to the number of forty 
'Perfons, by the Name of I7?^ Council eflahltf/d at Plymouth tn the County ofDtvon^for 
the TUntin^j ^^^^fi^j Ordering^ and Go^ern'mgof New England tm America. 

The Mifcarriages and Mifdemeanors of the aforefaid Corporation for the firft 
Colony o^Firg'oua, were Co many and fo great, that His faid Majefty was forc'd^ 
in or about October 1623. to dired: a g«o Warranto, for the calling in of that former 
Patent, which in TWwif)/ Term following was legally Evine'd, Condemned, and 
made Void, by Judgment in the Court of the then B^n^s -'Bench >^ as alfo all other 
Patents, by which the faid Corporation claim'd any Intereft in Virginia. Thus this 
Corporation of the firit Colony oC Virgink was difTolv'd, and that Plantation 
hath been fince Govern'd and Difpos'd of by Perfons Conftituted and Impower'd 
for that purpofc from time to time, by immediate Commiflions from the Kin^s of 


The Patettt 
of Virginia 
made void. 



In the Year of our Lord 1631. the Right Honorable G^or^g Lord 'Balteynore ob- 
tained a Grant of YUm^Charles the Firft of Great 'Britain^ e^c, of part of that Land to 
the Northward, which is now callM Mary-land j but this Patent of Mary -land was 
not pcrfe<^ed, till 1632. as you may underftand more fully by the precedent Dif- 
courfe of Mary-land, which by cxprefs words in the faid Patent is feparated from, 
and thereby declarM not to be reputed for the future, any part of Firginia, 

And in the fifteenth Year of the Reign of King Charles the Second of Great Br'u 
tain, O^c, on March 14. 166^, Edward EslxI of Clarendon, then High-Chancellor of 
England, George Duke, of Jlhemarky William, now Earl of Crayen, John Lord Berkley j 
4nthony Lord Jjhley^ Sir Gewge Carterett Knight and Baronet, Sir Willia?n Berkley 
Knight, znd Sir John Colleton Knight and Baronet, obtained a Patent from His Ma- 
jefty, of the Province of Carolina^ which lies to the Southward of Virginia, in which 
is included fome part of that Land which formerly belong'd to the faid diffolv'd 
Company of. Virginia. So that Virginia at prefent extendeth it felf onely, and is fitu== 
ated between thirty fix and thirty feven Degrees and fifty Minutes, or thereabouts, 
of Northern Latitude, and is bounded on the North, by ^aryAand-^ on the South, 
by Qarolina-, on the Eaft, by the Ocean ; and on the Weft, by the South-Seas. 

Th« Entrance by Sea into this Countrey is the fame with that of Maryland, be. 
tween Cape Henry and Ca^e Charles, plac'd on each fide of the Mouth of the Bay of 
Che/apeak', on the Weft fide whereof you firft meet with a pleafant and commodi- 
ous River call'd James'^Ver, about three Miles wide at its Entrance, and Naviga- 
ble a hundred and fifty. 

Fourteen Miles from this River Northward lies York-^ver, which is Navigable 
fixty or feventy Miles, but with Ketches and fmall Barques thirty or forty Miles 

Paffing hence to the North you difcover a third ftately River, calFd Q{appahanQck^ 
which is Navigable about a hundred and thirty Miles - from whence following 
the Shore to the North you enter into Tatomeck-^^tVer, which is already dcfcrib'd in 
the precedent Difcourfe of Maryland, to which Province this River belongs, whofe 
Southerly Bank gives Bounds to that part of Virginia and Mary-land. 

To thefe Rivers many other Inland Branches and Rivulets are reduc'd, the chief 
of which are hereafter fpecifi'd* 

The Countrey is generally even, the Soil fruitful, the Climate healthful, and 
agreeable with Eiiglish Conftitutions, efpecially fince the increafe of Inhabitants, 
and accommodation of good Diet and Lodging, which the hrft Planters found 
great want of heretofore. For many years, till of late, moft New»comers had the 

X 2 firft 

The Patent 

o( A'farjf land 
grawed. to 
the Lord 

The Patent 
granted to 

feveral No- 
ble Perfons, 

R ivers ®f 

Nature, of 
the Countrey 






Fruits p cu- 
Jiar tg Vn- 





fir ft Year in ^uly and Juguft^ a Difeafe which is callM ^ Seafojung, whereof many 
died, like to what is mention'd before in the Defcription of Mary-Aand, thouo-h 
nnore mortal and common than in Uary-land, becaufe Virginia is a lower Countrey, 
and fomewhat hotter, infomuch that formerly divers ill of that Diftemper have 
come purpofely from Virginia to Mary4a?2d, to recover their Health ■ but now, fince 
the Countrey is more open and clear from Wood, few die of it, and many have na"- 
Seafonings at all. 

This Countrey affordeth generally all fuch Roots, Herbs, Gums, and Balfoms, 
as are exptefs'd before in the Relation oi Mary-land, 

All forts of Trees for Building and Husbandry, Fruit-Trees, Vines, c^c. arc 
found in both Countreys, equal in goodnefs and quantity, onely in fuch things as 
require more Sun, and that may be produced by Induftry) there may be fome little 
difference, becaufe Virginia is fomewhat more to the Southward of Maryland, as in 
Vines, Oranges, Lemmons, Olives, Silk, trc. 

There is a Plant grows naturally in this Countrey, and in Mary^land, call'd Silk- 
Grafs, which will make a fine Stuff with a filky Glofs, and better Cordage than 
Hemp or Flax, both forftrength and durance. 

The wild Beafi:s, Birds, and Fifh, are much the fame alfo in this Countrey as arc 
before defcrib'd in the precedent Defcription of Mary-land : Neverthelefs we fhall 
think it proper not to omit fome Fruits, Plants, Beafts, crc. mention'd by the moft 
authentick Defcribers of Neiv England, as peculiar to that Countrey. The Fruits 
are, their (putdamines, which are a kind of DamfonS,. Meffamims, sl kind of Grapes • 
Chechinciuamins, a fort of Fruit refembling a Chefnut ; %awcomens, a Fruit rcfembling 
a Goofe-berry • Mkco^«^r,a kind of Apple ; Mettaque/nnnauks, a fort of Fruit refem- 
bling Inkian Figs j Morococks, refembling a Straw-berry, befides a Berry which they 
call Ocoughtanamnis, fomewhat like to Capers, - ; -^ '^-^ 2; 

Their peculiar Roots arc Tod4"87d«g/j, good to cat; Wich/acan, of great vertue in 
healing of Wounds; Pocon^j, good to affwagc Swellings and Aches ; Mufquafpen, 
wherewith they Paint their Targets and Mats. Alfo they have in great requeft a 
Pulfe caird Affentamen^zvidxht Plant Mt«0K«tf, of which they make Bread. 

Their peculiar Beafts are, the Jroughena, refembling a Badger ; the Affa^anick or 
Flying>Squerril ; Opajfum, a certain Beaft having a Bag under her Belly, wherein flic 
carrieth and fuckleth her Young ; Mujfa/cus, which fmelling ftrong of Musk, re- 
fembleth a Water^Rat; Utchunquoisy a kind of wild Cat. 

Their peculiar Fifli are Stingrais, 

On the Weft fide of the Bay oi Chef apeak, between Cape Benry and the Southerly 
Bank ofthe River of 'Prf^omecA, are three fair Navigable Rivers, as is before men. i) 
tion'd, into which the other fmall Rivulets fall, which here we will give fome ac 
count of, as alfo of the Indian, or antient Names by which thefe three principal Ri. 
vers were formerly known. Thefirft whereof is ^o-^hatan (now caXl'dJames-^Riyer) 
according to the Name of a large and confiderable Territory that lieth upon it. 
The Rivers that fall into this Southward, are Jpamatuck ; Eaftward, Quiyonycohanuc, 
Natfamund, and Chefopeak ; and Northward, Chickamahania. 

The fecond Navigable River is Tamau?ikee^ by the E?iglijh now term'd lork-^ver. 
The Rivulet that falls into this is Toyankatarich 

The third (which is before defcrib'd, and ufually known by the Name of ^ap- 
pahanoc) was formerly term'd Top^nhanoc, 

This we thought fit here to infert, to the end no colour of miftake might remaia 
to aher Ages concerning the derivation or original change of fuch proper Names, 
cfpccially being Places of great advantage to the Colony. 




Chap. II* 

^ M E^^l C A. 

The chiefeft of thofe Tribes or Divifions of People among iht Indians^ that were 
•by Name known to the E?igUfl7 iit their firft arrival, were, upon the River ^ouhatan 
the ^ecoughtans, the faJpaJ?e^hes, (on whofe Land is feated Ja?nes>Toii?n) the IVeanocks 
Jrrohatocksj the Jppainetocks, the ls[andfamunclsj the Chefapeacks, Sec. On the River <P4- 
maunkee, are the Iounghtanu?ids, the Mattapatnents, &c. On the River Tobpahanoc, the 
Manahoacks , the Mor aught acunds^ and the Cuttatawomens. On the River Tataiuomek the 
Wtghcocomocctr\s, the Omwmanknts, and the Mojanances. On the River Tawtuxmit the 
Jcquintacjuacs J the Tawtuxunts, and the Matapunients, On the River !Bo//f5, the Sa/aue- 
fahanoes : Southward from the Bay, the Qha'^onocksj the Miw^o^cA^, the Monacans the 
Mannahocksj the Mafawomecks, the Jtqua7tahucks, and the K^fcarai^aocks, befides a num- 
ber not material to be nam'd, as having had little of Tranfadion that we hear of 
with the Planters. 

The number o^ Engl'tjh Inhabitants in this Countrey are in this prefent Year 
i6:f7i. about thirty or forty thoufand, who are plentifully ftock'd with all forts of 
tame Cattel, as Cows, Sheep, Horfes, Swine, <^c, and all forts o^ English Grain - 
great (lore of brave Orchards for Fruit, whereof they make great quantities of Cy- 
der and Perry. 

They have been much oblig'd by that worthy Gentleman Mr. Edward T>\gges^^ 
Son of Sir T>udk^ '^^gg^^j who was Matter of the Rolls, and a Privy Councellor 
to King Qurles the Firft, o^ Great 'Brlttahiy ^c. For the faid Mr. Digges at his great 
Charge and Induftry, hath very much advanc'd the making of Silk in this Coun- 
trey, for which purpofe he hath fent for feveral Perfons out of /^rmew'4 to teach 
them that Art, and how to wind it off the Cods of the Silk- Worms ; and hath 
made at his own Plantation in this Colony for fome years laft pall, confiderable 
quantities of Silk, which is found to be as good Silk as any is in the World, which 
hath cncourag'd divers others to profecute that Work. 

Though this Countrey be capable of producing many other good Commodities,' 
yet the Planters have hitherto imploy'd themfelves for the moH part in Planting 
of Tobacco, as they do in Maryland -^ whereof there are two forts, one which is 
caird Sweet^fcentedj and the other call'd Oranoack, or ^Bright and Large, which is much 
more in quantity, but of leffer Price than the former j and the Plantations upon 
York ^iver are efteem'd to produce the bell of that fort of Slijeet-feented : There is 
fo much of this Commodity Planted in Virginia^ and Imported from thence into 
England, that the Cuftom and Excize paid in England for it, yields the King about 
fifty or threefcore thoufand Pounds Sterling, per annum: With this Commodity the 
Planter buys of the Ships that come thither for it (which are above a hundred Sail 
yearly from England, and other Englifh Plantations) all Neceflaries of Clothing,' 
and other Utenfils of Houfliold^ftuff, ^c, which they want, though they make 
lome Shoes,and Linnen and Woollen Cloth in fome parts o^Firginia, of the growth 
and Manufacture of the Countrey 5 and if they would Plant lefs Tobacco (as it is 
probable they will e're loing find itconvenient for them to do^ it being now grown 
a Drug of very low value, by reafon of the vaft quantities Planted of it) they 
might in a little time provide themfelves of all Neceffaries of Livelyhood, and pro- 
duce much richer and more Staple-Commodities for their advantage. 

Their ufual way of Traffique in buying and felling is by exchange of one Com- 
modity for another 5 and Tobacco is the general Standard, by which all other 
Commodities receive their value ^ but they have fome Englijh and foreign CoynSj, 
which ferve them upon many occafions. 

The Government is by a Governor arid Council, Appointed and Authorized 
from time to time by immediate Commiflion from the King o^ Great ^rittain : And 

X I Laws' 


Several Pcoi 
pie of the an- 
cient Natives 
or Virginia, 

Number of 

The Com'-l 
modi ties «f j 



Of the Inii 
««jof Vir^i- 


Laws are made by the Governor, with tht confent of a General Afiembly, which 
confifts of two Houfes, an Upper and a Lower ; the firft confifts of the Council, 
and the latter of the Burgeffes chofen by the Freemen of the Countrey • and Laws 
fo made are in Force there till His Majefty thinks fit to alter them. 

The Chief Court of Judicature is call'd Tl?e Quarter-Court , becaufe it is held eve- 
ry quarter of a Year, where all Caufes Criminal and Civil are heard and deter. 
iiiinM, and the Judges of this Court are the Governor and Council : The prefent 
Governor in this Year 1671. is Sir Wilitam Berkley, who was made Governor by 
King Charles the Firft, of Great Srittain, 8cc, in the Year 1640. And thofe of the 
Council are Sir Henry Chichejly, who is one of the greateft and moft confiderable 
Planters there, and Mr. Edward^Dlggs before-mention'd, Mr. Thomas Ludwd Secreta- 
ry, Major-General (I(phert Smith,3.nd divers other worthy Gentlemen. 

That part of the Countrey where the English are Planted, is divided into nine- 
teen Counties, 't;^'^. Northampton-County in Jmnack, on the Eaftern fliore j and on 
the Weftern fliore, Corotuck, Lower -"^^or folk, NanfemU7id, IJle of Wight, Surry, Warlpickj 
Henerico, James, Charles, York, Keiv.I^ent, Gloucefter, Middlefex, La?icafter, Northumberland, 
Wejlmoreland, (]{dppahanock, 2LndIiarford'Counties, 

In every one of thefe Counties there are inferior County-Courts kept every 
Moneth ; thefe take no Cognizance of Caufes relating to Life or Member, or ex* 
/ ceeding a certain limited Value, fuch being referM to the Quarter»Courts only, to 
which likewife there lie Appeals from their Inferior Courts. j| 

There are Sheriffs, Juflices of the Peace, and other Officers in every refpeaivc ' 
County, appointed by the Governor, for the Adminiftration of Juftice , who 
fit there according to his Order, and whereof thefe County^Courts are chiefly 


There are few Towns as yet ereded in this Colony ; the Principal Seat of the 
EngUJh there, is at a place call'd James-City, in Honor of King James o^ Great 'Brit, 
tarn. See. This is fituatcd in a ^eninjula, on the North fide o£ James^^Ver, and 
has in it many fair Brick and other good Houfes : In this place are held the. 
Quarter-Courts, General Aflemblies, the Secretary's Office, and all other Affairs 
and greatefl Concerns of the Colony are here difpatch'd. On the fame fide, nearer 
the Mouth of this River, flands Elizabeth ^City, containing alfo fevcral good Houfes 
of Brick and Timber. 

Sir William Berkley, the prefent Governor refides at a place fomewhat diflant 
{Yom James^City, called Green-^Spring, a fair Brick Houfe, which he himfelf caus'd to 
be built. 

The other Towns of Note belonging to the English,3,te only Henricopolis, or H^«- 
y/5.To-8^w,(fo nam'd from Prince Henry then living, built in a very convenient place, 
more within Land, about eighty Miles diftant from J^me^^GV)') znd Dak's-Gift, fa 
nam'd, and Planted at the Charges of Sir Thotnas Dale, Deputy-Governor of the 
Countrey, about the Year 1610. 

The Indians of Virginia, in Stature, Complexion, and Difpofition, differ very lit- 
tle from thofe of Maryland : Their Laws and Cufl:oms j their way of Living and 
Apparel 5 their Religion, Money, and manner of Burial, are the fame in both pla- 
ces J all which are more particularly expreiVd in the precedent Defcription of that 
Province, to which we refer the Reader. 

Yet thefe IWw«5 far exceed thofe of Mary-land, in Treachery and Cruelty to the 
EnglifJ) there,as will appear by this following Relation of their Proceedings towards 
them, fince the firfl Seating of that Colony, wherein neverthelefs, the Civility of 
fome particular Perfons at their firfl Landing is not to be omitted. 


^— I 

Chap. II. 

A M E%^I C A 

Upon the firft arrival of Captain Amidol znA Captain ^arloiff in Wtngandacoa, now 
Virginia, they were accoiled by Gr^;z^^^m«fo (the King's Brother of that Countrey) 
who, attended with a Train of forty or fifty Men, came in a very civil manner to 
Treat about a Commerce of Trade and Traffick, which immediately began be- 
tween them, and feveral Barters were made : Granganimeo, who was very juft of his 
Word, and always kept his promised Day of meeting,fancy ing moft a Pewter Difli, 
gave twenty Deer^skins for it,and boring a Hole therein,hung it about his Neck for 
aBreaft-plate J afterwards he, with his whole Company, and his Wife and Children, 
frequently and familiarly did eat and drink aboard the Engltjh Ships, the King him- 
felf^ callM Wtngina,\^m^ fick at his chief Town,fix days Journey off, of a dangerous 
Wound which he had received from a neighboring King his mortal Enemy. Some 
of the EnglijJ) going to Land upon the Ifle o^(^anoack, were met by Grangammeo's 
Wife, who, her Husband being abfent, commanded her Servants fome to draw their 
Boat afliore, fome to carry them on their Backs to Land, others to carry in their 
Oars into the Houfe for fear of dealing ; and having caused a great Fire to be made, 
to warm them, and to dry thofe that had been wet in their Voyage, (lie afterwards 
EntertainM them with a very plentiful Feaft or Banquet after that Countrey fa- 
fhion J and when they took alarm at the coming of two or three of her Men with 
Bowes and Arrows, flie causM the Bowes to be broken, and the Men to be beatea 
, out of the Houfe, befides feveral other demonftrations of extraordinary civility - 
and when notwithftanding all this they could not be perfwaded to Lodge any 
where but in their Boat, Oie us'd all means imaginable to make them quit their 
jealoufie^ and accept of a Lodging in the Houfe. 

\ In the Year 1585. a Company that went over with Sir f^ichard GreenyiU, burnt 
the Town ofjciuafcogoc, by reafon a* a Silver Cup that was floln by fome of the 
Indians, took ?xiConet Menatomn, King oUhamonoc, who gave a large Relation of 
another King about three days Journey off, who poflfefs^d an Ifland wonderfully 
rich in Pearl, which was taken in great abundance in a deep Water that inviron'd 
it. Going towards the Countrey of the Mangoacks (among whom in the Province 
of ChamisTemoatan, they heard of a Mine of ftrange Copper calFd Wajfador, with 
Sktko, the Kingof (^Wowod's Son, and }Aanteo, a faithful Salvage, for their Guide) 
they were treacheroufly dealt with by Wmgim^ alias Temi/fapan (for fo, his Brother 
Granganmeo being lately dead, he had alter'dhis Name) who endeavor'd to flir up 
a Confederacy of the Chawomcks, Moratocks, and Mangoacks againft them ; yet by 
the urgent perfwafions of Enfenore his Father, thetrueft Friend the Englijh had, after 
the death of Granganimeo,3.nd feeing them fafe return'd from their Journey, wherein 
. he thought they had all perifli'd, and efpecially ifpon Mw4fo«o?2V fending Meflen- 
gers to them with Pearl, and ^/^//"co. King of ^eo/)owi^od, to yield himfelf^Vaffal to 
the Queen of England ^ his Hatred was fomewhac cool'd 5 but Enfenore deceafing foon 
after, he return'd to his old treacherous Pradifes again, and in the end, while he 
was contriving mifchief againft the Planters, he himfelf was fhot, taken Prifoner, 
and beheaded. « 

After the Company left upon Virginia by Sir (^chard GreenVill, (for he himfelf was 
returned) tir'd out with hunger, hardfliip, and the many extremities they were at 
laft reduced to, had deferted the Place, and obtained Palfage for England, through 
the civility of Sir Francis Drake, pitying their diftrefs, fifty Men more were Landed 
upon ^oanoack-ljle by the fame Perfon, who how they were furpris'd and deftroy'd 
by the Natives, was difcover'd at large to the Supply that was fent over in the Year 
1587. byMr. JFto, 

, A 


T .infa<fl;ons 
b.-twcen tha 
Engltjh. an4 
the Natives. 

.i^lLSJhMIUUIwf iJllg!?- 


Chap, II. 

A Party of thofe that went over with Captain !BarthoIometi> Go/ml, Captain John 
Smithy &c. were by the Indians fet upon as they were raifing a Fort near Cape Hetiry, 
where they Landed, feventeen Men hurt, one flain, and all in danger to have beea 
utterly deftroy'd, had not a Shot happily made from the Ships by chance frighted 
away the Salvages. Another fmall Party under Captain Smith, going down the 
River to K^conghean, were very fiercely aflaulted by fixty or feventy Indians, but their 
Mufquet-ihot did fuch Execution amongft them, that they fled into the Woods and 
left behind them the Image of their God, which had been carried before them as 
their Standard, and not long after fent one of their Queiongca/ocks to offer Peace, and 
to redeem their Okee j which Smith granting, on condition fix onely of them would 
come unarmed and load his Boat with Provifionsj and promifing moreover to 
become their Friend, and furnifli them with Beads, Copper, and Hatchets : They 
accepted the Condition, and brought him Venifon, Turkies, wild Fowl, Bread, 
and what elfe they had, Singing and Dancing in fign of Friendfhip till they de- 
parted. In his Return he difcover'd the Town and Countrey of Wanaskayock, and 
the PeoTplc o^ Chickaha}?iania. 

In his next Voyage for the difcovery of the Head of Chickamahania Kivcr, he was, 
through negled of his Sea-men who were fent to watch the Booty,taken Prifoner • 
in which condition he was kept a whole Moneth : then being releafed, he got Pro* 
vifions for the People in James'Town ; which had they not timely receiv'd, they had 
all abandoned the Place, and returned to En(rU?id, 

While Aifairs flood thus in a mean condition, Captain Neii>port arriving there 
with a Ship and fixty Men to ftrengthen the Plantations, he went to Weromocomoco^ 
King For^ha. where King (powhatan kept his Court, and found him fitting on a Bed of Mats, and 
an Embroidered Leather Cufiiion, Cloth'd in Deer-skins j at his Feet fat a young 
Maiden, and on each fide of the Houfe twenty Concubines j his Head and Shoul- 
ders were painted red, andaChainof white Beads hung about his Neck. NeHport, 
to oblige him, gave him sinEnglifi Youth ; in requital whereof he rcceivM Towha- 
tn?i's hofomVvknd, Mamontaki with whom returning, he found a fad Accident, 



'^aViies- Town 

Smithes Voy- 

for the Eire had not onely burnt the Houfes of the new Planters, but alfo the r>al- 
lifado's about James^ToH^n, made for a Defence againft the Enemies Affaults, and 7; 

oft of their Store j which was fo much the Worfe, becaufe it hapned in the 
Winter, and indeed had prov'dvery fatal, had not a Ship, which was fuppos'd t6 
be loft, happily arrivM there with a confiderable quantity of ProvifiOns. 

Whilft the Town was rebuilding,Smif/; fet Sail in an open Barque with fourteen 
Men and difcover'd two iQes before ?oint Charles, to which he gave his Name j 
then ran into the Inlet CHapeack, in the midft of which lay feveral Iflands, by the Hi-e«nrk 
Sea-men callM (Sjijfels. Before the River Wtghcoinoco they foundadifturbed Sea, and pioiw. 
more Korthcrly a Bay with freQi and hot Water, and at laft he met with two Vtr^i- 
www^/whichconduded the Hwg/i//? along a Creek to Onawmoment, where fome hun- 
dreds of them lay in Ambufcade, according to 'PoTi'W^w's appointment, to cutoff 
Smith- who leaping forth on a fudden appcar'd like Devils, all painted j but the 
Bullets flying about made them all run away. S;/iit^,whofe Dcfign was onely to diG 
cover the Countrey, and the Silver Mine of Tatawomeck, ten Leagues up into the 
Countrey, found the Metal to be of little value, fo that he returned with little Sue 
cefs, being newly cur'd of a poyfonous Wound in the Arm, which was given him 
' by a FiOi not unlike a Shark, whilft he lay aground near Tofi^ahamcL 

A while after being informed of Tomhatans Defign to deftroy the En^Uf^, (though 
he had been lately Prefented by Newport with a Silver Bafin, a rich Chair, Bed, and 
Furniture belonging to it, with other things of value) he, to prevent him, chofe 
forty eight out of two hundred Men which were Garrifon'd in James^Tom, theil 
going to WeroTiPOComoco, Landed with much trouble, the River being frozen above 

half a Mile from the Shore. ^ 

A German Soldier amongft Smith's Company giving private notice to Towhatan 
of the Defign of the Engl'^9, made his Efcapc by flight : But Smith going on to 
^amaunke, found King Opechancangough with feven hundred Men in Arms, threat- 
nine a fierce Battel ; but Smith making direftly up to him, fet his Piftol on his 
Breaft, and forc'd him to lay down his Arms, (po-^hatm by this time provided 
with Swords and Mufquets by two Dutch-men, alfo began to beftir himfelf afreOi 5 
but his Intentions being too foon known, he was again quieted, and forc'd a fecond 
time to fend Smith a String of Pearl j after which a Peace was concluded between 
all the Natives and the E??^/i/^. 

Many other Quarrels and Encounters there were in the Infancy of the Planta- 
tion between the Indians and the English, wherein it would be endlefs to recount all 
the Treacheries and Ambufcades of the Salvages, fome of which had provM very 
pernicious to the Planters, had they not been betray'd to Captain Smith by foca- 
honta, King Towhataris Daughter, who upon all occafions ftiew'd her felf a great 
Friei^d to the Englijh, having fav'd the Captain's Life,when, being her Father's Pri- 
foner, he was juft brought to Execution. 

This Lady was afterwards brought into England, Chriftned by the Name of 
• (2(ekW, and Married to one Mr. (^If, znd died ^t Gray ej end in m intended Voy- 
age back to her own Countrey, 

Not did their Cruelties and Treacheries end when the Plantation came to be 
more fetlcd, for on the two and twentieth of March about the Year i6ii. in the 
' time of Sir Francis Wyat's Government, they generally combin'd to deftroy all the 
Englijh there • and carried on this deviliOi Defign with fuch diflimulation and dex- 
terity, that in one day they cut off feven hundred Men, Women, and Children, 
there being at that time not above fifteen hundred in the Countrcy. 

Since wliich time, in the Year of our Lord 1645. there hapned another bloody 

, MaflacrCj 

'T - ' ':^^-, 

— ^^JMSBUa^ 




MafTacre wherein near five hundred En^Up, were in one Night miferably butcher'd 
r^^r ''1^''^;°"^^"^ perfidious Salvages, whofe Blood the orefenc Governor 
S.r miH^n 2.Mfe, nobly and juftly reveng'd the Year following, Utterly deftroyi 
n,oftofthen, and Px.foner therr chief Emperor, OeuLcono,Lo iJ2 
long arcer in Prifon. 

Having given but a fmall hint, in its proper place, of the Story of Captaui 
Sn,nh s I™pr.fonment by 9oU.un, and his deliverance from Death by P.X 
we have thought not improper to referve the Story of it, being very remarkable 
for a partKular Relation, before we conclude ou\ Def^riptioLf L"! I 
ocherw.fe we fliould have interrupted the Series of our former Difcourfe 

The%elatm of Captain SmhhV being taken Trifoner by Powhatan and 
of hts betng delroerdfrom 'Death byhts ©i^W Pocahoma 

THe Salvages having drawn from one George Cajfen , whither Captain 
^te'!7"l Tn P^fr"""g '''« opportunity, they folloWd him with 
in divir r u ^T'^'^' ""''"'*^'' by ^he King of <Pan,aunkee , who 

n divrfions. fearchmg the turnings of the River, found two of hrs Men by 
the fire fide whom they ft ot full of Arrows , and flew. Then finding the 
Captam who, as is fa,d . us'd the Salvage that was his Guide as his Shield 

ntrhil Th f ' 't' ^\' "''"' '""^^ ^''''^ ''' «'^ would not 1; 
near h.m Th.nkmg thus to have return'd to his Boat , regarding them as 

hemarchd more than his way, he flipp'd up to the middle in' an oler^Teek 

wl U r^r '""' y" "^"'^ '^'y "°^ -™^ '"l^i™. »11 being near dead 
with cold, he threw away his Arms : Then according to thei; compofition th y 

Ivtre T f-AU- T' ''' 'T '"''" '■"' "^'"^ "^''^^ --«^-; dil gent' 
ly they chaf d his benumm-d Limbs, he demanding for their Captain, they fh!w d 
h.m OpechMauougl,, King of, to whom he gave a roLd vory double 
compafs Dyal Much they marvel'd at the playing of tlie Fly and Needle! which 
hey could fee fo plainly, and yet not touch it, becaufe of tL Glafs tha cover'd 
them; but when he demonftrated by that Globe-like Jewel, the roundnefs of the 
uf'uJu'' ^'^f Ph-oftheSun, Moon, and Stars, and how the Sun id 
chafe the Night round about the World continually , the greatnefs of the Land 
and Sea , the diverfity of Nations, variety of Complexions, and how we were to 
them Jnc.fodes, nd many other fuch like matters, they all ftood as amaz'd with 
admiration : Notwithftanding, within an hour after they ty'd him to a Tree and 
as many as could ftand about him prepar'd to flioot him / but the King holding up 
he Compafs in his Hand, they all laid down their Bowes and Arrows, and !n I 

p'Tf '"r'n""./*^^™ '° ^"'^''''' "^^"'^^ '"'' ^f^^^ 'heir manner kindly 
Fealted, and well us d. xv u y 

King in th m.dft had all their Bowes and Swords borAe before him. Captain 
5»,r/,was led after him by three great Salvages, holding him fad by each Arm 
and on each fide fix went in Fyle with their Arrows nocked. But arnving at rhe ' 
Town (which was but onely thirty or forty Hunting Houfes made of Matst which 
hey remove as they pleafe, as we our Tents) all the Women and Children ftarin. 
and gazing at h.m, the Sould.ers firftall in Fyle wheel'd off to the Rear in good 
Order on each Flank were Officers, like Serjeants to fee them keep their Poft.Tres : 
A good they continu'd this Exercife, and then call themfelves .n a Rin., 
DancngmfuchfeveralPoftures, and finging and yelling out fuch helHft NotS 



Chap. If. A M E%^1 C A, 

and Screeches • being flrangely Pdiaced, every one his Quiver of Arrows, and ac 
his Back a Club j on his Arm a Fox or an Occers«skin, or fome fach matter for his 
vambrace; their Heads and Shoulders Painted red, with Oyl and (Pocom mingled 
togeEher, which Scarlet^ike colour, made an exceeding handfome fiiow- hisBowe 
in his Hand, and the Skin of.a Bird with her Wings abroad dryM, ty'd on his Head, 
apiece of Copper, a white Shell, a long Feather, with a fmall Rattle growing at 
the Tails of their Snaks ty'd to it, or fome luch like Toy. All this while Smith and 
the King flood in the midil:, guarded, as before is faid, and after three Dances they 
all departed. Smith they conduced to a long Houfe, where thirty or forty tall FeU 
lows did' guard him , and e're long , more Bread and Venifon was brought him 
than would have Ferv'd twenty Men, I think his Stomack at that time was not ve- 
ry good ; what he lefc, they put in Baskets and tyM over his Head. About mid- 
night they fet the Meat again before him • all this time none of them would eat a 
bit with him, till the next Morning they brought him as much more, and then 
jid they eat all the old, and refervM the new as they had done the other, which 
made him think they would feed hmi for Daughter : Yet in this defperate eftate to 
fend him from the cold, one Maocajfater brought him his Gown, in requital of fomc 
Beads and Toys S?jitth had given him at his firfl arrival in Virginia. 

Two days after a man would have flain him (but that the Guard prevented it) 
For the death of his Son, to whom they cooduded him to recover the poor man 
:hen breathing his laft. Smith told them, that at James^Town he had a Water would 
lo it, if they would let him fetch it, but they would not permit that ; but made all 
:he preparations they could to ailauk James-Toion , craving his advice, and for re« 
:ompence he fhould have Life, Liberty, Land, and Women» In part of a Table. 
Dopk he writ his mind to them at the Fort, what was intended, how they fhould 
■ollow that direaion to affright the meffengers, and without fail fend him fuck 
;hings as he writ for, and an Inventory with them. The difficulty and danger, he 
.old the Salvages, of the Mines, great Guns, and other Engines, exceedingly af- 
Tightedthem, yet according to his Requeft they went to James^Toi^n, in as bitter 
jveather as could be of Frofl and Snow, and within three days return'd with an An- 

But when they came to James-Town^ feeing Men Tally out as he had told them 
:hey would, they fled j yet in the night they came again to the fame place where 
le had told them they fliould receive anfwer, and fuch things as he had promised 
:hem, which they found accordingly, and with which they return'd with no fmall 
expedition, to the wonder of them all, fuppofing that he could either Divine,or 
the Paper could fpeak : then they led him to the Youthtanmids, the Matta^anients, the 
Tayankatanksj the Nantaughtacunds, and Onalt>manients upon the Rivers of^^apahanock, 
md ^ataipomek, through intricate ways, and back again by divers other feveral Na- 
tions, to the Kings Habitation at famaunkee, where they entertained him with mofi 
fttange and fearful Conjurations. Not long after,early in the Morning, a great fire 
was made in a long Houfe , and a Mat fpread on each fide thereof; on the one 
they caus'd him to lit, and all the Guard went out of the Houfe, and prefently 
there came skipping in a great grim fellow, all Painted over with Coal, mingled 
with Oyl; andmany Snakes and Wefels -skins fluff'd with Mofs , and all their 
Tails ty'd together, fo as they met on the Crown of his Head in a Taffel ; and 
round about the Taffel was a Coronet of Feathers , the Skins hangin^y round 
about his Head, Back, and Shoulders, and in a manner cover\l his Face ^^ with a 
hellifh voice, and a Rattle in his Hand. With moft grange gefturcs and paflions 
^e began his Invocation, and environed the fire with a Circle of Meal - which 






A M E %I C A. 





done, three more iuch like Devils came rufhing in with the likr antique Tricks 
Painted half blacky half red j but all their Eyes were Painted white, and fome rec 
(Irokes like Mutchato^Sj along their Cheeks : round about him thofe Fiends Danc'c 
a pretty while, and then came in three more as ugly as the refl^ with red Eyes, anc 
white {Irokes over their black Faces • at laft they all ^fate down right againft him 
three of them on the one hand of the chief Prieft, and three on the other j then al 
with their Rattles began a Song, which ended;, the chief Prieft laid down iiv< 
Wheat Corns, then ffcretching his Arms and Hands with fuch violence, that h< 
fweat, and his Veins fwell'd, he began a (hort Oration : at the conclufion, thej 
all gave a fhort groan, and then laid down three Grains more 5 after that, becrar 
their Song again;, and then another Oration, ever laying down Co many Corns a; 
before, till they had twice incircled the Fire • that done, they took a bunch of lit' 
tie Sticks, prepared for that purpofe_, continuing ftill their Devotion^, and at the 
end of every Song and Oration , they laid down a Stick between the Divifions oi 
Corn: till night, neither he nor they did either eat or drink, and then they fea. 
fled merrily, with the befl: Provifions they could make : Three days they us'd thu 
Ceremony, the meaning whereof they told him, was to know if he intended them 
well, or no. The Circle of Meal fignifi'd their Countrcy, the Circles of Corn the 
bounds of the Sea, and the Sticks his Countrey. They imagined the World to be 
flat and rourfd, like a Trencher, and they in the midft. After this they brought him 
a Bag of Gun-powder, which they carefully preferv'd till the next Spring, to Plant 
as they did their Corn, becaufe they would be acquainted with the nature of that 
Seed. Opitchapamj the King's Brother, invited him to his Houfc;, where, with as ma- 
ny Platters of Bread, Fowl, and wild Beails, as did environ him, he bid him welL 
come, but not any ot them would eat a bit with him, but put up all the remainder 
in Baskets. At his return to Opechancanoughs, all the Kings Women, and their Chil- 
dren, flock'd about him for their Parts^ as a due by Cuftom, to be merry with fuch 

At lafl, they brought him to Meronocofnoco, where was Towhatan their Emperor. 
Here more than two hundred of thofe grim Courtiers flood wondering at him, as 
he had been a Monfter • till fowhatan and his Train had put themfelvcs in their 
greateft Braveries. Before a Fire, upon a feat like a Bedfted, he fit cover'd with a 
great Robe, made of ^trowcmi'Skms^ and all the Tails hanging by. On either 
hand did fit a young Maid, of fixteen or eighteen years of Age, and along on each 
iide the Houfe, two rows of Men, and behind them as many Women, with all 
their Heads and Shoulders Painted red 5 many of their Heads bedeck'd yi^ith the 
white Doun of Birds , but every one with fomething, and a great Chain of white 
Beads about their Necks. At his entrance before the Emperor, all the People gave a 
great fliout. The Queen of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him Water to wafli 
his Hands, and another brought him a bunch of Feathers, in ftead of a Towel to 
dry them : Having Feafted him after their barbarous manner as well as they could, 
along confultation was held, but in conclufion, two great Stones being broucrht 
before Powhatan, as many as could, laid Hands on him, dragged him to them, and 
thereon laid his Head;, when being ready with their Clubs, to beat out his Brains, 
^ocahonta^^ the Emperors deareft Daughter, feeing no intreaty could prevail, got his 
Head in her Arms, and laid her own upon his to lave him from death ; whereat, 
the Emperor was contented he fhould live to make him Hatchets, and • r Bells, 
Beads, and Copper, for they thought him a Man of all Occupations like them« 
felves J for the King himfelf will make his own Robes, Shoes, Bowes, A^^rows^ 
Pots, Plant, Hunt, or do any thing as well as the reft. ' 




! U 

!• I 




Chap. IL ' ^ M E%^I C J. 105 

Two days after, ^owhaunh^y'mg difguis'd himfelf in the moH fearful manner 
he could, caus'd Captain Smith to be brought forth to a great Houfe in the Woods^ 
^nd there upon a Mat by the Fire to be left alone. Not long after, from behind a 
Mat that divided the Houfe, was made the moft doleful noifc he ever heard - them 
(powhatan, more like a Devil than a Man, with about two hundred more as bhck as 
himfelf,came unto him, and told him, That now they were Friends, and prefently 
hefliould go to James'Toivn, to fend him two great Guns and a Grindftone, for 
which he Would give him the Countrey oUapaho-^oftck, and for ever efteem him as 
his Sbn NantaquouJ. So to James -Town with twelve Guides Towhatan fent him. 
That Night they Quarter'd in the Woods, he ftiU expe^ing (as he had done all 
this long time of his Imprifonment) every hour to be put to one Death or other, 
for all their Feafting : but Almighty God (by his Divine Providence) had molli! 
fi'd the Hearts of thofe ftcrn 'BarbdYians with compafllon. The next Morning be- 
times they came to the Fort, where Smith having us'd the Salvages with what kind« 
nefs he could, he fliew'd %ait>hmt, fofi^hatans trufty Servant, two Demi^Culverins 
and a Milftone, to carry to Towhata?i : they found them fornewhat too heavy j but 
when they faw him Difcharge them, they being loaded with Scones, amoogft the 
Boughsof a great TreeJoaded with Ifickles,the Ice and Branches came fo tumbling 
[lown, that the poor Salvages ran away half dead with Fear. But at laft we re- 
gained fome Conference v^rith them, and gave them fome Toys, and fent to ^Towhd- 
[ans Women and Children fuch Prefents, as gave them in general, full content. 

S E c T. V» 


CArolma is that part of Flonda which lies between twenty nine and thirty ilx si:uanona„4 
Degrees and thirty Minutes of Northern Latitude : It is wafliM on theStX^ 
Eaft and South, with the Ma?itick Ocean ; on the Weft with Mare (paafi- 
«w, or the South Sea 5 and on the North, bounds on Fir^'mia, A Countrey wherein 
Mature fhcws how bountiful flie can be without the affiftance of Art, the Inhabi- 
ants (excepting a little Kdi^which their old Men and Women Plant) depending 
neerly on the natural and fpontaneous Growth of the Soil for theii- Provifions, 
he Woods furnifliing them with ftore of Fruit and Venifon, and the Rivers with 
>lenty of feveral forts of wholfom and favory Fifli'. 

This Maintenance, which without forecaft or toil they receive from the natural 
ruitfulnefs of the Countrey, will, if we confider either the largencfs of their 
Growth, or the duration of their.Lives, be thought neither fcanty nor unhealthy, 
heir Stature being of a larger fize than that of £;ig///7?.men, their Make ftrong and 
^rellproportion'd, a crooked or mif-fliapen Perfon being not to be found in the 
?hole Countrey j and (where the chance of War, which they are almoft continu- 
lly cngag'd in one againft another in their little Governments, fpares any ^f 
hem) they live to an incredible old age • fo that when the EngUjJj came there, they 
ound fome of their Kings, who faw dcfcend from them the fixth Generation, 

The Soil is very rich and fertile, producing naturally Walnuts, Grapes (of] 
7hich the EngUJh who are there Planted have made very good Wine) Apricocks 
iullys, with a multitude of others ; befides the Woods alfo are full of very good 
eaches, and all the Seafon of the Year ftrew^d all over with Strawberries. MiiL 
erry=Trces are the common growth of the Woods 5 and to aifurc you they are che 
atural Offspring of the Place, and grow to an incredible bignefs^one whereof the 

of ihe Soil. 




AMERICA ' Chap, It 

Endtp (who are new Planted at Jlhemark foint oa JfHo River) made ufc to faften the 
Gate of their PalUlado to, was To large, that all who came from thence fay, they 
never faw any Oak in England bigger, which is but the ordinary fize of the Mul- 
berry-Trees of this Countrey, which is fo fure an Argument of the richnefs of the 
Soil that the Inhabitants of Firpnia enquiring of the Seamen who came from 
thence concerning the Quality and Produ^ of the Countrey, when they were in- 
form'd of the large Mulberry-Trees it producM, werefo well fatisfi'd with it, that 
they made no farther Enquiry. There are alfo other Trees, as Afh, Poplar, and 
Bay with fevcral forts unknown to us of Europe . but thofc which make it almofl: 
all o'ne general Forreft of large Timber.Trees, are Oak, both red and white, and 
Cedar. There are alfo here and there large Groves of Pinc-Trees, fomc a hundred 
Foot high, which afford a better fort of Maft than are to be had either in Mary^ 
land or Norway. Thefe larger Trees weaving their luxuriant Branches into a clofe 
Shade, fuffer no Under-wood to grow between them, cither by their Droppings, 
or elfe' the Heads of Deer which loofening all the tender Shoots, quite deflroy itjfo 
that a ^reat part of the Countrey is as it were a vafl Forreft of fine Walks, free from 
thehe^t of the Sun,or the incumbrance of Shrubs and Buflies,and fo clear and open, 
that a Man may eafily ride a Hunting amongft the Trees, yielding a Profped very 
pleafant andfurpaffing. On the Skirts of thefe Woods grow Icffer Trees and Shrubj 
of feveral forts • amongft them are fundry Dying Materials, which how well the 
Inhabitants know how to make ufe of, appears in the Deer-Skins that the chief ol 
them wear, which are Painted, or rather DyM, with feveral lively Colours. Bui 
amongft their Shrubs, one of moft note and ufe is that whofe Leaves make then 
Cafm a Drink they frequently ufe, and affirm to be very advantageous for the pre- 
fe^vation of Health 5 which, by the defcription our E?2gUJh give of the fize, colour 
and fliapeof the Leaf, the fort of Tree it grows on,and the tafte, colour, and effcdi 
of the Drink, which is nothingbutthe Decodionof the Leaf, ieemstobe thever, 
fame with the Eaft-lndta TEE, and by thofe who have fccn and tafted both, af 
firm'd to be no other, and may very probably be a fpontaneous and native Plan! 
of this Place, fince thofe who give us an account of it, tell us, that this fo mud 
valuM Leaf grows moft plentifully in nanking, a Province in China under the vcrj 
fame Latitude,and very much agreeing in Soil and Situation with this of Carolma. 
What Herbs elfc the Countrey produces, the Engltjh Enquirers (who by mmdm^ 
their Plantations and Settlement there, have been taken off from fuch unprofitabh 
Aaions) aive us but little account, onely they fay, that thofe Plats of Grounc 
which hav'^e been formerly clear'd off by the Indwis for the Planting their Corn, 
they found thick covered with three-leavM Grafs and Dazies, which the fertility oi 
the Soil thrufts forth, whenever the Natives remove their Tillage to fome othei 
place and leave the Earth to its own produdion • and in other parts they founc 
plenty of Garden Herbs growing wild. The low and Moorifh Grounds arc foi 
fhe moft part overgrown with Sedge and Reeds, and fuch other Trafli, which ufu 
ally incumbers rich and uncultivated Lands 5 thofe they call Smmfas, which witl 
a little Husbandry would prove very good Meadows. There are alfo fome larg 
and pleafant Sayanas, or graffy Plains. 

Thefe are a part of the Trees and Plants beft known to us, that Nature ot he 
felf produces, in a Soil which contrives and nouriflies any thing. The EngltJJ^ wh< 
arc now Planted in the moft Northern parts of it, at Jlhemarle, bordering on Vtrgt 
ma, have Apples, Pears, Cherries, Apricocks, Plumbs, and Water.Melons, equa 
lingr and if you will believe the Inhabitants, both in largenqfsof fize and goodne 

of tafte, exceeding any in Europe. And they who are Setled farther South on #/ 
' ^ ' • Rivei 


Chap. n. ^ qJ~ M E Ts^ I C J, ^^y 

River, have found that the Oranges, Lemmons, Pomegranates, Limes, Pome^ 
citrons, CT^c. which they Planted there, have thriven beyond expedation • and 
there is nothing which they have put into the Earth, that through any defed'in the 
Soil^ hath failed to profper. 

Befides thofe things which do ferve to fatisfie Hunger, or provoke it, the Land c-mod 
doth with great return produce Indigo, Ginger, Tobacco, Cotton, and other Com- Sunl^ 
modities fit to fend abroad and furnifli foreign Markets; and when a little time 
fhall have brought thofe kind of Plants to maturity, and given the Inhabitants 
leifureto fumiih chemfelves with Conveniences for ordering thofe things aright, 
the Trials that they have already made of the Soil and its fitnefs for fuch plan- 
tations, affure you, that befides Silk, enough to Rare Europe, and a great many 
other confiderable Commodities, they Oiall have as great plenty of good Wine 
and Oyl, as any part of the World. 

The Mould is generally black, mellow, and upon handling feels fofc, and (to 
ufe their Expreffion who have been there) foapy, and is generally all over the 
Countrey jufi: like the fine Mould of our well ordered Gard^eos. Under this black 
Earth, which is of a good thicknefs in moil places that they have try'd, there lies a 
Bed of Marie, and in fome parts Clay. 

The Rivers are ftor'd with plenty of excellent Fidi of feveral forts, which are ta. m and 
ken with great eafe in abundance, and are one great part of the Natives Provifion, """'"''^"^ 
who are never like to want this Recruit, in a Countrey fo abounding in large Ri' 
vers, there being in that one fmall Trad between <pQrt%afal and Cape Carteret, 
which are not one Degree diftant, five or fix great Navigable Rivers, that empty 
thcmfelves into the Sea. Thefe Rivers are alfo cover'd with Flocks of Ducks and 
Mallard, whereof millions are feen together-, befides Cranes, Herons, GceCe^ Cur- 
lews, and other Water-Fowl, who are fo eafie to be killed, that onely rifing'at the 
difcharge and noife of a Gun, they inftantly light again in the fame place, and pre. 
fently offer a frefli Mark to the Fowler. At the Mouths of the Rivers, and along 
the Sea»Coafi:, are Beds of Oyfters, which are of a longer Make than thofe in Europe, 
but very well tailed, wherein are often found good large Pearls, which though the' 
unskilful /«Jid«f by waihing the Oyfters do commonly difcolour, and fpoil their 
iuilrc, yet 'tis not to be doubted, but if rightly order'd, there will be found many 
of value, and the Fiihing for them turn to fome account. 

Befides the eafie Provifions which the Rivers and Sea afford, their Woods are 
well fliock'd with Deer, Rabbets, Hares, Turtle-Doves, Phefants, Partridges, and 
an mfinite number of Wood.Pigeons and wild Turkies, which are the ordinary 
Diihesof the Indians, whofe Houfe-keeping depends on their Fifliing and Hunting, 
and who have found it no ill way of Living in fo fertile a Countrey, to truil thcm- 
felves without any labor or forecail, to the Supplies which are there provided to 
their hands, without the continual trouble of Tillage and Husbandry. Befides, 
thefe Woods are fiU'd with innumerable variety of fmaikr Birds, as different iJ 
their Notes as Kinds. 

The Temperature of this Province is agreeableto a Countrey, whofe Pofition xem^craue 
IS on the warmer fide of the temperate Zone, but yet the Heat is not fo fultry nor £;f ™ 
ofFenfive, as in Places under the fame Latitude in the Old World ; to which modera- "''"* 
tion of Heat, as well as the healthinefs of it, the vail MantickOccm, lying to the 
Eail and South of it, may perhaps not a little contribute, an inilance whereof 
fome think China to be ; to which dcfervedly admir'd Countrey Carolina exadly an- 
Iwers m its Pofition and Latitude, the trending from North-Eail to South- Well 
ofitsCoail, andthelownefsof its Shore, and wants nothing but Inhabitants, to 

Y 2 make 


loS - A M £%! C A. Chap. 11 

make it equal, if not excell, in all conveniences of Life, as it doth in richnefs of 
Soil, that flourifhing Enapire. I'he heakhinefs of the Air is fiich, that it is not 
onely benign and favorable to the home-bred Indians^ and Conftitutions accuftom'd 
to it, but the Englijli-ratvi who firft Planted on Jjhley River, though for fome other 
Conveniences they Planted on the fide, or almoft middle of a Morafs, and were en- 
compafs'd with a fait Marfli, where the Air, pent up with Woods that furrounded 
them, had not that freedom it hath in open and cultivated Countreys, yet loft noc 
in a whole years time, of a confiderable number, any onePerfon, of any Difeafeto 
be imputed to the Countrey, thofefew that dy*d in that time finkif^ under lin- 
gring Diftempers which they brought with them, and had almoft worn them out 
before they came thither. The 'Bermudians (who being accuftom'd to the pure Air 
of their own Ifland, cannot without hazard of their Lives put themfelves into any 
other Place) affur'd of the healthinefs of this Place, which is the next Land to 
them, and under the fame Latitude, venture hither. And generally all the Engl'tfh 
Planting in the lVeJl»Indies, are fo taken with the Conveniences of this Countrey, 
which, as fome of the moft confiderable of the Englljh in thofe Parts fay of it, pro- 
mifes all that the Heart of Man can wifli, that they fend the overplus of their Peo- 
ple hither ; to which the Inhabitants of iB^r^it^oj, a skilful and wary fort of Plan- 
ters, well knowing in all the parts of the Weji-lndies, have been found to remove the 
Hands they could fpare. As the Summer is not intolerably nor ofiFenfively hot, fi> 
the Winter is not troublefom nor pinching, but enough to corre<5t the Humors of 
Mens Bodies, the better to ftrengthen them, and prefcrve their Healths, and To far 
to check the growth of Plants, that by this ftop they may put out more regularly,' 
and the Corn and other Fruits the better ripen together, and be ready feafonably ac 
the Harveft, the want whereof in fome Countreys hinders the beneficial Growth 
of feveral valuable Commodities,the continual Spring all the year long making thac 
their Crops ar^ never ready, their Trees being laden with green and ripe Fruit at 
the fame time, which is to be feen in the Vines growing between the Troj^kks, 
where, though they bear excellent Grapes, yet they cannot make any Wine, whileft 
the mixture of ripe and fowre Grapes upon the fame Branch, renders them unfit for 
the Prefs, which from Grapes fo blended, though of a good kind, would fqueeze 
out a very crude and ufelefs Liquor. This alfo is the reafon why many Parts 
where our Wheat will grow very well, do yet lofe the benefit of it, whileft the fe- 
veral Ears ripening unequally, never make the Crop fit for the Sickle. But this 
Countrcy hath Winter enough to remove that Inconvenience, and to put fijch a ftop 
to the Rife of the Sap, and the Budding of Plants, as to make the feveral kinds of 
Fruits Bud and BlofTom in their diftind Seafons, and keep even pace till they are 
fit to be gather'd. 
Naturccon- '^ ^ this happy Climate the uatlvc Itth abitattts arc very well fuited, a ftrong, 
fi.tuuons,ami \^^j ^ ^^^ ^^^\\ (hap'd Pcoplc, who to their well knit and adive Bodies, v^ant not 
ftouc and vigorous Minds ; they are a People of a good Underftanding, well Hu- 
mored, and generally fo juft and Honeft, that they may feem to have no notice of, 
as their Language hath no word for, Diflionefty and Cheating ; and the worft 
Name they have for ill Men is, that they are not good. They are a ftout and va* 
liant People, which appears in the conftant Wars they arc cngagM in, not out of 
covctoufnefs, and a defire of ufurping others Pofteflions, or to enrich themfelves by 
the Spoils of their Neighbors, but upon a pitch of Honor, and for the glory of Vi* 
<ll:ory, which is their gre.ateft joy, there being no parts of their Lives wherein they 
enjoy fo much fatisfa(5lion, and give themfelves fo wholly to Jollity, as in their 
Triumphs after Vi^^ory. Valor therefore \s the Vertue they moft eftecm and 


the Inhabi- 


Chap. IL ^ ^ M E %^l C A, 209 

reward, and he which hath behav'd himfelf well in the Wars, is fuifer'd ro wear 
the Badges of Honor, and is advanced beyond others with fome Marks of his 
Courage ; which amongft fome is blacking the Skin below his Eyes with black 
Lead, in faOiion fomething of an Half-Moon ; which Mark of Courage is not fuf- 
fer'd to be worn by any, but thofe who by fome brave Adion, as killing the Ene* 
my's Leader, <j^c. hath fignaliz'd himfelf in their Encounters. They are faithful to 
their Promifes, fair and candid in their Dealings, and fofar from Difhonefty, that 
they want even the Seeds of it, V/;^. Forecaft and Covetoufnefs ; and he will be 
very little apt to deceive you to Day, who troubles not himfelf much about to 
MorroW;, and trufts for the Provifions of the Day to the Day it felf j which pro- 
ceeds not in them for want of Wit, but defire of Content and Quiet, or by the help 
of their natural Reafon they enjoy that Happinefs which the Philofophers could 
not by their Study and Reading attain to, whileft thefe Men cut oflf thofe Dclires 
which Learning could never help the other to Govern, and which if once permit- 
ted to run out beyond the prefent, are capable of no Reft nor Bounds. In their 
Converfation they are courteous and civil, and in their Vifits make Prefents to one 
another; when they meet, their way of Salutation is ftroaking on the Shoulders, 
and fucking in their Breath • and if he be a great Man whom they Salute^ they 
ilroak his Thighs too ; as civil an Addrefs, as thofe Patterns of good Breeding, the 
Hero's, us'd to their Princes, who in their greateft Courtfliips, we are told, em« 
brac'd their Knees : After their Salutation they fit down ; audit is ufual with 
them to fit ftill almoft a quarter of an hour before they fpeak, which is not an eifed 
of ftupidity orfuUennefsjbut theaccuftom'd Gravity of their Countrey 5 for they 
are in their Tempers a merry, froUick, gay People, and fo given to Jollity, that 
they will Dance whole Nights together, the Women fittingby and Singing, whileft 
the Men Dance to their Ayrs, which though not like ours, are not harfli or unplea- 
fing, but are fomething like the Tunes of the Ir//^ : Sothat if we will not let our 
felves too fondly admire onely the Cuftoms we have been bred up in, nor think 
Men are to be valu'd for making Legs after our Mode, or the Clothes they wear, 
whichjthe finer and gayer they arc, always the more to be fufpeited of Luxu ry and 
EfFeminatenefs ; if we will allow but thefe Men to follow the Garbs of their own 
Countrey, and think them fine enough in a fliape onely to hide their Nakednefs 
before, or a hanging loofely on their Shoulders, and their Women not 
ill Drefs'd in Garments of Mofs, and Necklaces of Beads, whileft the Fafliion of 
their Courts require no other Ornaments ; if, I fay, a long and pleafant Lifc^ 
without Diftemper or Care, be to be valu'd, without the incumbrance of unne- 
ccflary Trinkets ; if Men are to be efteem'd for Valor, Honefty, FriendOiip, Hu- 
manity and good Nature, though Strangers to the ceremonious Troubles we are 
accuftom'd to, the Natives of Carolina will as little, or perhaps lefs, deferve the 
Name ofMi/erable, or Salvage, as thofe that give it them. 'Tis true, the French and 
Spaniards who have Planted amongft them, or with little Armies travell'd their 
Countrey, have been ill handled by them ; but yet the Indians never did them any 
iiarm, or treated them othcrwife than Friends, till thofe Europeans by their breach of 
Faith and feveral Outrages, hadprovok'd their juft Revenge ; and they did nothing 
but what moft vertuous and generous fort of Men are apt to do, to revenge thofe 
Affronts, which did not agree with their Tempers tamely to endure. That 
this did not proceed from treachery and inconftancy in their Natures, is apparent 
in the contrary Correfpondence they have had with the En^Up? Setled amongft 
them, to whom they have been all along very kind, as they were at firft very cove- 
tous of their Company j for after that fome of their King's Relation had been ac 


^i^ ^ M E "Kl C A. Chap. IL 

<Bciyhaios anahadfeenandadmir'd the Temper, FaflVions, and Strength of the 
Emm there, and had been very civilly Treated in that iHand, they were lo well 
fattsfi'd with them, that at the coming of the EngUp^ to Settle there, the feveral lictle 
Kingdoms ftrove with all the Arts and Arguments they could ufe, each of them to 
draw the Bnolifh to Plant in their Dominions, by commending the nchnefs of their 
Soil convenlency of their Rivers, the healthinefs of their Countrey, the difparage- 
ment of their Neighbors, and whatever elfe they judgd might allure the £«^/(/^ to 
their Neighborhood. Nor was this onely the firft heat of Men fond of Novelties, 
and as foon weary of them again, but ever fince the EngUfr firft Planted ^t Alhemark 
(point on jpiey River, they have continued to do them all manner of friendly Of- 
fices ' ready on all occafions to fupply them with any thing they have obferv'd 
them to want, not making ufe of our Mens Nece/Tities, as an opportunity to en- 
hance the Price of their Commodities, a fort of fair Dealing we could fcarce have 
promis'd them amongft civiliz'd, wellbred, and religious Inhabitants, of any part 
of Europe . and though they are much frighted with our Guns, both fmall and great, 
yet like innocent and welL-meaning People, they do not at all diftruft our Power, 
but freely, without fufpicion,truft themfelves, both Men and Women, even their 
Kings themfelves, in our Town, Lodging and Dancing there frequently whole 
Nights together, upon no other Pledges but the bare confidence of our mutual 
Friendfliip ; nor do our Men ufe any greater caution in Converfing with them, 
ftraglingupanddown, and travelling fingly and unarmed through their Woods 
for many Miles about, and are fo far from receiving any injury or ill treatment 
from them, that on the contrary they are kindly us'd and Entertained, and guided 
by them in their Way whenever they defire it 5 and when any of our Men meet 
them in their Walks, the Ww«5 all ftand ftill till they are gone by, civilly Salu- 
tincT them as they pafs. Nor doth this Affurance of theirs bound it felf within 
thek own Homes,they of their own accords venturing themfelves aboard our Ships, 
' have gone voluntarily with our Men to rirginia and <Barhados. Nor have the EngltJJ? 
been wanting on their parts in any thing that may prefervc this Amity, being ve- 
ly cautious of doing them any injury, bartering with them for thofe things they 
receive of them, and buying of them even the wafte Land they make no ufe of. 

Befides the fimplicity of the Indians Diet, it is very remarkable, that they have a 
general averfion to thofe two things which are mofi: acceptable to our Palates, and 
without which few of us either eat or drink with any delight ; for in their Meats 
they cannot endure the leaft mixture or rclliOi of Salt ; and for their Drink, they 
utterly abominate all manner of ftrong Liquor ; to the latter whereof, their large 
Growth and conftant Health, is perhaps not a little owing. 

Every little Town is a diftind Principality, Govern'd by an Hereditary King, 
who in fome places is not Son, but Sifters Son to the precedent King, the Succef- 
fion of the Blood.Royal being continued by the fafer fide. The great Bufinels of 
thofe Princes is to lead their Men out againft their Enemies in War, or againft 
the Beafts in Hunting ; for unlefs it be to appoint them where to Hunt, or elfe to 
Confult about making fome Attempt upon their Enemy, he hath but fmall trouble 
in.the Government of his Subjeds, who either through their own Honefly, or the 
few occafions they have for Controverfies in then extempore wa.y of Living, need 
few Laws, and little Severity to keep them in order-, but yet they Govern their 
People without Contraft, and fail not of a ready Obedience to their Commands ; 
fo that when fome of them have bought things of fuch of the E?iglish, who by the 
Orders made amongft our felves were not to Traffick with the Indians, they have, 
upon Complaint made to their Caftaues, been reftor'd again, though in ftrid Rules 
^ of 

Their manner 
of Govern- 


Chap. IL ^ A M E%^1 C A, ait 

of Law they were neither bound by, nor oblig'd to take notice of the Rules \^hich 
were m^ade onely to Govern our own People, and had at juft Prices bought what 
they carry'd away ; fuch is the Honefty of Men, whofe Principles not being cor- 
rupted with Learning and Diftindiion, are contented to follow the Didates of 
right Reafon, which Nature has fufficiently taught all Men for the well ordering 
of their Anions, and enjoyment and prcfervation of humane Society, who do not 
give themfelves up to be amus'd and deceived by infignificant Terms, and minding 
what is juft and right, feeknot Evafions in the Niceties and Fallacies of Words. 

The fame is to be faid of the firft Difcovery of this Countrey, as hath been for- cartUna 
merly faid oiVirgmia and Florida^ of both which it partakes ; but as to the prefent p«ent^^I 
Intercft and Propriety, the Englijh^ befides all Vtrgmia intirely, have alfo fo much S^perfons 
0^ Florida as makes up thisconfiderable Province of Carolina, which foon after the jift""^*" 
happy Reftauration of His prefent Majefty King Charles IL from whom it receives 
Denomination, was granted by Patent to Edward Earl of Clarendon, L. Chancellor 
o^ England ^George Duke oi Mhemarle, William Earl of Crayenjjohnhord 'Berkley j Anthony 
Lord Ajhlejy Sir George Carteret ^ Vice-Ghamberlain of His Majefty V Houfliold, Sir 
WtUiam Berkley, Knight and Baronet, and Sir John Colleton, Knight and Baronet. 

The Lords-Proprietors of this Countrey, for the better Settlement of it accord« 
ing to their Patent granted unto them by His Majefty, and for the enlargement of 
the King's Dominions in thofe parts o( America, have been at great Charge to fecurc 
this fo rich and advantageous^ Countrey to the Crown o[ England, to whom of an* 
cicnt Right, by the Difcovery of Sir Sehaftian Cahottm the time o[ Henry the Seventh, 
it doth belong,and for its Situation, Fertility, Neighborhood to our other Plantati- 
ons and fevcral other Conveniences, of too valuable confideration to be negligently 
loft : By the Care therefore and Endeavors of thofe Great Men, it hath now two Their care 
confidcrable Colonies Planted in it, the one of Albemarle, on the North fide, border- and^mJTrl^ 
ing on Virginia, where are fome hundreds of Englifh Families remov'd thither Stafiot! 
from New England, and fome of our other Plantations in the Weft-Indies ; and ano- 
ther towards the middle of the Countrey, at Charles-Town, or Ajhley-^iyer , a Settle- 
ment fo hopeful, for the healthinefs of the Land, and convenience of accefs by a 
large deep Navigable River, and fo promifing in its very Infancy, that many of 
the rich Inhabitants of 'Barbados and Bermudas, who are now crowded up in thofe 
flourifliing Iflands, and many in our other American Plantations, are turning their 
Eyes and Thoughts this way, and have already removed part of their Stock and 
Servants thither. Nor is it to be doubted, but that many, following the Example 
of thofe who went to Albemarle, will be drawn to this better Plantation at AJhley* 
(^Ver,£tom JS^ew^England, where the heat of their Zeal, and the coldnefs of the Air, 
doth not agree with every Man's Conftitution ; and therefore it is to be thought^ 
that many well temper'd Men, who are not much at eafe under fuch Extreams, will 
be forward to remove hither. 

The Lords»Proprietors, for the comfortable fubfiftence, and future enrichment Fair Trrm. 
of all thofe who fliall this Year 1671. Tranfport themfelves and Servants thither, w3LS 
allow every Man a hundred Acres p^r Head, for himfelf, his Wife, Children and Ser!™"-' 
Servants, he carries thither, to him and his Heirs for ever, paying onely one Peny 
an Acre, as a Chicf-Rent j which Peny an Acre is not to be paid thefe nineteen yearsj 
and thofe Servants who go along thither with their Mafters, iliall each alfo have 
a hundred Acres upon the fame Terms, when he is out of his Time. But though 
thefe Conditions arc very advantageous, and the Countrey promifes to the Planter 
Health, Plenty and Riches at a cheap Rate, yet there is one thing that makes this 
Plantation more valuable than all thefe^ and that is the fecure polfe/Tion of ail thefe 

' . ■ - ihinss,: 


The Model 

drawn up by 

2ia ^ME'KICA Chap. 11. 

things with as great certainty as the ftate of humane Affairs, and the tranfient thing's of this Life are 
capable of, in a well continu'd Form of Government, wherein it is made every Man's fntereft to pre- 
ferve the Rights of his Neighbor with his own 5 and thofe who have the greateft Power, have it limi- 
ted to the Service of the Countrey, the Good and Welfare whereof whileft they preferve and pro= 
motCj they cannot mifs of their own, the Lords Proprietors having no other aim, than to be the 
greatefl- Men in a Countrey where every one may be happy if it be not his own fault, it being ajraoft 
as uncomfortable, and much more unfafe, to be Lord over, than Companion of a miferabJe, un- 
happy, and difcontented Society of Men. 

With this Defign the Lords-Proprietors, who are at great Charge for carrying on this Plantation 
have put the framing of a Government into the Hands of one, whofe Parts and Experience in AfTairs 
of State are univerfally agreed on, and who is by all Men allow'd to know what is convenient for the 
right ordering Men in Society, and fetling a Government upon fuch Foundations, as may be equal, 
fafejand lafting 5 and to this hath a Soul large enough to wifh well to Mankind,and to defire,that all 
the People where he hath to do might be happy. My Lord AJhl(ji thereforejby the confent of his Bre- 
thren, the reft of the Lords Proprietors, hath drawn up, to their general fatisfaftion, fome funda- 
mental Conftitutions, which are fince, by their joynt approbation, confirm'd to be the Model and 
Form of Government in the Province of C4r(?/;»<? 5 the main Defign and Ballance thereof (accord- 
ing to the beft of my memory, having had a Copy thereof^ in Ihort is as followeth : 

i.T^Very County is to confift of forty fquarc Plots, each containing twelve thoufand Acres. Of 

th LoviA/h- C-J thefefquare Plots each of the Proprietors is to have one, which is to be call'd a Signiory, 

/^ forth- Eight more of thefe fquare Plots are to be divided amongft the three NobJe-inen of that County, z^/s. 

Government g Laftdgrave, who is to have four of them , and two Cajiques^ who are to have each of them two 

of CMohna. g p- ^^g ^ ^^^ J j^g^g fquare Plots belonging to the Nobility,'are to be call'd Baronies. The other twenty 

four fquare Plots^ call'd Colomes^ are to be the PofFeliion of the People ; And this Method is to be ob- 

ferv'd m the Planting and Setting out of the whole Countrey s fo that one Fifth of the Land is to be 

in the Proprietors, one Fifth in the Nobility, and three Fifths in the People, 

2. The 6'/^«tfr/e/ and ^i?r<?wej, that is, the hereditary Lands belonging to the Proprietors and Nobi- 
lity, are all entirely to defcend to their Heirs, with the Dignity, without power of alienation, more 
thanforthrceLiveSjOroneand twenty years, or two Thirds of their Ky/^wwzVx and Baronies^ andthe 
reft to be Demefne. 

9. There will be alfo fome Mannors in the Colonies, but none lefs than three thoufand Acres Id a 
Piece, whichjlike the reft of the Colony Lands, will be alienable, onely with this difTerence, that it 
cannot be parcell'd out, but if fold., it muft be altogether. 

4. There is to be a Biennial ParliaEaent, confifting of the eight Proprietors, the Landgraves and 
Cafiques^ and one out of every Prccinft, that is the fix neighboring Colonies, for the People, 
chofen by the Freeholders :j thefe are to fit and Vote a kogether for the making of Laws, which fhall 
be in force no longer than fix^y years after their Enadl-inc:, the great mifchief of moft Governments, 
by which not onely the Peopls are mightily entangled by multiplicity of Rules and Penalties, and 
thereby laid open to the Malice and Defigns of troublefom Men and cunning Projedors 5 but, which 
is far worfe, the whole frame of the Government in trad of time comes to be remov'd from its origi- 
nal Foundation, and thereby becomes more weak and tottering. 

5. There are eight fupream Courts for the difpatch of all publick Affairs 5 the firfl confifts of the 
Palatine^ who is the eldeft of the Proprietors, and hath power to call Parliaments, and difpofe of 
publick Offices. The other feven fupream Courts are, 1, The chief Juftices for the determining of 
Controveiiies oi M£ur4 and !«««;, and judging of Criminal, s. The Chancellors, for pafling of Char- 
ters, and managing the State Matters of the Province. 5. The High-Conftables, for Military Affairs. 
4. The Admirals^ for Maritime Affairs. 5. The High-Stewards,forTrade. 6.TheTreafurers, for the 
publick Stocky and 7.TheChambcrlainsjforCerenaornes,Fafhions,Marriages, Burials, ^r. Thefe 
are the feven fupream Courts, to whom lies the ultimate Appeal in all Caufcs belonging to them. 
Each of thefe Courts confifts of one Proprietor, and fix other Councellors, whereof two are chofen 
by the Nobility^ and two by the People. All the number of thefe eight Courts joyn'd together make 
the Grand Council, which are in the nature of a Council of State, and are entrufted with the ma- 
nagement of Affairs of greateftcoricernment. There is alio in every County a Couit, andinevery 
Precinft another ^ from the Precinft Court there lies an Appeal to the County Court, and from the 
County Court to the Proprietors Court, to which the Maitter in queftion belongs, and there is the 
laftdecifion and determination thereof, without any farther Appeal. Andto keep the Peoplefrom 
the Charges and vexation of long Suits, to the enriching of Men cunning in Words, care is taken, 
that no Caufe ftiall be Try'd more than once in anyone Court, and that profefs'd Pleaders for 
Money fhall not be allow'd. 

Liberty <?/ Co»/ir;f»fe is here alfo allow'd in the greateft latitude, butyetfo, that neither Atheifts, 
or Men of iio Religion, are permitted 5 Atheifm, Irreligion, and vicious Lives being condemn 'd, 
as difagreeable to humane Nature, inconfiftent with Government and Societies, and deftruftive to all 
thatisufeful to, or becoming of Mankind ^ as on the other hand, rigorous Impofing of, and hot 
Contentions about the Ceremonies and Circumftances of Religion, is an occafion of perpetual Strife, 
Faction and Divilion, keeps Men from fedate and temperate Enquiries after Truth, eats out the great 
, Cement of humane Converfation, Charity^ and cannot be found in any one, who hath but modefty 
enough to think himfelf lefs than a r<?/je,and ihort o( Infalhhjlity, 

There is alfo to be a Regifter of all Grants and Conveyances of Land, to prevent eVen the occafi- 
ons of Controverfies and Law-Suits. 

There are feveral other lefs confiderable Particulars in this Government, all contriv'd and de- 
fign'd for the good and welfare of the People 5 all which are fo well put together, and in fuch equal 
proportion ballance each other, that fome judicious Men who have feen it,fay, it is the beft and faireft 
Frame, for the well-being of thofe who fhall live under it, of any they have feen or read of. 




vwS ^-> 

K II- 

■"A\. , 


■'-ersffiascjas^.. ....:;;..;»;rMciai- 




iituiiticn and 

Bonces Expe- 

Water to 
make old 
People look 



pediuon to 






. a 






^ • a I t-^^mfty- *TB . 




Ihap. III. 

^ M E X.! C A. 



/ , ■ 


SOiith-Weft of VtrginiaMtth, the fpacious Countrey of Florida, remarkable hi* 
therto rather by the great pains which the Spaniards have taken, and the ill 
SuccefTes they have met with in the difcovery and fearch of this Province 
han by any thing elfe they have difcover'd in it anfwerable to their dclires. On the 
Laft it hath the Atlantick Ocean, or Mare del ]\[prdt j on the South, and South- Weft 
he Gulph o( Mexico and Mare Virginium ; and full Weft, part of New Gallicia and 
bme other Countreys, not yet perfe(5tly known. 

This Countrey isalfo one of thofe, faid to have been firft of all difcover'd by 
lir Sehafiian Cahot, at the Charges of the King o( England , about the Year 1497. but 
fterwards more throughly fearch'd into by John Tonce de Leon, a Spaniard, who in 
he Year 1512. fet Sail with three Ships out of the Haven St. German in ^orto ^Sjco 
"}orth= Weft to the Ifles D^/ r^io, Caycos, Yaguna, Amaguyao, Manegua, and Guanahaniy 
itft difcover'd by Qhrijlopher Colonus,a.nd call'd St, Salvador : After that Steer'd North- 
JC^eftby a Coaftj which (becaufe of itspleafantprofped) was call'd Florida^ or fae- 
;ording to \.\y^ more common Opinion) becaufe it was on falm^Sunday, which the 
\paniards call fafcha. de Flores, or Tafcha Florida) that he Landed here : And to 
Ind out a Haven he kept fight of the Shore^ which appeared South-Weft from 
lim. Here the Ships met with fo ftrong a Tide, that notwithftanding they had a 
irefli Gale of Wind, yet could they not ftem it ; one of the Ships was driven to Sea 
)Ut of fight ; the other two cafting Anchor, which raking, drovetoward the Shore . 
vhither, being beckned by the Indians, they immediately went ^ when no fooner 
le Landed, but they ran in great Companies to make themielves Mafters of the 
/"eflels, kill'd one Spa}iiard,2nd wounded two more : the Night approachino-put an 
nd to the Fight. From hence Sailing to the River La Crmx for Wood and Water, 
hey were reliftcd by fixty Natives, which they put to flight with their Guns and 
ook one Prifoner ; after which they erefted a Stone Crofs, The Promontory, by 
vhich glides the ftrong Current, lies in twenty Degrees North-Laticude, and call'd 
:ahde(jrrientes, as the Row of Ifles, before the Main Land Lox Mir(>m, becaufe 
he Cliffs at a diftance appear like Men ftanding on Poles. Laftly, after fome fmall 
Encounters with the Floridansj "Powc^ returned home, beinor onely inform'd falfly by 
he Indians, that in Florida was a River, and on the Ifle Bimi?ii a Fountain whofe 
Jf^aters^made old People young. 

But after this F/oriJ^ remained not unvifited ; for eight years after the foremen- 
ion d Voyage, Lucas Fafque^de Aylom weighed Anchor with two Ships from Hij'pa-^ 
liola, to fetch Slaves from the adjacent Ides for the Gold-Mines, which Labor the 
^latives were not able to perform : therefore fteering his Courfe Northwardly, he 
lail'd along the Coaft of Chicoa and Gmldape, by them call'd Caho de St. Helena, and 
iio Jordan, where the Natives look'd upon the Ships as Sea^Monfters, and feeing 
bearded Men in them, ftcd : the Spaniards purfuing them, overtook one Man and a 
Womm ; who being well Entertained, and Clad in Spanijl? Habits, made the Stran« 
;ers fo acceptable to their Coiintrey-men, that their King fent fifty Men Aboard of 
hem with Provifions, and to invite the Sea-men to his Doininions. the King fat 

, _ ^^ - , - with 

Situation and 

Bonce's Expe^ 

Water to 
make old 
People look 

Vdfquex^s E s- 
f edition to 



^ M E %l C A, 

Chap. Ill 

Habit of a 

Treachery of 

Indians mif- 

Vafquez de- 
feated by the 

Ziiirvatz bis 

with a great Cloth about him, made faft on his Shoulders, covering hi<? BcHy, 
Bread and Back with the Lappet thereof, and being long, was held wp by one of 
his Servants j over one of his Shoulders hung a String of Pearl that came three 
times about, and reached down to his Thighs ; on his Head he wore a Cap full of 
Ribbondsj his Arms and Legs were alfofurrounded with a double Chain of Pearl j 
in his right Hand he held a very rich Staff : But the Queen went almoft naked, 
onely a piece of a wild Beafts Skin hung down before her from her left Shoulder 
to her mid-Leg, and a double String of Pearl about her Neck hung down between 
her Breads, and her Hair Comb'd behind reach'd down to the Calves of her Legs ; 
about her Wrifts and Ancles hung alfo Strings of Pearl. 

On the King's Command, the Spaniards were permitted to make infpe(5tion into 
the Countrey, in which they were every where courteoufly Entertain'd, and not 
without Gold and Silver Prefents. Returning Aboard, J^af^^ne ;^'m\ the Indians 
to go with him, under pretence of returning them thanks for the Favours which 
they had beftowed upon him ; but no fooner had he gotten a confiderable number 
in his Ships, but he fet Sail, and lofing one Ship, arrivM with the other fafe at 
Hifpaniola wkh 2. hvj Indians J for moft of them with grief and hunger died at Sea, 
and thofe that remain'd alive, liv'd on dead Carrion. 

Some few years after, Vafque:^ receiving Letters Patent from the Coutt of Spain 
for the Government of Florida, fitted out a Ship thither in 1620. which brought a 
good Return of Gold, Silver, and Pearls ; whereupon he himfelf went not long af- 
ter, and coming into the K'iyqt Jordan y loft one of his Ships, which prov'd not the 
word Accident j for Landing two hundred Men, they were all of them cither flain 
or wounded by the Inhabitants j fo that yafqHe;<^ was forc'd to found a Retreat : 
And after that the Spaniards were Icfs willingly drawn to that Coaft, and the rather, 
becaufe the Inhabitants feem'd poor, and had little Gold but what they procur'd 
from the Otapales and Olugatono' s , fixty Leagues Northward up in the Countrey. 

Notwithdandingthefe unfuccefsful Expeditions, Tamphilii^ X^arvae:^ retain'd fo 
much Courage, that obtaining Letters Patents from the Emperor Charles the Fifth, 




Chap. HI. A M E %^I C A. 

he ficted out four Sail and a Brigantine, weigh'd Anchor from Cuha, with fix hun- 
dred Men and eighty Horfe, in the Year 1528. On Hon^i^ he Landed' three hun- 
dred Foot and forty two Horfej they found many empty Huts, but in a great Houfe ^^ 
a golden Bell hid amongft the Nets, Chefls full of Merchandife, and in each a dead 
Body covered with BeaftSkins,and painted; Piecesof Linnen Cloth.and Wedges of 
Gold, which they had from the remote Countrey Jpalache. l^dryae:^^, though againft 
the Opinion of Nun?ie:^ Cabeca, march'd up into the Countrey, whilft the Fleet was 
to ftand along the Shore, and travelling fifteen days faw neither Houfe nor Man^^ 
onely here and there fome Ww/Vo-Trees ; Crofling a River on Floats, they were 
Encountred by two hundred of the Natives j of which the Spaniards, having routed 
them, took fix Prifonep; who furnifli'd them plentifully with Indian Wheat. Af- 
ter this they march'd fifteen days farther, without difcerning the leaft foot.ftep of a 
"Man ; but at laft they met an Indian Lord with a confiderable Train, before whom 
march'd feveral Pipers ; being told by NarVae^ that his Journey was foxjpalache, 
he conduced the Spaniards with a Canoo over a River, and Landing again, walk'd 
with them to his Village, where he Entertained them with great civility. TS^anae^ 
after a long and troublefom Journey, came at laft in fi^ht o£ Jpalache, a Village 
which contained two hundred and forty Straw Houfes, built between the Moun=» 
tains on a Moorifh Soyl, full of Nut, Pine, and Savine-Trees, Oaks, Laurel, and 
fhort falmito's, befides the Trees, which blown down in feveral places by a ftrong 
Wind from between the Hills, and lying crofs, cumber the High-ways : There are 
many deep Pools, and alfo Bears, Lyons, and other ravenous Creatures, which 
make the Ways very dangerous. ]>(anae^ falling fiiddcnly on the Village, took the 
Caftque Prifoner, as alfo ftore of Wheat, Mortars to pound it, Hides, and Thred- 
rpun Cloaks. Here he refted twenty five days, during which time fome of his 
Men Journey'd farther into the Countrey, yet found none but poor People, 
troublefom Ways, and an unfruitful Soyl ; twice they were fet upon by the Na- 
tives, who kiird fome of the Horfes and Men : They being a very ftrong People 
runftark naked, and as fwift as a Deer, Diving under Water from the Spaniards 
Bullets ; which not a little amazing NarVae^i, he thought it convenient to fet upon 
the Yilhge Jute, lying on the Shore : Nine days he was in a miferable condition He is iu^ 
before he got any Wheat, Peaf^or other Provifions from this Village . the getting S?/ ""' 
whereof coft him very dear, for the Villagers behav'd themfelves fo valiantly, 
that they killed many Spaniards, and fome of their Horfes, which fincc they left the 
Haven of St. Cruce had traveled two hundred and eighty Leagues 5 fo that being 
tir'd and out of heart, they could not carry the Sick and Wounded, who not able 
to go, fell down dead in the Way : whereupon it was judg d convenient to make 
five Barques, in which they made their Shirts fervefor Sails, the Horfes Tails and 
Mayns for Ropes, their Skins to hold frefli Water . with which putting out to Sea, 
they faw no Land in feven days ; and running through the Straights of 5^ Mi^uell, 
Steer'd along the Coaft of (2(/o del (palmes ; where they fuffer'd great Drought, info-, 
muchthatfomedrinkingfalt Water, died thereof: at laft Landing, they were itl 
the Night fet upon by a Cafique, who having given Isiaryae^ a great Wound in the 
Face,fled, leaving behind him a Sable Cloak, fcented with Amber ; three days the/ 
rang d again along the Sea-fhore, when the Barque of Kunne^ Cabeca being behind, 
was by Storm driven on the Shore, where a hundred M/dW5 waited to cut them olF, I''' 
but were pacifi'd with fome Trifles: Thus being bereav'd of Arms, Provifion, "' 
and all manner of NeceflTaries, they found themfelves on an Ifle, by the Inhabitants 
call'd Malhado, where they were lodgd and maintain'd fo long as they had f^J^^^^ 
anything left 5 but Famine grew at laft to fuch a heighth, that they devour^ 

Z.' ^" ' one 

great ewrS^ 


n3?nt at Ma!- 




Sottus\ Ex- 
[>eduijn veiy 

Strange deal- 
ing of the Co- 

A Maid Go- 
verns the 

Great Trea- 
fute of 

Great Tcm- 

Sottus'i fat' 
ther Journey 
very remark- 

The City 

A M E%^I C A Chap. III. 

one another, and in a fliort time of eighty Men there remain'd onely four alive, Vt^, 
lSlunne;^Caheca,CaJlii!oyOrantes^ zndEJleVankOj who at laft by Land reach'd to New 
Gallicia, and loon after to Mexico, having efcap'd a thoufand Dangers. Of Tam^hilus 
Nary ae:?:^ never ^^y tydings being heard, it is fuppos'd he wasdrown'd. 

After this miferablc Adventure, the Bufinefs of Florida lay dead for eleven years, 
till Ferdinandm Sottm, chofen Governor of Cuha^ obtained fo much of the Emperor 
Charles the Fifth, that he ventured one Expedition more for Florida : Bcfides Sea- 
men he carried five hundred Foot, and three hundred and fity Horfe j with which 
Landing in the Bay Del Efpirito Santo^hc march'd againft the CafiqueFi>^cttc^o,whom 
he took Prifoner, with a thoufand of the Natives, whom he either put to the 
Sword, or caus'd them to be torn in pieces by Dogs ; and ftaying all the Winter in 
Jpalachejfonifi'd that place, and furnifh'd himfelf with Provifions ; he was informed, 
that thirteen days Journey from thence lay the Kingdom o£ Cofachiquij abounding 
with Gold, Silver, and Pearls, which made every one of the Spaniards very defi- 
rous to go thither, notwithftanding the Way was very dangerous j for the vali- 
ant Florida?Js \yin^ in Ambufcade in the Corn*Fields, wounded and kill'd many of 
them by Shooting from thence. Sottm, fo foon as March approached, fet forward on 
his Way. In the poor Province of Achalaqui he found a few young People, and the 
old moft of them blind. From Cofachiqui he was foUow'd by four thoufand Natives, 
who carried the Spaniards Luggage, and ferv'd them as Guides through Woods 
and WildernefTes. The feventh day they ftopp'd at a great River, whither Sottus 
fent four Companies to feek out a Paflage over, whereof three return'd without 
any effect, but the fourth, Commanded by Captain Jnnajioj and a Colonel of a 
thoufand Cofachiquians ^c^rne to a Village built along the Riverain which they made a 
a miferable Rout, killing all they lighted on, and hanging the Sculls of the Dead by 
their fides : this done, they march'd back. Sottiu at laft efpying a Village on the 
other fide of the River, beckned to the Natives to come over to him; whereupon 
a^ came immediately ; whounderftanding that hedefir'd their friendly Afliftancc 
and Trade, promised to acquaint their Governefs, being a young Maiden : who 
foon after came over to Sottus, and prefented him with a String of Pearl : he com* 
plain'd to her for Provifions, v^hich fhe promised in part to ftore him with. Cro(^ 
fing the River he found a brave Countrey, where were Pearls as big as gray Peafe, 
Copper of a golden colour, but no Gold. Out of the Tombs of their Princes the 
Spanijh Officers, with the leave of the fore^^mention^d Maid their Governefs, got an 
incredible Treafure in Pearls. In the Village Tolomeco they did the like. But here 
their Provifions growing fcarcc, the Army was divided into two Bodies, 'Balthafar 
de Galleass \eadir\g one, and Sottus the other ; yet the Defign of them both was on 
the Province ofChalaque j whither marching, they were furpris'd byfuch a violent 
Storm, that few would have been left to relate their Adventures, had not the Trees 
bore it off from them ; for it notoncly Thundred and Lightned as if Heaven and 
Earth would have met, but alfo Hail-ftoncs fell down as big as Eggs, which beat 
down the Boughs of Trees. In the pleafant Valley Xualu, belonging to the King- 
dom o^ Cofachiqui, they refted fifteen days, and then march'd through Countreysof 
GuaxakyAcoftes, and Q>:<^^ where above a thoufand Indians, adorn'd with Plumes of 
Feathers and rich Furr Cloaks, came to meet and welcom them, and to defirc them 
from the Qajique to ftay there all the Winter -but Sottus refblving to go to the Haven 
Jchujt, refus'd the fame. After this he view'd Taltjfe, fortifi'd with woodden and 
earthen Bulwarks j where the Cafique Tafcalufa, a Man as big again as an ordinary 
Spaniard, received Sottus with great civility, and conduced him to Mayilla, lying in 
a pleafant place. The City, furroundcd with double Pallifado's, fill'd up with 


^**^*^^"'"^'^'— " 


Chap. III. A M E'RI C A. x!7 

Earth between, (wLeie alio at eighey Paces diflant from one another, flands a 
Tower to contain eighty Soldiers) hath two Gates, eighty Houfcs, in every one of 
which dwell a thoufand Men, and a large Market-place in the middle- where 
whilil the Spaniards were in the midft of their Mirth, they on a fodden'heard a 
greatcryof Arms ; the firft Aflault was made by feven thoufand, whidh Hill in- 
creafed by frefh Supplies . but the Spaniards at laR- fetting the City on fire, broke Cxud Fi.h... 
through them, and left above eleven thoufand flain, either by the Smoak and 
Flame, or by their Bullets, Swords, Horfes Heels and Dogs j the Spaniards alfo loft ■ 
eighty three Men and forty three Horfes. Thence going to Chicora they were ftopc 
by the Natives before a deep River with high Banks, which at laft croffing, not 
without great trouble and blood-fiiedding, they Wintered in the Village cLora, 
where the Inhabitants let them reil very quietly for two Moneths ^ at "the end of 
which, joyning together in the Night, they fhot Fire into the Strlw Roofs, and 
mainrain'd a Fight of two hours long, in which the Spaniards loll forty Men, fifty 
Horfes, and all their Hogs, which were burnt in the Houfes. From thence groin? to 
Chicacolla they were refilled in mofl places, and in the Fort Jlibamo EngagM %f four 
thouland Floridans, who waited for their coming j but thofe were fo (lirewdly hand- 
led, that half of them were llain, and Soffwf became Mailer of the Fort, as alfo of 
Chifca, which he Storm'd and took unawares. With no lefs trouble and danger did 
he get over the River £/GrW^, where hedifcover'd a Village that contained" above 
four hundred Houfes,and many delightful Fruit»Trees. TheCafique Cafquin,m&'m- 
tain'd the Spamfi Army fix days in this place, and taking five thoufand of his Sub- 
jeds, raarchM with them to fyaha, which hath a deep and broad Moat on three 
fides thereof ; the fourth was fortified with fiirong Pallifado's, through which the 
Spaniards breaking, made way for Cafyuin, who put all to the Sword, the Governor 
onely efcaping in a Camo to a neighboring Ifle. The Entrance being thus taken by 
the Spaniards, Cafquin returned home. After which Sottm concluded a Peace with 
Capahaes the Governor, and took up his Quarters in the Village Fitan^ue, where he 
receiv'd continual Sallies, but taking fifteen 0/?^«e5 Prifoners, threatned to barn 
them alive, unlefs they would procure them fome Gold • yet not being able to gee 
any,they had only their Hands cut off and were fent Away. Moreover,5om^ help'd 
the Guachacoyas, to ruine thofe ofMilco . which Defign proved fuccefsful, yet not ac^ 

cordmg to 5o^^/0'^ defire, for he found not the Gold.Mines which he cxpcded, buc - 
fpent m this five years Progrefs the great Treafure which he took out ofjtibaltbas 
Palace • and the Pearls which he got in Florida, for the Oyllers being ODen'd againft 
the Fire, and the Pearls drilled through with a hot Iron, loll much of their lullre, 
neither would his People confent to build a City in the Haven Jchufu- In the midft s.:usii^ 
of thefe Tranfadions Sottus died of the Bloody.flux, and his Body was Interred in 
the River El Grande, After which his SuccelTor Ludovicus de Aharadoha^d worfe fuc- 
cefs, for half of the Army being wafted by the exceffive heat, the reft refolv'd 
to dcCtn Florida, utterly defpairing to be ever able to refift the valiant Natives. In 
the Province of Juche they procured a Guide,whom,becaufe he mis4ed them in their 
Way, they caused to be torn in pieces by their Dogs : after which they marched 
Without a Guide through fuch bad Ways, that they loft a hundred of their Men and 
eighty Horfes, befides many Floridansth^t carried their Luggage : At laft coming 
to the River El Grande they conquered two Villages j which fortifying, they took 
up their Wmter Quarters in them. But this being the fourteenth year, in v^hich 
the River usM generally to overflow and drown all the adjacent Countreys on a 
iudden, to their great amazement, the Wood which they had gather'd for the build. 
mg ot Barques to carry them home, was waOVd away, their Provifions fpoii'd, 

- , ' ^ i . ■ a _ . and ^ 


A M E "R^I C J. 

Chap. Ill, 


Expedition of 
jthumadu and 

The Expedi- 
tion of Mt- 

Voyage of; 
K.ihati and 

The Expedi- 
tion of Dsmi- 
nicus Gttr- 

Valiant Ex- 
ploit of Gur- 

City AagH- 









of the r/eri 

and cheir Habitations drcwn'd : and to this Inconvenience was added another yet 
areater. for the Governors round about raisM all the Forces they could pofTibly, 
m revenue themfelves on the S^anlanh for their great oppreiTion. But Jharado 
beina informM of this Defign by the Cafique Amlco, causM thirty of the Abet- 
tors of the Plot to have their Hands cut off. Not long after this the Spaniards fee 
Sail when a thoufand Cairns that came to Engage them lay fixteen days amongft 
them, killing and wounding feveral of the Seamen, and funk a Barque with forty 
eight Men, a^nd alfo kiUM many Horfes which were yet on the Shore • the Prifoners 
they took were ftrappado'd to death, and the Horfes fhot : yet fome of them got 

fafe from ^anuco to Mexico. 

Thefe above-mention'd Expeditions to VlorUa, notwithftanding they fell out 
unfortunately, neverthelefsby the permifTion of ^^ the Second, King of Spam, 
feter Jhumada zndjuli^ Samano, with five Vominkan Monks, made another Attempt, 
and Landed with feveral great Croffes, that thereby they might reduce the Bori^ 
dans, whofe Language they undefftood not, to their Faith : But they fearmg trea. 
chery, refifted them, and kiU'd the Monks with Clubs, fla/d them, and hung their 

Skins in their Temples. i c •/? 

Notwithftanding thefe and many worfe Accidents thathapned, yet the Spamlh 
King ventur'd once more, ^nd Cent Teter Uenende:^ to Florida ^^ whither he was fol- 
io w'd by three Jefuits from (I(oine, viz. ^eter Marttnim, Joan %^r, and Francis Vtllare- 
nm : The Mafter of the Ship in which they went being ignorant where he was, 
luda'd it convenient to Land ; whereupon nine Xietherlanders and four Spaniards, 
amongft which w^sMartmius, went afhore on Florida, whilft a Storm arihng drove 
the Ship to Cuba • by which means thofe that were Landed were left in a miferable 
condition, having no Food but wild Herbs, on which they fed twelve days : fo that 
this Expedition alfo came to nothing. 

At laft the French following the foot=fteps of the Spaniards, John %jhald and (^ene 
Laudomcre having Sailed feveral times to Florida, difcover'd feveral Coafts 5 but their 
Men were often fet upon by the Spamards,^nd cut off. 

Jnnoi'^67. Dommic«5G«r^i«5fetSail thither with three Ships, which carried two 
hundred Soldiers and eighty S«a^men ; with which entring the River Tacatncouru he 
Landed, and found a Youth call'd Teter du S/t, who efcap d when the Spaniards cru- 
elly maffacred the French in the Garrifon Q-rolina ; after which du ^re ranging up 
and down, at laft ferv'd Saturiona, Governor o^ Florida • whomdeferting, and now 
meeting with the French his, he brought feveral Cafiques to joyn with 
them againft the Spaniards, whom they drove out of three Forts, which were all by 
the Command of Gurgms difmanteled. 

Florida is caird by the Natives, Ir^uafa. The Spaniards have built two Forts on 
the fame, the one ere^ed on the Promontory Helena, is Confecrated to the Apoltle 
Matthei.. The City and the Fort Anguftine lies near the River x\%. Both City and 
Fort ftand on a Hill, which is pleafant and well fet with Trees. Between the Fore^ 
land is a deep and wide Channel,which waflies the City ..nd Fort • it is eight-fquare, 
at each corner there ftands a round Tower, in which the Soldiers keep Guard 5 the 
Countrey is waterM by two Rivers, which gliding between the Mam and the i^or.- 
land are great Safeguards to the Fort. The City is almoft fquare, onely againlt the 
Fort it is much clofer built than in any other place, and divided into four Streets. 
The Church ftands without of the City, and before it the Augnpne Cloyfter. 

The Inhabitants of Florida are an Olive colour, tall, and without any dclor- 
mity. their Skins generally painted, and their Bodies naked, onely a Deer's Skin 
about their middle, their Hair long and black, hanging down to their Hams, bm 



Z: r'^' 





'-ss ^^*^^^i' 



Their firange 



Their Tboi 
in time of 
■ Wat. 

L, • 

t Their Priefis 
are Sorcerers, 

Strange afti- 


! I 


Chap» III. 






moft of them tie it in a Knot on the top of their Heads ; two fmall Boards co- 
ver their Breafts, and fix lefTer hang on their Arms, two Bells at each Ear, and a 
Cap on their Head, with a Feather : Their Quivers, which are always full of Ar- 
rows, fliarpned with Filli Bones, hang by their Sides ; In their left-Hand they hold 
a great Bowe, with which they go to War;, the King walking before with a Club. 
They Confult daily about warlike Affairs in the King's Palace, where he himfelf 
fits on a high Seat j the Grandees falute him firft with their Hands lifted over their 
Head, crying Ha, He^ Ya, at which the reft cry Ha, Ha j then every one fits down 
on a Stool round about the Room. If they have any Bufinefs of Confequence to 
debate, then the King fends for the ancienteft Perfons and Priefts, call'd Ja-npas • 
this done, they give a Cup oi QaJ^'me (which is a hot Drink made of Herbs) to the 
King 5 after which every one drinks in order out of the fame Cup. This Liquor 
occafions Sweat, quenches Thirft,and fatisfies the Appetite for twenty four hours. 
When they March againft their Enemies they live on Indian Wheat , Honey, 
fmoak'd Fifli, and divers forts of wild Roots, araongft which they mix Sand, and 
Cinders, to preferve them the longer. No fooner are the two Armies come within 
fight one of another, but the Kings of both Parties roll their Eyes about in their 
Heads, mutter fomething to themfelves, and makeftrange Geftures and Exclamati- 
ons ; which is anfwer*d by a general Cry of the whole Army : then each King turn- 
ing himfelf with great Reverence to the Sun, takes a woodden Platter with Water, 
which he throws over his Army fo far as he is able, and begs of the Sun to grant 
him, that he may fpill his Enemies Blood in like manner ; then throws another 
Difh=full into the Fire, wifliingthat his Soldiers may thus Offer the Bodies of their 
Foes to the Flames j then ftep forth the Priefts, who are always skilled in the Art 
of Necromancy, and feating themfelves on a Shield in the midft of the Army, 
draw a Circle, in which they make many ftrange Geftures, not without mutterincr 
to themfelves, and feemingly fay a Prayer of a quarter of an hour long ; during 
which they deport themfelves fo ftrangely, that they rather feem to be Devils them- 
felves^ than Charmers of the Devil : .They turn their Eyes quite rotind, and their 


Their flrange 



Their Food 
in time of 

Their Friefls 
are Sorcerers, 

Strange ani- 


Cruelty on 
tne conquEr a 

for the Dead, 

lUriians dif- 
fer amongft 


Their manner 
of taking 

'Aialfo their 
peer. , 

AMERICA. Chap, in. 

Bodies as if without Joynts j at length being wearied they leap out of the Circle, 
and inform the King of the nunciber and condition of the Enemies Army. Thofe 
whom they take Prifoners they flay alive, and drying their Skins at the Fire,tie them 
to long Poles, and carry them home as Trophies of their Victory, and afterwards 
fee them up in fome Field or fpacious place^, putting both Men and Women to 
watch them • then comes the Prieft with a woodden Image, and utters Execrations 
againfl the flain Enemies j at a corner of the Fields kneel three Men, one of which 
ftriking with great force on a Stone, gives as many Blows as the Prieft pronounces 
Curfes, whilft the other two fliake their Calabajhs fillM with Stones,and Sing many 
ftrange Songs : No fooner is this ended, but the Women whofe Husbands are flain 
in the Battel, walking to the King, cover their Faces with their Hands, make many 
ftrange Geftures^and deflre liberty to take what revenge they can,and licence alfo to 
Marry at the limited time ; all w^hich the King permitting, they return thus com- 
forted home crying. Not long after they go to the place where their Husbands lie 
buried, where they crop their Hair up to their Ears, and throw it on the Grave, as 
alfo the Arms and Drinking-Cups which the Deceafed us'd in their lifetime ; after 
which they may not Marry before their Hair be grown again to their Shoulders. 
The fame Cuftomis alfo obferv'd when their King is buried • but then alfo all his 
Subjeds Faft and Howl three days together, fl:ick his Grave full of Arrows, and 
burn his Houfs and all his Goods. 

The F/oriid«y differ amongft themfelves very much, for thofe that inhabit the 
Province ^anuca^ which borders upon "Rew Spain^ arc valiant and cruel People, 
Offering^their Prifoners to their Idols,and eating them. The Men pluck up the Hair 
of their Beards by the Root, make holes through their Nofc and Ears, and Marry 
not till their fortieth Year. i 

Next to thefe follow the Realms of A^w^m and Jlbardaofia^mhohitcd by a Peo- 
ple, which exceed all others in fubtilty. 

The Natives oijacim^^ta run fafter than a Deer, and tire not though they travel 
a whole day. 

The beft Swimmers are found in Alpachia^ Juthia, and Someria, where the Wo-^ 
men Swim through deep and great Rivers with their Children in their Arms. Here 
alfo are many Hermophrodites, which carry all the Luggage when an Army is 
upon a March. ' 

We find mention'd alfo two other Provinces of note, "vi;^. Cola^ (which lies near 
the Point call'd Cape Florida) and Tegifia^ or Florida properly fo call'd, being that long 
feninfula, which pointing upon the Ifle Cuba, by the Cape Los Martyres, ftretcheth it 
fclf North and South about a hundred Leagues in length, but not above thirty in 
breadth where it is largefl:. In this Province is the %io de lo SpiritoSanto. The Soyl,- 
though it produces I?2^id« Wheat twice a year, yet it is never Dung'd, but when 
the Corn (which is planted mliarch znd 'June) is in, they burn the Weeds ; the 
Aflbes of which ferves them in Head of Soil. The King divides the Corn accor* 
ding to every Mans Family. In the Winter they dwell four Moneths in the 
Woods, where they build fmallHurs of Palm-boughs, feed on Venifon, fmoak'd 
Fifli, and Crocodiles, which have pure white Flefli, and are caught after this man- 
ner: On the Shore of the Rivers they h'^M little Houfes full of round Holes, in 
which they place a Watch, who is to v; ■ notice to ten or twelve Aflociates, co- 
vered all over with Boughs full of little ihacp Prickles, which they thruft into the 
Crocodiles Throat, who with open Mouth comes running at them, and fo throw'- 
in? him on his Back, flick his Bell^ fiil' of Arrows, and kill him with Clubs. But 
with more fubtilty and art they take their Deerj yi^. They hide therafelves under 



tkriiatis I 
though Jibi" 
dinous, yet 
live long. 

Chap. III. A M E R 1 C A 

a Stags Skin, Co cunningly/ chat it feems as if living, which they place near the 
Rivers where the Deer generally come to drink, when on a fudden they fiioot 

Their Priefts ferve in ftead of Chirurgeons, wherefore they always carry a 
Bag full of Herbs about with them;, which are chiefly good againft venereal Di- 
ftempers -, for thefe People are exceeding libidinous ; nay. Sodomy and defiling of 
young Children is accounted no fin : Yet though they are much inclined to Wo- 
men, they attain to a great Age. 

^ne Laudo?tiere Landing not far from the City Jugujline, fituate on the Banks of 
the River May, met with the Floridan Govevnor Saturionaj who condu<5i:ed him to the 
Fre?ich King's Court of Arms, erei^ed two years before, which Saturiona, as a tefti- 
mony of his zeal to the French, had CrownM with Laurel and Flowers. Saturionn 
had with him alfo his Son Morem, who had begotten divers Children on his Mo- 
ther J whom his Father after that time no more acknowledging, refignM her up 
wholly to him : At which time alfo his great Grandfather being then living, wa$ 
above a hundred and fifty years old^ and faw his Childrens Children to the fifth 

The Religion in Florida, is abominable, wicked, and cruel : When they return Their homc^ 
Conquerors from a Battel, the old Women take off the dry'd Hair from the ''^'**"' ^ 
Fore-mention'd Poles, hold it aloft, and thank the Sun for their Victory. But the 
Offerings of their firfl-born Sons are terrible, for they knock out their Brains with 
I Club in the prefence of the King. Their annual worfliipping of the Sun is alfo 
irery ridiculous j for filling the Skin of a Stag full of fweet*fmelling Herbs, they 
bang the Horns and Neck with Garlands, and carry it with the noife of their kind 
3f Vocal and Inftrumental Mufick, to a high Trunk or hollow Body of a Tree, on 
which they place the flufPd Stag, with his Head towards tlie Sun ; which done, they 
Falling down, defire that he would pleafe to afford them plenty of all fiich Fruit as 
[hey Offer to him ; after which taking their leave, they let the fore-mention'd Skin 
remain there till the following Year. 

ThtSj^anmds fince their Defeat in the Fort Carolina, and their Engagement with 
Sir Francis Drahy Jnno 1585. have had little difturbanceon Florida. 

Drake having burnt and plundered Domingo 2LadCarthagenaj fteer'd along the Coafl Drake's exs 
oC Florida, and difcover'd a Beacon on the fame * whereupon he fent out Spies, who «w«,° 
faird a League up a River, on whofe Banks they faw a Fort, and fomewhat higher 
the Town Augufline, built full of woodden Houfes ; all which being related to 
him, he fteer'd thicher, fir'd his Guns twice againfl the Fort St, John ; which the 
Spaniards anfwering onely with one Volley, fled, with their Commander feUr Me^ 
unde^ J when the Englijh prepared to Storm, a Prifoner, being a Fre«c/>-man, came in 
1 Boat from them to Drake, and informed him that the Spaniards had left the City 
dugufiine and Fort St, John 5 to which Drake going, found there Pallifado's of pleited 
Boughs, cover'd with Earth, and a Cheft with two thoufand Pound, for the pay- 
ment of the Soldiers, and fourteen Brafs Guns, with which he fet Sail from thence. 

The Mountains of this Countrey are onely the Jpalatei, fuppos'd by the Na* 
tives to have rich Mines of Gold in them, and which the Spaniards faw, but had 
not time, nor other accommodation to flay and fearch them, by reafon they were 
fo much wearied and wafted with a long March before they gat thither, and found 
:he People fo ftout and obftinate thereabouts, that in ftead of entertaining them 
with their Hens and Fowl, as other places had done, they were welcom'd with 
Slows, and made to return, leaving not a few of their beft Soldiers behind. 

Rivers there are many, and thofe very large and commodious, as i, <^oSicco, 



AMERICA, Chap, ill 

or TJhDo ^Ver, fo call'dby the Spaniards (as feme think) becaufe they could fine 
no Gold in it. i.^B^o Grande, ot The Great ^tVer* 7,. Ligeris, 4. Garunna. 5. Sequam 
Crc, Thefe laft, fo nam'd by the French^ who, after the Spaniards, for Tome tinne had 
but never held any long poffeflion of the Countrey. There are alfo (^0 de Bores 
^odeNieyes, a,nd (^jo de Spirtto Santo, leffer Streams, yet all of them, with the reft 
falling at feveral places into the great Lake of Me:cico j and fome of them not a littli 
haunted by the Caymans ox Wefi-lndtan Crocodiles, a Creature, as hath been faid be 
fore, dangerous both at Sea and Land. 

The Natives, who as yet hold Poffefllon and Command of it for the moft part 
are themfelves generally forted into certain Tribes or great Families j all which an 
Govern'd feverally by Chiefs of their own, whom they call faracoufi, and by rea 
fon thereof are almoft continually in Feud and War one with another. 

TheTowns and Places moft known in this Province, are 1. St. Helen Sy^es^tcd 01 
or near unto a Promontory of the fame Name, where this Countrey bordereth or 
Virginia, 2. Fort Charles, or Arx Carolina, built and fo nam'd by the French King, bu; 
afterwards ruin'd by the Spaniards. 3. fort (I{pyal, a well frequented Haven, at thi 
Mouth of a River which beareth the fame Name. More within Land there is 
I. Apalache, an old Town of the Natives, formerly a Place of great rcfort, but novi 
a poor thing of about forty or fifty Cottages j and yet as poor as it is, famphiliu 
^iarVae:^, as before related, when he fearch'd the Countrey, found the Native 
not willing to part with it : for though he took it from them, it was not without 
fome refiftance, and they quickly recovered it again : and at the 2. nam'd Jute, an 
other old Town of theirs, nine days March from the other, they overtook him, an( 
fellfo refolutely upon him, that he left not a few of his beft Soldiers dead upon tL 
place, and was content.himfelf to march quietly away with the reft. 3. Ochalis, j 
Town confifting of about five or fix hundred Sheds and Cottages likewife of thj 
Natives. 4. Vittacuche, a Burrough of two hundred Houfes. 

. There is alfo on the the Eaftern Shore of this (peninfula, St, Matthews, a Place pof 
fefs'd and well fortifi'd by the Spaniards ; and St, Auguflines on the fan. Shore, bu 
lying fomewhat more Southerly than the other, at the Mouth of a Liver of th 
fame Name, taken and fack'd by Sir Francis 'Drake in the Year 1585, 


s E c T. n. 

JUcatan is a feninfula, or halfJfland, being encompafsM with the Sea on all fides 
fave oncly to the South^Weft, where it is joyn'd to Guaxata, its farther an( 
more Eafterly Point looking towards Cuba. The knowledge of, when, an( 
by whom this Province was difcover'd, is included in that of N^k' Spain, of whicl 
fome will have it to be a part. The whole Province contains in compafs nine hun 
dredMiles or more, and lies between eighteen and twenty two Degrees of Nor 
them Latitude, or thereabouts, the Air fomewhat hot, and the Soil not altogethe 
fo fertile as fome other parts of Neu' Spain are j but in recompence thereof th 
People are fo much the more induftrious, living for the moft part by Handicraf 
Trades. Neither is it altogether unftor'd with Corn and divers forts of Fruits,bc 
Tides what it hath of Fowl and Beafts, as Geefe, Hens, Deer, <src, particularly! 
yieldeth plenty of Wax and Honey, by reafon of its frequent Swarms of Bee: 
They report fome fpecial things of this Province, as namely, tjiat the People of th 

Countrey us'd generally, and long before the Spaniards came thither, a certam O 






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3hap. III. 

^ M E%^I C A. 

•cmony of Religion, not much unlike to our Baptifm, and which they caird by 
I Name that in their Language fignifi'd %^m-^f/o>z, or ^SecomU^irtJ?. that they 
)brerv'd it Co diligently, that few or none amongft them omitted to initiate them- 
elves by it, believing, that thereby the Seeds and Ground- work of all Goodnefs 
vas laid in them, and that they were fortifi'd by it againft the aiTaults and tempta- 
ions of evil Spirits ; that after they were three or four years old, till they came to 
welve, they ufually thus Wafli'd and Baptiz'd themfelves ; and that none were 
,ermitted amongft them to Marry, that were not firft initiated after this manner ; 
hat they chofelikewife a folemn Day upon whic^htodo this ; and that theFriendl 
,nd Relations (efpecially the Father and Mother) of the Parties to be initiated, as 
veil as theParties themfelves, always Fafted three days before the faid Initiation ; 
,nd that a great many of the Natives had a Tradition, or general Report amongft 
hem, that of ancienttime this Province oCJucatan was poffefs'd and cultivated by 
, certain People which came thither from the Eaft, after a tedious long wander- 
ing, and many hardfliips endur'd at Sea, having efcap d the Hands of their Ene- 
nies onely through the power of the Deity they worfhipp'd j who help'd them, 
,nd made them to pafs fecurely, even through the Waves of the Sea. All which, if 
rue, feems not a little to confirm, the Report which goeth for currant in the Weljh 
Zhvomc\cs,o( one Madoc ap Oipen, the Son of Gwm/?, a Prince of that Countrey, 
vho is faid to have fall'n upon a far Countrey this way in his Travels ; which he 
ik'dfo well, that having fecur'd to his Companions their fafe abode there during 
lis abfence, he returned himfelf into Wales for more Men j and that he tranfported 
hither as many as he could carry in ten Barques full fraught.This he is faid to have 
lone about the Year of our Lord 1170. but neither he nor any of his Men were 
ver heard of fmce j and the fucccfs of the Expedition, it feems, little enquir'd after 
►y the fTe//^. However, the Relation feems not altogether incredible. 
;^he chiefTowns of the Province are, i. cMerida, in theNavel of the Countrey, 
nd the Seat of the Governor, twelve Leagues diftant from the Sea on either fide! 
,. Valladolidt, thirty Leagues diftant from Nerida, ^,Campede, a great Town, con- 
[fting of about three thoufand Houfes or more, when firft conquered by the Spani- 
rds ; who found fuch Monuments of Art and Induftry in it, as did clearly argue, 
hat the Place had been once poffefsM by fome People that were not barbarous. It 
> now call'd St, Francifco, and was furpriz'd in the Year 1596. by Captain Tarker^ 
n EngUJh-aiin, who took the Governor himfelf and fome other Perfons of Quality 
7kh him, together with a Ship richly laden with Gold and Silver, befides other 
Commodities of good value. 4. Tabafco, by the Spaniard now calFd rUla de Nueftra 
mnora de ViHoria, and commonly V'lHoria onely, in memory, as 'tis thought, of the 
rft great Vidory which Corte:^ obtained over thefe People at the Battel of Totonchan, 
s hath been faid. ^. Cintla, 6,fotonchan, 7. Salamanca. ' 

All along the Coaft of this Countrey there lie certain lOands, fome within the 
>ay or Gulph call'd Honduras, pertaining to the next Province, as 1. La Zar:^a. 
. La Vefconefcida. 3. Vermela, 4. Los Negrillos j and fome without it, ^si. Zaratan. 
. (Pantoia, 3. De Mugeres, or The IJland of Women • Co nam'd by the Sf^aniards, who at 
leir firft Difcovery of thefe Parts, for a long time together could meet with none 
ut Women. The chief of them is callM Jcufanul, commonly Co;^amul, and is fifteen 
,eagues in length, and about five in breadth, and was as it were the Thoro.wfare, 
c Common Road of the Spaniards, when they firft difcover^ the Countreys of 
let^ Spain : For firft here Landed Ferdinando de Corduha 5 after him John de Grtalva, 
id others; and laft of all the fortunate Cor^^;^. It is now call'd 5f. Cr^x. 




^I M E "KI C J. 

Chap. IV 

Its, {Situation 
and Bounds. 

Trees and 



C H A P. IV. 

Udtimala flretcheth to the IHlmiuSj or Neck of Land, which, as we faid, join 
eth the Northern and Southern parts of the New World together. 

This Coimtrey is bounded Northward with the Teninfula o^ Jucata 
abovefaid, and part of theGulph or Bay oi Honduras j on the South, with Mire d\ 
Zur ; on the Eaft and South-Ea{l,it hath Cajlella Jurea ; and oh the Weft, New Svai? 
The length of it lieth upon]the Coaft o^Mare del Zur, and is faid to be little lefs tha: 
three hundred Leagues j but the breadth not half fo much, and in fome places ver 
narrow. It is generally a fertile and good Countrey in all refpedts, but efpcciall 
abounding in Cattel and good Paftures j it is fubdivided into feven inferior Pre 
vinces or Countreys, which are i, Chiapa, z.Ferapa:^, -^.Honduras, j{»NicaragUi 
'y.Veragua, 6, Qofia^ca-^ and 7. Guatimala, fpecially fo call'd : all differing i 
Language and Cufloms one from another. 

The Biflioprick (as it is now call'd) of Qhiapa is bordered on the Weft with N^' 
Spain- on the Eaft with F^r^ "P^;^ ; and on the South with Mare del Zur. It is 
Countrey much fhaded with Woods, and thofe replenifh'd with many fair an 
goodly Trees, of divers forts, and of the largeft fize,as Oaks, Pines, Cedar, Myrti 
and Cyprefs^-Trees, befides others which yield them a good kind of Rozen, precioi 
Gums, Crc. alfofeveral forts of Balfom, as white, red, green, and black, not one) 
pleafant to the Scent, but an excellent Remedy for all manner of green Wounds 
the beft of it drops out of the cut Bodies of the Trees 5 and the worft is prefs'd 01 
of the Wood and Leaves. 

There are alfo proper to this Countrey feveral other kinds of Trees and Plant 
as that whofe Fruit taftes like Pepper and Cloves, being of a great heighth 5 
Tree whofe Leaves cure all ulcerated Sores, or the bitings of any poyfonoi 

There is a fort of Cabbage call'd llantas, which grows to the heighth of aTre 
fo that Birds make their Nefts in them j they are eaten likewife like other con 
mon Cabbages. 

There is alfo an Herb with narrow Leaves, which is no fooner touch'd, but 
fhrinks up to nothing j but at the going away of thofe which touch it, it obtaii 
its former vigour. 

Here are likewife Quails, Ducks, GtQ^Q^ Pheafants, Parrots, Turtle-Doves, P 
geons, and the like, in great abundance. 

Amongft the feveral forts of Falcons which breed in this Countrey, there is or 
fort which hath one Foot proper to its kind, the other like that of a Goofe^ it fee( 
on Fifli along the Rivers. 

The Bird Joto-Que^tall, which is fomewhat fmaller than a Pigeon, with gre( 
Feathers and a long Tail, is taken onely for its Tail, which when the Indiayis hv 
puird out, they let the Bird fly again, there being a Law amongft them, that wh( 
foever kills one of them, is to fuffer death. 

The Cranes here are of a dark Gray j the biggeft of them have a tuft of Fe 
thers like a Crown upon their Heads. 


I'R i « 

;hap. IV. 

^ M E %^l C A. 



The Birds Gmcamayts^ which ^rc red and blue, are like a Termn Goofe» 

Moreover, the Countrey yields brave Horfes, Goats, Sheep, Rabbets, and Foxes ; ^«»ft«' 
alfo wild Dogs, Leopards, Lyons, and Tygers. 

The wild Hogs which breed here have their Navels on their Backs, and have 
no Tails, they fmell exceeding ftrong, and feed together in great Companies. 

The Taquatrin, a certain Beaft proper to thofe Parts, hath a Bag under its Belly, 
in which it generally carries feven or more young ones, and hath alfo a bald Tail ; 
it creeps into Houfes in the Night to fteal Hens. ' 

Here is alfo a certain Beaft (whofe Name we find not) about the bignefs of a 
Rabbet, and like a Rat, and carries its young ones on its back whenfbe're it comes 

The Serpents, which are very numerous here, trouble the Inhabitants excee- 
dingly, efpecially near the Village Ecate^ecjue^ where there are fuch an abundance 
on two little Hills, that none dares approach them ; fome of them are very poy- 
fonouSjfor if touch'd with a Stick, the Poyfon runs up the fame : and whoever are 
anointed with the Blood of a dead Serpent, die a lingring Death. John de Laet re- 
lates, that the Indians took one which carried thirty young ones, which being a 
Finger long, crep up and down immediately ; and the old one, being above twenty 
Foot long, ferv'd the Natives for Venifon. 

Amongft other ^Beafts is alfo the Tetithlacokauhquiy or Vortrefs of the Serj^ents 5 
it hath a Head like an Adder, thick Belly, glittering Scales, a black Back, fprinkled 
with white CroiTes ; at its Tail there grows yearly a Bone, with which it makes a 
noife when it ftirs j its poyfonous Teeth deftroy thofe which are bit therewith in 
twenty four Hours, unlefs the part which is wounded be held in the Earth folong 
till the pain be over. Notwithftanding the noife, terrible afpedt,and geftures of this 
Animal, the Indian Hunters make nothing to take the fame by the Tail, and wrap 
it up in Linnen, and carrying it home make it tame. It is able to live a whole Year 
without either Meat or Drink ; its Head when cut off grows to the bignefs of a 
Man's Thigh in ten days time. 

, A a No 


' ft 


The Serpent 


Towni and 

Villages cf 

A M E "R^I C J. Chap. IV. 

Ko le-fs refolute arc the Indians in taking ihtlbhohau, which is an Ell long, of a 
crimfon Colour, full of black and white Specks, the Bones whereof they wear 
about their Necks inftead of Chains. 

The Iquanna is -Si Serpent which doth no manner of hurt, though terrible to look 
upon to thofe which kno^ it not, having a Bag under its Chin, a glittering Comb 
on itsHead, and on its 0$ fliarp Bones, which ftand like a Saw, and a long Tail : 
It lays fifty Eggs at a time as big as Acorns, of a very good tailc;, and fit to eat when 
boyTd : It alfo lives both in the Water and on the Land. 

Here are alfo many Baboons, which are big and heavy, with ugly Heads, (liorc 
Legs like a Man, and Tails (landing upwards j they eat all forts of Fruit, but 
chiefly covet after Wine and Bread j and are fo lafcivious, that they often fee 
upon Women : The Females generally bring forth two, one Mile, and the othec 
Female. There is -alfo another fort, whole Skins, being red, are\ full of little 

Spots. ^%y. ,-■-■'' ^ -_,..,„ :^ " ■.:* 

The ancient Inhabitants of Gi^/J^ (divided into the ChiapanecaSj the Ze^ues, the 
Zeltates, and the Qmlenes) are very Civil and Witty ,alfo skilful in Painting, Singing, 
Breaking of Horfesj and many other Trades. - 

The Places of more principal note in this Countrey, inhabited by the Spaniards^ 
Site v. Qudad (^eal, pleafantly feated in the midfl of a rdund Vale or Plain, and ab 
raofl: encompafs'd with Hills reprefetiting the form of an Amphitheatre j alfo ai 
the Foot of one which ftands in the midfl of the rell, the City is built. It is a Cit) 
fpecially Priviledg'd by the Kingof S'^dm, having a Court of Juflice, Cathedral, 
and Vommcan Cloyller ; of a pure and temperate Air, and the Countrey rounc 
about plentifully abounding both in Corn and Fruit, onely fomewhat too cold tc 
produce Lemmons and Oranges j but for Pears, Apples, Peaches, Qiiinces, Cher 
ries, and the like, they grow here in great abundance. 

1. Qnapa, which giveth Name to the Valley aforefaid ; It is a Bifhop's See, anc 
famous, if but for one of its Prelates, o;/;^. 'Bartholomeo delas Cafas, of the Order o: 
predicants, who was Bifhop of this City, and his Memory juflly precious amongf 
the poor Jmerkans at this day, for his Charity towards them, and for the flout anc 
zealous oppofition which he . made againfl the Spaniards cruel and inhumane deal 
ings with the Natives at the beginning of their Conquefls : by which at lafl, not 
withflanding much difficulty and refiflance made by interefled Perfons of the othci 
Side, he procur'd them liberty, and an Edid: from the Emperor in favor of^them 
whereby they were declared to be a Free People, and not Slaves, and the Spaniard, 
forbidden to ufe them any longer as fuch, or to force them to any kind of Laboui 
againft their wills, or otherwife than by agreement with them, which Lib<:rty the) 
enjoy to this day ; and though the Spaniards arefaid to give them very fmall Wages 
in fome places, and for their Work in their Sugar-Mills (which is no fmall Labor^ 
not above Rwc^yals, or Two fliillings fix pence a Week, for the Maintenance ol 
themfelves, their Wives arid Children, yet by reafon it is with Confent, and in. J 
Coiirttrey whereall things are plentiful and cheap, their Condition is much bettei 
than it was, and the favor which that good Bifhop did them, never to be forgotten, 
It is at prcfent a great and populous City, and lieth almofl in the mid«way betwi36< 
the Cities o£ Mexico and Guatimala, 

2. St, Bartholomews, in the Countrey of the Qu,elenes. 

4. Tecpatlan, the chief of twenty five Villages, faid to belong to the Zoques* 
Here t\\t Dominicans have another Cloyftcr.' 

The 2V/f^t^5 pofiefs a fruitful Countrey, have thirteen Villages planted with 
Trees that yield Cochenile, being under a Common-wealth Government. 


Chap. IV; <iJ M E %^I C A. 

Tne chief Pkce of the Quelcnes is (j)panaVat:^a, where there is good Cheefe, and 
[|;orc of brave Cattel : The River Qhie^a gliding through the midft thereof.lofeth ic 
"elfin the Northern Ocean. In this part of the Country are Beads not unlike Apes, 
mi\i long Tails, which they wind about the Legs of thofe whom they find fwim- 
ning and To pull them under Water j wherefore they that go to Swim take Axes 
ilong with them, to cut off their Tails. 

The Water of the River Blanco is clear and wholfom, running for the mofl: pare 
hrough Rocky Grounds, which neverthelefs are overfpread with Trees. 

In the higheft Ground of C/?/^/?^, a League and a half from the Qity %eaU, fpring 
lear Fountains, whofe Water ebbs and Bows every fix hours. 

Near the Village call'd Jfixa, is one which runs three years together, though in 
hedrieftSeafon, and is dry three years, though it Rain never fo much. 

Kot far from the Village Cinacatan is another Spring, whofe Water cures feve- 
al SicknefleSjf but kills all Birds and Beafts which drink of the fame. 
, Here are likewife divers Baths. 

The Rivers which run out of the Valley Chiapa, fall into two great Pits, 
^, Near the Village Bartholomew, in the Province Qudenes, is a ftrange Cavern, out 
>f which by the throwing of a ftone into the fame, are heard mighty noifeslike 
laps of Thunder. 

Not far from the Village Chkomucolo, appears a Cavern, in which is a great Plain 
»n one fide, and a Handing Lake, whofe Water is like Sand, on the other. 

The Spaniards, if they wanted not Slaves, might dig good ftore of Gold, Silver' 
::opper. Lead, Tin, and Quickfilver, out of the Mynes on the Mountain Ecatepeck, 
vhich is in nine Leagues compafs : The Wind blows fo ftrong after Sun=rifing, 
hat no Man is able to travel for it, but in the Night, 


Sect. II. 

Vera Paz„ 

VEra fa:^, or The Qountrej of True feace, w^s Co nim' d by the Spaniards, as they siruatJ^San. 
fay, becaufe it was never conquered by the Sword, but reduced to Obedi- ^'""'^'' 
ence onely by the Preaching of the Dominican Fryers. It is bounded on the 
X^eft and South-Weft with Chiapa j on the Eaft with fome part of Guatimala and 
"-londura^ j and on the North with Jucatan. It contains about thirty Leagues in 
ength, and almoft as much in breadth, being a woody and mountainous Countrey 
or themoft part, yet well diftinguifli'd with Valleys and lower Ground. It is 
nuch fubjed to Rain, which 'tis faid to have for nine Moneths of the Year almoft 
continually J by reafon whereof the Countrey, being otherwife hot, is much an- 
loy'd with a kind oC Mo/quit, or great fort of Gnats, which fpoil the Fruit very 
nuch, and are otherwife not a little trouble to the People* Moreover,there happen 
oftentimes terrible Earthquakes and Storms, with Thunder and Lightning. 

The chief Commodities of this Countrey, are a kind of Amber, which fome call commocii. 
liquid Amher, which drops from divers of their Trees, and is faid to be a Commo- t^. 
lity very precious, and of much ufe ; Maftick, Sanguis Draconis, Gum J?iime, Sarfapa- 
'ilia, Qma-Wood, and divers other Medicinal Drugs, which it affordeth in great 
)lenty. The Woods afford a fweet fmell, and the Trees in the fame grow a won. 
lerful heighth. - 

The Canes which grow here, being a hundred Foot long, and proportionably 


ick, fcrve for Timber, 

/x S; 




^ M E "KI C A. 

Chap. IV. 



Places of 

There is alfo a hard Wood call'd Iro» -rooi.either from its hardnefs or colour, oi 

both, which never rots. ~ ^ i • • ti 

The abundance of Flowers which grow here afford nutriment to mnumerable 
fwarms of Bees, which are about the bignefs of fmall Flies. Their Honey, which 
is fomewhat tart, they hide in the Roots of Trees, or in the Earth. Another fort, 
which is made by the Wafps, bereaves thofe that tafte of their Senfes. 

The noted'ft Beaft in this Countrey is the Vmta, which refembles a Mule, hath 
no Horns but Afli^colourM long Hair, fliort Neck, hanging Ears, thin Legs, with 
three Claws before and two behind, long Head, narrow Forehead, little Eyes, a 
Nofe hanging over its Mouth, little Tail, fharp Teeth, and a Skin which is fix 
Fingers thick, and fcarce penetrable by any Weapon. This Beaft is taken in Traps, 
Holes orelfe with Dogs, which he often kills when hunted towards the Water, 
TheyVay that this Beaft taught Men firft to Let-blood ; for if it be too full ol 
Blood, it pricks it felf againft a fliarp Cane, and ftops up the Orifice again very 
carefully. The Fiefb thereof is. good Meat, as alfo that of the (I^o/?-Lyons, whicl: 
in the day^time flecf on a high Tree, where they are (hot by the Indians. 

The Tygers are much more dangerous to be taken ; yet the Indians Hunting 
them, eat them in ftead of Beef ; and alfo through all Hei, Spam, 

The Bears, which make the Ways very dangerous to travel, have black frizlcc 
Hair, broad Tails, Feet like Mens Hands : but fince the Indians have made ufe oi 
Guns', which they learned from the Spaniards, they have much lefl'en'd the numbei 
both of Bears and Tygers, 

There are likewife many Leopards, Apes,and wild Goats (whofc Skins ferve th< 
Natives for Drums) Hogs, and JnnadiUos. 

Amongft their Fowls, are Eagles and Parrots. 

The Countrey is fo well ftor'd with Water, that in three Leagues fpacc art 
above thirty Rivulets, and as many Fountains. 

On the Mountains grow great quantities o( Sarfaparilla, Mechoacan, and the China^ 
^oot, which being yellowifh hath feveral Saffron- coloured Knobs on the top. Th( 
Sarfapartlia grows with many Stalks, creeping along over the Ground • the Bod) 
thereof is tough and full of Prickles, the Leaves broad and (harp at the ends, anc 
are of a bluiOi colour on one fide, and green on the other, and bear Clufters ol 
Flowers, which clofe like Buds, and are firft green, next vermilion-red, and laftl) 
blackiOi : within are two hard Stones, which inclofe a white Kernel, by the Indt 

ans caird Juapuanga, i r i l 

The Bay Golfo Vuke, which pours its muddy Water into the Sea, feeds the greai 

Fifli Monati, and a great number of Crocodiles. 

Several Rivers abounding with FiOi fall alfo into the fame, having their Bank 

fet all along with Trees, in whofe Boughs, joynd together on the top, thofe for 

of Birds make their Nefts which prey on Fifh. 

The Women in this place are much fhorter LivM than the Men, fo that therean 

often thirty Widowers to one Widow. Women with Child are Delivered b] 

themfelves in the High.way 5 and from thence they go to the next River to wafi 

themfelves and the Child. i i o • 

As for any Towns or Places of much Traffick or Note, inhabited by the Spam 
ards, we find not any nam'd, fave oncly St. Augufttms ; near unto which there i 
faid to be a Cave and Fountain within Ground, which converts the Water that fal 
lethintoit out of feveral leffer Springs, into a kind of Alabafter or Stone, per 
fealy white, and fafliions it likewife into Pillars, Statues, and other artificial Form 

of very curious Workmanfliip, as Uet reporteth. 

^ ' Sect 



A M EX^I C A. 


Sect. III. 


Honduras hath on the South, Guatimala abovefaid j on the Well, a certain Bay, situation and 
or Arm of the Sea, which they call Golfo Duke, from the abundance of 
frefli Waters which run into it from all Parts ; on the North and North- 
Eaft, the AtUntick Ocea?i ; and fomewhat to the South-Eall, ISIjcaragua, It contains 
in length, V/;^. from Eaft to Weft, Coafting along upon the Sea, about a hundred 
and fifty Leagues, and in breadth eighty. The Countrey is rich both in Corn and 
Pafturage, being faid to be very much advantag'd that way by the conftant over- 
flowings of the Rivers, which are very many, about Michaelma/?^timcj and which 
the People order fo well, that they water their Gardens, and exceedingly fertilize' 
the whole Champain, or lower part of the Grounds by them. 

The fruitful Valleys of this Countrey were anciently very well inhabited, till 
vaft multitudes of the Natives were deftroy'd by the Spaniards Cruelties, of which 
the Bifliop (Bartholofneo de las Cafas, in his Letter to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, 
gives this Relation : 

'' The young Children (faith he) they murder'd, beating out their Brains againft Oueities of 
" the Stones; the Kings and Princes of the Countrey they either fcorch'd to death, tl^^"""''' 
<' or threw them to the Dogs to be torn in pieces ,. the poor People they drove in- 
*' to their Houfes, and then fet them on fire • thofe that remained were condemn'd 
" to the grcateft flavery imaginable, being us'd in ftead of Mules and Horfes, and 
" having greater Burdens laid upon them than they were able to carry, infomuch 
'^ that thoufands of them fell down dead under them ; fome out of defpair run* 
'' ning into the Woods were famifh'd, after they had kill'd and eat their Wives and 
" Children for Hunger. In this one Province onely they malTacred above twenty 
" hundred thoufand Men, and amongft others, Perfons of Quality, which had ci- 
" villy Entertained them : nay, they tortur'd the poor innocent Natives all the 
*^ ways they could poflibly invent, onely to know of them where their Gold lay ; 
" particularly Diego de Valafco fpar'd none that ever fell into his hands ; infomuch 
" that in a Monethstime above ten thoufand were flain by him : He hang'd thir- 
*^ teen Noble«men, to twelve of whom he gave the Denomination of The twelve 
'' Apoftks '^ andthechiefeftofthemhe cairdinaderifion, >/«jany?. Some they 
" fufFer'd to ftarveto death, with their Heads comprefs'd between the cloven Barks 
'''of wild Vines j fome alfo they buried alive, and leaving onely their Heads to 
"' appear above Ground, bowl'd Iron Bullets at them, and forc'd them to eat one 
" another ; befides infinite other hellifli Cruelties, too horrid and dreadful to be 
,'^ recounted. 

This Countrey produces much K?^, Wheat, Honey, and great Calahafies, from c6mmo<3fty 
whence thefirft Difcovercrs called that Sea Golfo de las Ihuera^, becaufe they met with 
abundance of CalahafyeSj floating on the Water, which at Santo Domingo bear the 
Name o^Ibueras. - 

This Countrey is water'd by three Rivers, the firft Chamalucom, which glides by 
the City San/Pedro.^ the fecond U/v^, inhabited on both Shores » the third Ha- 
guaroj the Grounds adjacent to which would prove very fruitful, were the Inhabit 
tants not too lazy. In ftead of a Plough they ufe a long Pole, With two crooked 
Staves at the end, one bent downwards and the other upwards, with which they 
cut and turn the Earth, The Natives feed on feveral Roots, Flefli, and Vermine. 

A a |, Ai 

of the CounS 


J M E T^I C A 

Chap. IV. 



Xt, tidrt. 


Juan it JP«- 

irtt di Cav»l' 

Ac their Feaft they make themfelves Drank wich a Drink made of Honey, 
Koblc-men heretofore onely drinking the Liquor of (^rtc^o,. but of late it is com- 
mon, and made by all People, though never fo mean. They fpeak feveral Langua- 
ges, the chiefeft whereof is that o^ihtChontales^ a falvage People. They divide their 
Year, cairdJo<j/^r/ that is, faf^mg^ into eighteen Moneths, and each Moneth into 
twenty Days. They formerly meafur'd the Year by the Nights^, and began the Year 
forty days fooner than the Europeans* 

The Towns in this Province are i. Kew VnUohlid ^hy the Indians ruLtu'dComaya^tUj 
lying in a pleafant Valley under a temperate Climate. The Cattel brought hither 
from Spain increafe exceedingly. The Silver^Mynes are alfo To well ftor'd, that they 
keep the Mehing-houfe in the Town always employed. 

The Governor of this Place hath his Refidence next to the Treafury-Chamber. 

Jnno 1588. the BiOiop's See was tranflated hither from Truxillo : Nineteen years 
before which pyancifco de Monteio Cent his Lieutenant ^Iphonfo de Cacenes thither ^ to 
build a Village half way between the Southern and Northern Ocean ; who accor- 
dingly eredled the Town Santa Maria de Camoyagua^ near a River Navigable for (4- 
twos, which difembogues in Tuerto de Ca'Vallos. The remaining part of the Way to 
the Haven Fon/eca being palTable for Carrs (which was a means to prevent many 
Inconveniences which us'd to happen to Travellers on the Way between Manama and 
Tsiomhre de Dios) the Spanip) King was fo much concern'd at the firft propofal hereof, 
that he fent the famous Surveyor (Baptijla Antonello thither, and the rathf r, bccaufc 
he received information, that, the new Way, along which they carried the Mer- 
chandife from ^eru^ 'Mexico ^^.h^. other Countreys along the South Sea, lay very plea- 
fantly, by reafon of the brave Vineyards, CornoFields^ Fruit-Trces, Pafturcs, 
Streams abounding with Fifli, Herds of Deer, and Cony-Warrens ^ yet AmonelU 
meeting with many troubles, would not undertake the Buhnefs. 

l^lew Vdlladolid is adorn'd with a great Church, a Cloyfler, belonging to th< 
Monks 'De h Merced^ and handfom Streets. 

2. Thirty Leagues Weftward from this City lies another call'd Gratia^ aDios^ be- 
gun by Captain G^MW de ^yaSjAnno 1530. that fohe might be near the Gold-Mines ; 
But becaufe the Natives kept the new Inhabitants in continual alarm, and dail) 
Storm'd theunfinifli'd Fortifications, (2^oj^ was nece/Ticated to leave off building 
any farther, the rather, becaufe none came to his affiftance from the neighboring 
Garrifon. q- 

Six years after Gon:^aks de Aharado undertook this Work, and built the City on a 
Rocky Mountain J which, though otherwife barren, produc'd lufty Horfes and 
ftrong Mules. 

5. San 'Pf'JrOjthough lying under a hot and unwholfom Climate,us'd formerly tc 
be a brave City of Trade ; but it is gone much to decay fince Golfo Voice hath beer 
difcover'd, becaufe from that Bay the Commodities are carried in Barques up intc 
the Countrey. 

4. The Village Juan de fuerto deCayallos^ inhabited by Fadors and Moors : It re- 
ceived that Denomination, becaufe not far from it feveral Horles were forc'd to be 
thrown over-board in a Storm. Though it be but ill fortifi'd, yet it hath an ex- 
ceeding large Haven. Captain C/;ny?o^/;^r 7\[ni7/)o?t arriving here y^«?zo 1591. found 
two hundred Houfes, and in them a confiderable Booty left, notwithftanding foui 
Ships richly laden had lately fet Sail from thence. 

Six years after Ne/^/7orf, Capt. /^/ir. Sherly retook the Place, and leaving the Haver 
open for Pyrats, Alphonfus Qoriado judg'd it convenient to remove the I'rading Place 
to Amatiquc j he built the Village Thowcu de (/T?'//^^, and fortifi'd the fame againfl: al 
manner of Aflaults. Behinc 



" ^^ " 




)rs up- 
place , 





hap. IV. 



Behind CdW/wlics the Valley Kaco, which is exceeding frnicful, bein^ (ituate 
between high Mountains, where formerly was found plenty of Silver. 

5. Eaftward from CaVallos appears the famous City Tntxilloj near a large Bay. fe- 2'.«^w*. 
cur'd from all Storms by two Cliffs, full of Trees j the Mouth of the Haven calTd 
Joan Gilj is above two Leagues broad, and receives two Rivers, one from each fide 
of the City : The Stream Quaimarotte flows Eaflward, and the River Antonio Weft- 
ward, both abounding in Fifli. The Countrey round about produces abundance 
of all forts of Provifions^ and chiefly abounds in Grapes, which are gathered 
twice a year: Eight days after y^«^?^/ they cut their Vines, which afford them ripe 
Grapes again in OHober ; they have two Harvefts of Corn j alfo Lemons and 
Oranges arc very plentiful : The Cattel brought hither from Si^am are exceeding- 
Jy increased to an incredible number. 

Truxillo it felf lying on a fteep Mountain, is defended on that fide which re- 
fpedts the Sea, with a thick Wall of fix Foot high j between which and the Haven 
are many brambly Buflies, which prevent the accefs to the Wall, onely a narrow 
and fteep way leading up to the City, which hath a ftrong Gate, guarded with two 
Brafs Guns, and fufficiently Fortifi'd to oppofe an Enemy. The Eaftern Cliff 
which bends before the Haven is call'd Tuntala %ye, on which ftands a Houfe with 
a high Beacon : Beyond the Wall Eaftward, near the Haven, is a Ship-yard, before 
which ftands a large Woodden Crofs : The Caftle in which the City Store is 
kept, joyns to the Wall, near unto which, within the Town appears St. Francis 
Church J but the Cathedral called E^lefia Major, is feen above all other Buildings : 
The Houfes cover'd with "P^/w/Vo-Leaves, have Walls of Pleitcd BuQies, PlaifterM 
Dver within and without : Behind the City, where it lies open, are exceeding high 
Mountains, . 

Jnno 1576. the Encrlifh falling on this ftrong Place, carrvM a rich Bootv from Attcmptsup- 

he ^ \ a ' J ] on this place , 

encejaher which, Capt. Jnth, Skr/y and Capt. Will, farker ventured once more on ^y^^^^i- 

:he lame, but being dilcover d by the Centinel, were forc'd to Retreat, not without 

I confiderable lofs : When not long after. Captain John Van Hoorn z Hollander, zt> 

rem.pting the fame, had much better fuccefs ; for he Weighing Anchor for Ternam- 

'mc , with four Frigats , three Ketches , and a Sloop , fet Sail to Truxillo, where 

irriving, lay clofe before the City with his four Frigats, which fired very fiercely 

)n the Town 5 the Inhabitants of which not being idle, kilTd three Men in one 

5hip, forced her to fall farther off from the Caftle : Whilft the Ketches and Sloop 

T^ent about a Gun (liot Weftward beyond the City, towards the River Jntonio^ 

vhere they Landed two hundred and fifty Soldiers, which march'd with all fpeed 

ip the Hill, where the Caftle lay which they Scal'd at Noon^day ; the Befieged 

)eing provided with fevcn Guns, fhot, and threw Stones continually amongft 

hem, yet were forc'd to Retreat from the D«ff/; Hand^granado's : Daring the 

lorm, the Admiral himfelf Landed, but before he came out of the Boat, the fore- 

nention'd Soldiers haj made themfelves Mafters of the Fort, with the lofs of one- 

y eight Men, and were bufie Pillaging all places they came at, and carrying their 

rotten Booty to a Watch-houfe near the Caftle on the Shore,- when on a fudden 

Fire happened in the Eaft part o^Truxillo, which increas'd in fuch a manner, that 

n few hours two third parts of the City lay in Aflies ; every one then had enough 

o do to fave themfelves, yet for all the hafte they made, feveral Hollanders were 

-ill'd at the blowing up of the Magazine, and moft of the Booty loft by the 

'ire; infomuch that they carry'd but two hundred thirty nine Skins, fix Bales of 

ndi^o, eight hundred and twenty Pounds of Sarfaparilla, feven Brafs, and three 

ron Guns, four Clocks, and fome few trifles with them 5 havino- before made an 


-* ■ 



Situjrioit and 

Nature of the 

Citi ei. 


Chap. iV< 

acrreement for twenty Pound of Silver, with the Governor JodJi de Mirarida^'vjhc 
infcrm'd them, that they had not the leaft knowledge of the Hollanders fleet, till 
the Evening-, when the Beacon on Tunta La^ye was firM : Moreover, that the Ci- 
ty was inhabited by two hundred Spaniar,dsj and as many more Mulatocs and Moors'^ 
and that the Trade thereof was much gone to decay, becaufe there had been no 
Gallies there in two years before. 

Twenty feven Leagues from this City lies the Village Jor^o de Olancho^ where 
four thoufand Spaniards force Tribute from fixteen thoufand Indians , who poiTefs 



S E C T. I V. 


Nicaragua is a County of this Province, borderM Northward with Hondunts -^ 
on the Eaft, with the Jtlanttck Ocean, and part ofVera^ua j on the South, 
with Mare del Zur ; and on the Weft, with Guathnnla., being call'd by Viegi 
Lo^e^de Sal^^ado, The New kingdom of Leon, and comprizing feveral little Territo- 
ries, as Kicoyaj Nequecheri, Mabyth, Deria, Mafaya, Mandigua^ Qacoloaque, Cepeoco, Loi 
Micos, Madiraj and the Contales. It hath few Rivers in it, the want whereof is fup- 
ply'd by the benefit of a great Lake, in the midft of the Countrey, call'd by the 
Spaniards^ Laguna de Nicaragua , containing , as is fiippos'd , above one hundred 
Leagues in compafs. It empties it felf by the Port of St. Juan into the Atlantick oi 
North-Sea, but reacheth as far as the South or Mare del Zur, at leaft within a very 
few Leagues • and from whence fome Spanijh Captains are faid to have made a pal- 
fage, though with much difficulty, into the Lake, and from thence to the North- 
Sea. It is abundantly well ftor'd with good Fifh, but withal much haunted witli 
Crocodiles . and the Countrey about it lo plentiful in all things, cfpecially Cattel 
Cotten-Wool, Sugars, and all kind of Fruits : Amongft which, the chiefeft is th( 
Zeiba, which is of fo great a thicknefs, that fifteen Men holding Hand in Hand, car 
fcarce encompafs the fame. The Callabapes ripen here in fourteen days time : The 
Sea along the Coaft, breeds Whales and oxher Sea-Monfters, which are often fcen 
above Water. 

The Inhabitants of this Countrey, (except the Chontales, which live on the 
Mountains, and maintain their old Salvage Cuftoms) have for the moft part 
learnt the Spanip? Tongue and Manners, and exercife themfelves in all forts oi 
Arts and Siences, efpecially in Working of Silver, making of Clothes, Wax- Work, 
and the like : From the Mountains they gather Balfom, Liquid^Amber, Turpen. 
tine : They alfo drive a great Trade in Cotton, Skins, and feveral forts of Provi- 
fions, to ^anama^ and Nombre de Vios, 

The Lake Lagunade Nicaragua , which hath a hundred and feventeen Leagues ir 
Circumference, and round about inhabited, is by three Leagues of Land lepara- 
ted from the South-Sea j and difcharges its Waters into the River Defaguadero. 
which falls into the Northern Ocean. Alphonfm Qalera , and Diego Machuca de Zuafo, 
were the firft that Sail'd out of the foremention'd Lake into the Sea , not without 
many dangers, by reafonofthe great Water.falls, cA\'^%ondaks, which fall intc 
the River Defagtiadero, and forcM them often times to draw their Barques over th( 

The chief City is, i. Leon, which is furrounded with Woods , and lies cloie h) 
the Lake • hath a great Church, five Cloyfters belonging to thtUcnksj de la Merccde 
feveral Houfes for the Kina's Officers, and a hundred ^nd twenty thouUnd Fami 




Chap. IV. z4 M E%^tC A. 

lies o£ Indians which pay Tribute. Three Leagues beyond Leon appears a high fpiry 
Mountain, from whofe top, both Morning and Evening, rifes a mighty fmoke^ 
and fometimes cafts out great fulphurous Stones over the neighboring Fields, and 
on a fudden mighty Flames. A Dominican Monk, in hopes to get fome melted Gold 
out of its burning Mouth, went up the fame with four of his Fraternity, and 
carry'd an Iron Chain and a Kettle, which were no fooncr let down into the hole 
but they were immediately meltedj yet notfo difcourag'd, they refolv'd to venture 
afecond time with ftronger Materials, which neverthelefs had the fame, or rather 
worfe event ; for the Fire flew out in fuch a manner, that the Dominicans fadly 
fcorch'd, had enough to do to efcape with Life, fmce which none durft prefdme to 
approach the fame. 

But befides the Epifcopal City Leon, Ereded by Francifcus Fernandez, 2. Granada 
acknowledges the fame Builder, and lying alfo on the fliore olLaguna deKtcaragua, 
is adorn'd with a Caftle, Church, and feveral Sugar.Mills : Not far from it li^ 
the fmall Lakes Mafaya and Lindiri ; the firft which is inclos'd between exceeding 
high Mountains, covers the Foot of the burning Mountain Mafaya ; the other falls 
into Lagunade Uicaragm, near which is the fmoky Mountain Munbachoj furrounded 
with Fruit-Trees. :o 

3. O* 4. The Towns Jeany and Neuva SegoVta, which are not far from thence, are 
of little confequence. ' 

5. ^aleio, this is, as it were, the Chattam of America, being a place on the South- 
Sea, where the King of Spain hath all his Ships built that are made of American Tim- 
ber, and inhabited by few or none but Shipwrights, Marineirs, and Men of that 
kind of Profeffion. t. i 

6, O* y, 2^icoya, Avarines/ 

8. Cartage, forty Leagues diftant from N/Voy^, and lying almofl: in the midft of 
the Ifihmus, or Streight oiDarien, equally diftant both from the North and South 
Sea ; on both which it is faid likewife to have a convenient Port or Haven for 

The Spaniards, when firft they Landed here , call'd this Countrey Mahomets Ta^ 
radife, becaufe of its exceeding Fruitfulnefs. The Cacao which they ufe here in ftcad 
of Money, is not unlike the Stone of an Almond. The Inhabitants, in ftead of 
ufing a Steel and Flint to ftrike Fire withal, rub two pieces of Wood together fo 
long, till one of them is kindled ; and burn the Boughs of Pine=Trees in Head of 
Candles. Amongft the feveral Languages which they fpeak, the Mexican is the chief- 
^ft : Amongft their Recreations , Dancing is principal , which is performed af. 
:er a very ftrange manner, for they meet fometimes two or three thoufand toge- 
:her, according to the bigncfs of the Province, in a fpacious Field, which is made 
:lean before for that purpofe : He that leads the Dance goes backward, and with 
nany ftrange Geftures, turns himfelf about, which the reft, following four and four 
:ogether in a row, imitate, whilft their Tamhores beat on hollow Inftruments, and 
ing Songs, which are firft anfwer'd by the Ring-leader of the Dance, and then 
cconded by the whole Company , each of them waving a Fan or a Callahap, 
md being all adorn'd with Plumes of Feathers on their Heads, and Strings with 
Shells about their Arms and Legs j they alfo ad feveral antick Tricks , the one, 
he blind Man, the other, the Cripple, one feigns himfelf to be deaf, the other 
nakes a wry Mouth, one cries, and another laughs, whileft others drink healths 
n Chocolate^ which continues till Midnight. 

A King of this Countrey in former times us'd to feed the Fifh Manati with Bread, 
n the Lake Guainaho, where it would appear at its being call'd Matto, Matto, which 



Strange man- 
ner of Dan- 

The Fi<h 

« • • 

23 + 

tiA M E 'KI C A. 

Chap. IV 

1 I 

fianifies i>lohle-mindedy and oftentimes carry eight or ten Boys on its Back from cn( 
fide of the Lake to the other j but being (hot by a Spaniard with an Arrow, nevei 
appeared again. 

There is likewife a black Beafl: in this Countrey callM Cafcu, refembling in fomi 
things a Hog j it hath a hard Skin, little Eyes, open Ears^, cloven Feet, fiiort Nofe 
and makes fuch a terrible noife, that it affrights thofe which hear it. 

No lefs ftrange and wonderful is the Fox»Ape, which hath two Bellies one unde 
another j in the lowermoft of which it carries its Young, which are never brough 
into the World till they are able to (hifc for their own Food. It hath the Body of ; 
Fox, Feet like a Man's Hands, and Ears like a Batt. 

Ic will not be amifs before we conclude with this Province, to give you a Rela 
tion of the Difcourfe which hapned y^wwo 1527. between the Spa?iipj Commande 
Francifco de Monteio and the Nicaraguan Cafique Alijuimtex, who being a hundred an( 
ten years old, told him, "That before the S'^j^w/V^j arrival there, great number 
*' of his Soldiers perifti'd after a ftrange manner 5 for after having vomited abun 
" dance of Worms, they fell down dead on a fudden : thofe that efcap'd the Con 
*^ tagion differing amongft themfelves, made two Parties, which twice Engagini 
*' with one another, each of them loft above a hundred and fifty thoufand Men 
*' Yet both thefe Plagues were no ways to be compared to the Slaughter which th 
^^ Spaniards hzd msidc SLvnong^ them. 

About the fame time an /td/w«, call'dHieronymo^o?i;^o, Lodging with a T^/Wd 
^«4« Noble»man that undcrftood the Spdwi/^ Tongue, was thus fct upon by him 
What da not {Oh Chrift) the Chriftians do ! they no fooner get their Foot into an Indian' 
Hut, hut they commandingly call for Mai:^^ Honey, Winter ^Clothes, Gold^ Silver, and a Woma 
to cool their lufiful defires : Certainly there is nothing more vicious on Earth, To whic! 
Bon;^o gave him this Anfwer : The wicked Spaniards commit oftentimes unfeemly thing 
The Indian again fuddenly, retorted, faying, Where are any fuch Men to he found as goo 
Spaniards ? I have never known any but wicked Villains. To which So;2;^o faid, Wh 
have you made place for them on Nicaragua ? Which was thus reply'd to by the Noble 
man : "All People round about took Oath on the firft News of the Qhriflians ai 
" rival, to hazard all, and fight to the laft Man, before they would be under th 
" infupportable Yoke, with which they had heard other Countreys were opprefs'i 
'^ with by them. To which purpofe they made ready Bowes, Arrows, Lances 
^' Stones, Clubs, and other Weapons of War : But when it came to the trial, th 
*^ Spanijh Horfe, of which they had never feen the like, ftruck fuch a terror into th 
*' Indians^ that they fled;, and fent two Agents to Monteio to defire Peace • but thei 
'^ Defign was onely togain time, that they might gather new Forces, to ventur 
^^ a fecond Encounter ; which prov'd as fatal to them as the firft. Then defirin 
'* Peace once more, they gathered all that were able to bear Arms, and fworeon 
''^ to another not to ftir a Foot 5 and withal made a Law, That whofoever di« 
*' fhrink fhould be kill'd immediately : But the Women being informed hereof 
'^ begg'd that they might rather fuffer under the Spanifh Yoke, than be torn in piece 
*' by their Dogs, orkill'd by their Bullets and Swords, alledging, that they wer 
*' not able to refift the Spaniards • and entreated them, that if they were refolv'c 
" to go on with their firft Defign , they would firft fend their Wives and Chil 
"dren to the other World, that fo they might not fall into the hands of the merci 
*^lefs and \Aoody Chriftiayis : Whereupon moft Voices judg'd it convenient t( 
** make ufe of the Opportunity, and to fubmit to Monteio, But his cruel deal 
'^ ings made fome to contradid that Determination , for which they pai« 
** dearly j for not onely they, but their little Infants^ were put to the mcft crue 

'• Death 


h^P'' IV. AMERICA, Z35 

Deaths imaginable j which made many of them alfo to lay violent hands on 

S E c T. V. 



f^^Oflarica borders on the Eaft with Veragua j on the South and Eaft, with the Bounds and. 
Sea J and on the North, with Nicaragua, The Countrey it felf is barren CcStef/''' 
and mountainous j whofe Inhabitants were valiant enough to Encounter 
ith the Spa?iijh Forces, being unwilling to lofe their former Priviledges, 
This Coaft was difcover'd firft by Chrijlopher Columbus, who Jn?io 1502. Sailing 
> the Rivers ^elen and Feragua with Barques, took much Gold out of the Mynes 
'ira, but chiefly from between the Roots^jf Trees which were grown together. 

Sect. VI' 


[ T Era^ua is bounded on the Weft with Cojlarica 5 on the Eaft it hath the Diftrid, ^°""'^^ 
L/ or Countrey of fanama, being otherwife wafli'd on all fides by the Sea. Ic ^^^ Qo^k 

hath its Name from a River of great note in this Tra(^, by which it was firft 
fcover'd. The Countrey is for the moft part mountainous, and the Soil out« 
irdly barren,but recompencing all defe(5ts with the abundance of its more inward 
ealth, that is to fay, in the richnefs cif its Mynes, of which it is faid to afford 
my, and fo inexhauftibly rich and good, that the Spaniards here know no end of 
dr Wealth j although by the ftoutnefs and untameablenefs of the Natives, it 
is a long time, and they met with many difficulties,before they could make them* 
ves Mafters of theTreafure, ^ 

The chief Towns they have here are i. La Conception, lying at the Mouxh of a Ku ^-^l^^^f 
r fo nam'd, and the Seat of the Governor. 

2. La Trinidady upon the Banks of the fame River likewife, but down towards 
rt 'BelenOj and about fix Leagues Eaft ward o^ Conception. 

3* St, Foy, twelve Leagues more to the South, where the Spaniards melt their 
Did, and eaft it into Bars or Ingots. 

4. Carlos^ a Town they have upon the Coaft of Mare del Zur. 

5. fhilippina, another on the Weft of Carlos ; both of thefe feated upon a large 
pacious Bay ; before which there lie certain little Iflands^ to the number of 
irty or more,which the Spaniards are laid to have wholly dilpeopled long fince,by 
rcing the Natives over into the Continent to work in the Mynes, as ufually they 
d before the Emperor's Prohibition : but now they ufe Slaves or Negro's^ which 
ley buy for that purpofe from G«iwee and other Parts, 

Sect. VII. 

Guatimala^ properly fo caird. 



f^ Uatimala, fpecially fo caU'd, hath on the Weft the River Xtcalapa, which di- f^^f^- 

vides it from Verafa:^-, on the Eaft it is bounded with the Countrey of 

Nicaragua ^ on the North, with Honduras y and on the South, with Mare 


. . This 


■- - '"■'■ 

Ml* m 

23 d 

^ M E "K I C A 

Chap, n 

'' ii 

Towns of 

This Countrey was conquer'dby Teter de Jharado, Anno 1515.It is, by rcafon ofi 
neighborhood with Fera 'P^;^,not altogether clear of Mountains, but otherwife wc 
water'd with Rivers, and enrich'd with fair and fruitful Valleys, which afford n 
onely good Pafturage, and many great Herds of Cattel, but like wife good fiore 
Wheat, K^i;^, and other Fruits of the Earth. Great plenty of Cotton- Wool is genera 
ly both here and in the other Provinces, Vi:^* Vera "P^;^, Chiapa, &cc, fome Medicin 
Woods likewife, and Liquors, and abfolutely the beft Sulphur in America, The Pe 
pie are generally tractable and well difpos'd^ both in point of Religion ^nd cii 

The Towns of chief note are \,Guatimalayn6V7 call'd «Sf. y^^o de Guatimala fincet 
re-building thereof j for about the Year 1586. it was alraofl buried in Afhes,whi 
one of the neighboring Mountains, for the fpace of fix Moneths together, con 
nually belch'd out in fuch fearful quantities, that many People were flai 
the old City deferted, and a new one built in another place. The day before tl 
fad Accident hapned, the neighboring Mountains were obferv'd to fhiver, anc 
great noife was heard from under Ground • which amazing the Indians^ the ne^ 
thereof was carried to the Bifhop, Fraitcijcm Moro^uin, who narrowly enquirii 
into the Caufes of thefe Accidents, and what they might portend, found tl 
a fad Event would fuddenly follow, as accordingly it did 5 for about m; 
night on the eighth of Juguji, Anno 1541. fuch a mighty ftore of Rain fell, as 
the Clouds had been all diifolv'd into Water, which came rowling from t 
Rocky Mountains with fuch violence, that it wafli'd down great Stones, whi 
carried on by the flrength of the Water againfl: the Houfes, beat them down • a 
none could have feen how they were ruin'd, had not the mighty flaflies of Ligl 
ning, followed by terrible claps of Thunder, lighted the Night. Some inftam 
deferting this miferable place, fled up into the Countrey, and there built a ni 
Guatimala (as above-mention'd) fur-nam'd St. Jago^ three Leagues farther towai 
the Eaft, in a Valley through which flow two Rivers, between two Vulcans^ 
fmoaking Mountains, which fometimes vomit forth terrible Flames, mix'd wi 
dreadful Thunder^claps, Afhes, and great Stones, infomuch that the Ground 
about it, which is exceeding fruitful, feems to move. There are many of thi 
Vukans'm feveral parts of America, as namely at Arequipa in the Kingdom of (Pe, 
at fuehla delos Jngelos, in the Province ofTlafcalla abovefaid, a Mountain of fo gn 
heighth, that they are fain to go little lefs than thirty Leagues turning and win 
before they can reach the top of it, and others in feveral other places. They are § 
nerally Mountains of great heighth, and running (harp upwards, but at the t 
containing fome quantity of plain and level Ground j in themidft whereof is a I 
or Hole, out of which abundance of Smoak and fiery Sparkles are vomited aim* 
continually, and fo deep, that they are fuppos'd for the moft part to reach to t 
very bottom of the Mountain. Some of thefe Vulcatis caft forth neither Fire n 
Smoak, yet are clearly feen to burn at the bottom with a quick Fire, and which 
fo extreamly hot, that it inftantly melteth Iron, or any other Metal that is cafl: in 
it, as by experience hath been found : for fome conceiving that the Matter whi 
maintains thefe Fires within the Bowels of the Earth Co long together, can be n 
thing elfe but melted Gold, have endeavored feveral times to extrad and draw 
forth in certain Veflels of Iron and Brafs, which they have caus'd tobeletdov 
into the bottom of the Vulcan or Pit, by long Iron Chains made on purpofc : bi 
as wefaid, the extream heat and force of the Fire below always melted them bcfc 
they could be drawn up again, and by that means hath rendred all fuch Attemj 
frufl:rate. In this Town, now call'd St. Jago^ refide above fix hundred Spmip Coi 




^ M E %^I C A . 

nanders, and move than cwe^ty five choufand Indians which pay Tribute. They 
,ave alio a brave Church and two Cloyfters, one belonging to the 'Dominicans, and 
nothertothe Order L.j Af^mJ , and likewife a noble^Holpital. Not far from 
hence is a place call'd J^aleos^ where there are Orchards of 'cacaa two Leagues in 
quare , each of them producing yearly as much as fifty thoufand Men are able 
carry. They reckon the Cacao by Cornels, which is the number of four hundred • 
jXequiptks, of eight thoufand • and by C^rgas, of twenty four thoufand. In this 
:ounty is a Mountain, whofe top fmoaking continually confumes by degrees, and 
.ftentimes covers the neighboring Countrey with Allies. The Water which flows 
rom the lame differs very much, for fome of it is wholfomand fit to drink ; Tome 
3ul and {linking, and fome turns Wood, if laid in the fame, to Stone. Here is 
Ifo the Beaft whofe Head is highly efteem'd for the Sf;^ Stone, which it car- 
ies in the fame. Here is likewife a little Bear, which in Head of a Mouth, hath a 
)ng Nofe with a round Hole in it, and a hollow Tongue, with which k fucks 
loney, and difturbs the Nefts of Pifmires. The Women in this Place make curi- 
us Earthen Ware, coloured either red or black with the Mud of two ieveral 
Tooks. The Indians call'dthe boyling Fountains in this County mi, becaufe they 
ubble up a Bowes.fliot high, and make the River Caliente, which, notwithftand- 
ig it hath pafs'd half a League through a wide Channel, retains its exceeding 
eat. Not far from it lies a Stone , which having a Crack in the middle, fends 
)rth a thick Damp, and againft bad Weather a thundering noife. On the Moun- 
lins grow exceeding large Trees, efpecially Oak. Here Pifmires which are of aa 
[traordinary bigncfs, are brought to Market amongft other Provihons. 

2. St. Salvador, forty Leagues dillant from Guatimala Eaftward, and feated upoa 
le River G«dc^^4, and having about it a fmall Territory, which by fome is ac- 
)unted a diftind Countrey or Province. 

3. Jcaputla, a Town of the Natives, fituated at the Mouth of the River, and be 
Ig as it were, the Port=Town to St. Salvador. 

4. Trimdad, 3, Town D^ great refort, being the greateft Empory and Place of 
'raffick for all forts of Commodities, betwixt the People of NeiP St>am md thole 
^Teru. ' 

5. St. Michaels, two or three Leagues diftantfrom the Bay Foufeca, upon the 
3uthSea. / j j r 

6. Xeres de la Frontera, on the Confines of this Province, towards the Borders of 
tcaragua, befidesfeveral Villages which we lliall have occafion to mention. 

In the middle of a Lake within this Territory is an Ifland, on which the Indians 
Id a Tradition, That a Man no fooner fet his Foot but he died immediately: 
hich Opinion of theirs was chang'd when the Spaniards went thither in Boat.fulls 
idreturn'd fafe again, with Relation that they had Cccn a large'Stonc Image, re- 
mbling a Woman ; before which lay the Afhes and Bones of ilain People. 

Round about the Village Guaymoco grow great Balfom-Trees, which afford 
imber of fifty five Foot long. From this Village leads a Way to the City Salva^ 
r, near which the fore-mention'd Kivtr Guachapa runs with fo many wmdinas 
at the Traveller is forc'd to crofs the fame feveral times before he can come'^to 
e Foot ot a Mountain which formerly caft out terrible Flames- but now tlv^ 
_mbu(lible Matter being con fum'd, there appears onely a great Hole on the top 
ith Allies in a large compafs round about it. At the Foot of the fame are two Pits^ 
le of which fmoaks continually in fuch a manner, that it Rifles all thofe that ap-^ 
oach It 5 jet the Mountain is well overfpread with Cedars and Pine-Trees. 
Three Leagues farther lies the Village M.v./>. ; 'and not far from thence the 
- - • _ ^ Bb ^ Hill 




A M E "B^I C A ' ^:hap. ¥ 

Hill ElmalTals, which confifts of great Stones and Afiies, wonderful' mixt toge 
ther: No lefs wonderful is a Brook which flows in the Night till 1/ rning, anc 
then finks into the Ground : And in the Countrey Choluteca is another which hide 
ic feifac Noon, and appears again towards Night. The Cavern wh -h formerb 
produced Fire and Smoke, now affords good Water to the Village unatan, an< 
City Salvador : Near the Village T^te^egve are five Springs, which c ft up Allon 
and Sulphur. The Natives Chontaks which fpeak feveral Languages, flock to thi 
Village Uimtlla, to make Offerings; not far from hence are two ^its, one o 
which is full of boyling Water, and the other as cold as Ice: Moreo' :r, Cocori lie 
near a high Mountain, on the top of which is a very turbulent Lakf 

The chiefeft Haven of this Countrey, which lies along the Soutl -Sea, is^aU 
de FonJQca, Difcover'd by Gonfahes T>avila, Jnno 1522. and fo nam'd aom Joan^i. 
driven de Fonfeca, Biil-O^ oi Burgos ■ In the middle thereof appears t ilH^nd ?£tn 
nelld, with nine others, of which four are inhabited hy Indians. 

The good conveniency of the Haven fonfeca, induced fome of i e Spaniards t 
make a new PalTage from the fide of the Souchern Ocean, to the :^ orthern, a^k 
from Manama to ]>lombre de T>ios, deligning u to reach from the faid Javen Fonfed 
unto Puerto de Carellos, which are diflant one from the other forty five Leagues 
moft of it aood way, except fomc over-grown Mountains, which night be mad 
paffable with little trouble j to which purpofe they built the Town Bue?2a Efpera) 
, caj yet neverthelefs the Work remained unprofecuted. 

There are moreover reckon'd as appertaining to Guatimala, the fmall Provinci 
Socotiufco, Suchitepec, and Chiluluca, the chief of them being Soconufco, to which bi 
longs the Town of G^V^r/d», where the Sp^wi//? Governor hath his iefidencC; tl 
reft feem to be onely fmall Territories about Towns of the fame Name, in hi 
manner as St. Salvador, and St. Miguel before.mention'd. 

'wm "4 

t*» xfe, rfllt. jfe, r.K ^^ ^h Si> ^, ^. /"h A 

:iiiif,^ iiiiiiiiiiiiiii^^iiiiiiiii»iii' 5*»»5i»&5K 

C H A p. V. 

The Kin2;dom of Mexico, or New-Spain. 

bounds of 

N'fiTP Spain, the chiefcft part of the Northern America^ reckons in length froi 
the Eaft'Point oilucatan, to the place where JMechoacon juts againft Gu 
dalajara three hundred and fixty Leagues j and in breadth from tl 
Northern parts o^Tanucos, to the Southern Ocean, a hundred and eighty League 
befides a great part which lies to the Northward , behind inacceffable Mountaii 
and Wilderneffes ; inhabited by the Tepecuaenes, Guachucules, Cacatequa^, Tecaxamm 
and others- and was, before the Spaniards Conquered and Difmember'd it, muc 
larger than now it is -, for as much as it comprehended the whole Province i 
NeTi?'Gallicia, and reach'd from the furtheft Point of the Temnfula of Jucatan Sout 
ward as far as '^ewSifcay , and the Confines o^ Calif or mia Northward ; containir 
in length feven hundred Leagues and more, and about half as much in breadth 
But fince the Conqueft by Bmiando Corte^ and his Followers, the whole Countr( 
o^New-Galltcia is taken from it, and made a diftind Government or Judiencia , 

the Spaniards call it, of it felf. 


, > 


. 'H 

.¥" I 

1 fe 




The Original, 

L Theftateof, 

p thsMexican 

» Kingdom be- 

I fore the Spa. 

I. niardf anj- 

i yal. 








oiths Mexi- 
ij. Mw Kingdom. 

> oithsMext- 








1 I 



l) yAVJ.; 

^ .. no-r^- - 



I :i-tT Ji 


Chap. V. \ A M E%^1 C A. 

The Natives of the Countrcy are of the Race of the Gnchimc^, a Salvage and 
Wilde fort of People, of the Province of l>{zio-Gallia^^ efpeciaily in the Parts of 
HeivSiJcay, living in Forefts and in deep Caves under Ground ; whofe Pofterity do 
ftill at this day much trouble and annoy the Countrey thereabouts ; notwithftand- 
ing all the endeavors of the Spaniards, and the Garrifons which they keep in thofe 
parts on purpofe tode.ftroy them. About five hundred years ago.or more,accordinor 
to the account of the Mexican ^ww/5, divers Hoards^as they arecalFd, of thefe Chtcht 
mecx, weary, it Teems, of their Woods and fubterraneous dwellings,' iffu'd out into 
the more open Air, and fell down in huge multitudes into thefe Southerly parts 
of ^;«^Wc^, which are now called Mexico and Hem~Spam • not all at once, but at fe- 
veral times, and under feveral names, -.7^. of the Suchmilci^ Chalet .Tepanec^, TlafcaU 
tec^, and others, who fubduing or driving out the People they found in thofe parts, 
Seated themfelves in their room : , And though at firft every Nation or Company 
of them, as they came, feiz'd upon fome Province apart by themfelves, and held 
it, as it were, in Soveraignty to themfelves, without acknowledgement of any de- 
pendance or fubjedion to their Neighbors, or thofe that were there before them . 
^ct in Traa of time, and by fortune of the Wars , which they made one upon anl 
3ther, they fell under the Government of one King, yi^. the King of Mexico, 
ivhich was the chief City of the Province. 

This Kingdom, at the time that the Spaniards firft Difcover'd the Countrey was 
Sovern'd by a Prince, namM Mote^uma . one, who by his Valor and good fuccefs in 
^he Wars, had m a few years of his Reign, before the Spaniards came thither, fiib. 
lu'd the better part of a hundred Cities and great Towns to his Dominion • and 
leld m aaual fubmiffion to his Government, and Tributary to him, no lefs than 
hirty feveral Cajques or petty Princes, every one of which paid himTribute, and 
vere able upon occafion to bring into the Field an hundred thoufand Men : He is 
aid to have been, for his Perfon, a wife and good Prince, juft, affable, and tender 
)f his Subje^as good : but by reafon of fome heavy exa^ions, which his own pow- 
r,and the Pradife of his Anceftors before him,gave him the confidence to Impofc 
ipon the Conquer'd People, a great part of his Subjeas livM but unwillingly un- 
ler his Obedience, and rather by conilraint than otherwife : being alfo further ex. 
iperated agamfl him by one barbarous Cuftom, which the M.x/..«. frequently 
isd,v/^. the Sacrificing of Men. Their manner was, whenfoever they had any 
olepn occafion of doing Honor to their Devil.god Vit:^dopuchtU , as they call him 
ofend out an Army of Men from Mexico, into fome of the fubdu'd Provinces, (in 
:ale they had no Enemies nearer Hand) and to fetch in as many Men as they 
hought good, to be Sacrific'd 5 whofe flefii likewife afterwards they did eat in a 
olemn Banquet This being a bufinefs of their Satanical Religion, 2.nA Motezum^ 
.Prince extremely Superftitious and Devoted to the Service of his gods, it is faid, 
hat he Sacrifice commonly, one year with another, twenty thoufandMen, and 
ome years, upon extraordinary occafions, not lefs than fifty thoufand : So great 
nd grievous a Tyranny, by the juft Judgement and PermiiTion of Almighty God 
or their great and unnatural fios, did the Enemy of Mankind exercife upon them! 
le was hkewife much given to Women, but it was onely to fuch as were counted 
is Wives J of which he is faid to have had no lefs than a hundred and fifty with 
-hild by him at one time. 

The Bounds of this Kingdom at prefent are thus ; on the Eaft it hath a large 
^w; a {'\ r^''^' '^"^ ''^^ ^^'' ^'y ofNey^^Spam, or The Gulf of Mexico , On 
'',Z'''rf-^^^^^ ^^'^^^redelZur, on the North, the 

^It ot Hew-GalUcu, and part of Vionda y and on the South , Mare del Zur again, and 

^ ^ ^ part 


Tlie Original 

The flate of 
the Jktexicafi 
Kingdom be- 
fore the Sf>a. 
niard^ arij- 

T be bounds 
of the Mexi- 
can Kingdom. 


Richet of 


Pint- Apples. 

Fruit CiKiitl 

J M E XI C J. Chap. V 

part otGuatimala. It cxcendeth it felFin length from Jticatan South-Eafl, to the Bor 
ders of l^tit> Galliaa Northward, above eight hundred Italian Miles, and in breadth 
from fanuco to the South Sea, about half io much. It lieth wholly under the Tor 
rid Zone : nor is it a Countrey generally fo mountainous or high fcated, as fomi 
others of America are, but for the moft part level or low ; yet is it fo fann'd, (fo 
three parts at leaft of four, by the cooling Blafts of the Sea, and the Heats other 
wife fo moderated with frequent Rains, which it hath conftantly three Moneths ir 
the Year, vi^. June, July, and Ju^uji) that the Air is rendred thereby exceeding tem^ 
perate,and the Climate not unhealthful^efpeclally to temperate Bodies, and fuch a: 
are never fo little us'd to it. A. goodly Countrey it is, of inexhauftible Wealth anc 
Riches, whether we regard the Mynes of Gold, Silver, Brafs, Iron, O^c. of al 
which it hath many, and very good ^ or the Fruits of the Earth, abundance o 
Cattel, plenty of Corn and Grain, of which they have two Harvefts j or any othe 
Commodities and Endowments of Nature, which ferve for the enriching of th 
World. Amongft other things, it affords CaJ^ia, the Fruit whereof is a thing wel 
known,and much commended by the Apothecaries for its ufe in Phyfick, efpeciall; 
in Purgations, and removing of all Obftrudions of Phlegm, Cholcr, ^c. Sucl 
ilore of Balm, Amber, all forts of Gums and precious Liquors, as no Countrey ii 
the World is better furnilh'd with excellent Perfumes and Phyfick, than the King 
dom o£ ]>{eT& Spain. 

Amon<T the many other forts of Trees which this Countrey produces, the mol 
remarkable is their Tuna^, of which, there being five kinds, one is call'd Qumheba 
from whence proceeds that admirable Tindure, commonly known by the Nam 
ofCochinele, which is thus made : On the top of this Tree is found a Worm, whicl 
hath thebignefsandibapeofagrcatLoufe, which fo increafes, that in one year 
time a hundred Trees {hall be ftock'd from the feed of one of thefe Animals. Th 
Wormitfelf being white, after the Skin is carefully puUM off, put in cold Wate 
or Aihes, and fo dry'd, becomes Cochtnele, The bell fort of it is to be had in TlafcaL 
and that in fo great a quantity, that no lefs than five or fix hundred Jrrohes of Spa 
fitjh Meafure (each J} robe is as much as five En^Up> Bufiiels) is yearly Tranfportei 
thence. The other fort, which grows on the Mountains, and that which is not f 
carefully gather'd, call'd Chtchimecas, Dyes not fo well as the right Cochinele. Th 
T«w^ alfo bears a Fruit long and whitifh, with a fmooth Shell, and full of lit 
tie Seeds like Figs : The red, which are inferior in tafte to the white, colours th 

Urine red. 

The Pine:=Apples which grow here differ from the Spanifh^^ot the Pulp is no 
inclos'd in a Shell : They have a pleafant fmell, and a Pulp, which if eaten muc: 
of, caufes an Appetite, it being of a tartifli tafte ; they keep good a long time whc 


But much more beneficial is the Cacao, with which Fruit Kew Spain drives a grea 
Trade ; nay, ferves for Coined Money. When they deliver a Parcel of Cacao, the 
tell them by five, thirty, and a hundred. Their Charity to the Poor never exceed 
above one Cacao.'Hut, The chief reafon for which this Fruit is fo highly eftecm'c 
is for the Chocolate, which is made of the fame, without which the Inhabitants (b( 
ing fo us'dto it) are not able to live, notv^ichftanding it caufes Phlegm and V( 
miting to thofe that are ftrangcrs thereto. When the Enghjl? Commander Thoni 
Candtjh coming into the Haven Gtt^t«/co, burnt two hundred thoufand Tun o^ Caca 
it prov'd no imall lofs to all lS[e^ Spain, the Provinces Guatmala and Ktcaragua n« 
producing fo much in a whole year. The Trees on which this Fruit grows are d 
vided into four forts, differing in bignefsand fhape ; all of them arc very tende 



Chap. V^. 

^ M E'B^I C A. 

for they will not onely grow in no place but on their ufual Ground, but cannot en. 
dure the cold Nights Storms, or excefTes of Heat ; wherefore the Qc^o-Trees which 
grow out ofthe Fruit that falls off, come to no perfedion, except in fhady and 
warm Valleys ; which is alfo the reafoa why the Planters of n^w Spain plant the 
great Leafy Tree Qacao^uanthly (that is, The Mother ofthe Cacao s) near theC4C^o-Tree, 
that it may the better grow under the Shadow thereof j in which manner whole 
Woods are planted : In the fecond year it bears Fruit, which is fird ripe in January, 
and agam in the midft of Summer. Amongft the four forts the chiefeft is Qmthmtl, 
of an mdiffent heighth, and full of fliarp^pointed Leaves, which are faft to the 
Boughs without Stalks, and bears a great Flower of a yellowifli colour, which fal- 
Img off, leaves long, tough, and hairy Threds behind them, out of which grows the 
Cacayently, a Fruit which is oval, heavy like a Melon, of a Saifron^colour, of a fat 
and thick Juice, a bicterifli, yet pleafant tafte, and very cooling . being dry'd in 
the Sun It is thereby made fit to keep j it is likewife highly efteemM,becaufe the Go- 
colate is made ofthe fame. Before the Spaniards made themfelves Mafters o^Mexico 
no other Drink was efteem'd but that of the Cacao , none caring for Wine, not- 
withftandmg the Soil produces Vines every where in great abundance of it felf. 
But befides the Quathuil, Ne^ Spain hath three other forts of Gc^o-Trees, vi^. Meca- 
nal, pleafant to behold for its heighth, large Leaves and Fruit ; the next is the Xo^ 
:hucaual, which is lefs than the former , and la% the leaft fort, which is called 
Halcacahual. The Fruit of thefe four forts of Trees, though differing in Oiape, yet 
iS all one in power and operation. 

The Spamards to make Chocolate mix Mai^ (by the Mexicans callM riaoUi) either 
vhole or Ground, or boyl'd before with Chalk. Moreover, they put the red Ker. 
lelsalio in the Drmk, which grow in the Fruit ofthe Ahiote-Txcc. Ofthe Kernels 
vhich are dry and cooling, boylM in Water, and ftirr'd till it comes to a Pap, they 
aake Cakes, which mixM with the Chocolate, gives it a cleanfing power, and takes 
way all taites that caufe vomiting. 

Th,?c2i^ctMecaxochite, which grows creeping along the Earth, wich long and 

^ ^ j fraeranE 

.-.■Ms* "„ •( ' 

Niture of the 

2^4 Jl M E\I C A Chap. V. 

fracrrant Leaves, round Stalks, hairy Roots, and three long Cods which flioot up. 
wards. This Pepper tempers the over-cooling property of the Goco/df^, Laftly, 
it confiilsalio oi Xuchinacatlu^ Tlilxochitle, and the Rozenifh Gum, Ho//i. The Xocina- 
c^f/i is a Tree with imall Leaves, and great Flowers hanging on long Stalks thai 
bend downwards, within of a purple, and wnthout of a dark-green colour, of a 
fweet fmelljand refembling an Ear j and this Flower alfo gives a pleafant tafteand 
wholfom operation to the Chocolate. The Tltlxochitle runs up to the tops of Trees 
like Ivy • the Flowers, of a darkifli brown colour, cleanfe the Nerves, ftrengthen 
the Brain, and takeaway the rawnefs of the Stomach. The Holli drops out of the 
Holquahuyde, afmoothbarky Tree full of Moifture, which at firft appearance i; 
white, then ycUowifh, and ladly black, which kneaded into round Balls and 
Roafted, is a remedy againft a Loofnefs and forenefs of the Bowels. 

The Natives of the Countrey are very ingenious in divers mechanical Arts, 
efpecially in making of Feather=Pi(5t:ures, apieceof Curioiity wherein they are held 
to be incomparably, or rather inimitably excellent j andfo induftrious at it, thatal 
though the Americans ^encv^Wy are not a People over-much addided to any kind oi 
Labor or Study, yet at this they will fit a whole day together, without eithei 
Meat or Drink, onely out of a natural afFedion they have to the Work, and a defirc 
to be excellent in it j The Countrey indeed affords them great variety of Birds 
and other Fowl, of moft rare and exquifite Colours, which is a great advantage tc 
their Skill, and helps much to the accomplifhment of their Work. They Paini 
likewife very curioudy upon their Cottons j and are held to be generally the bcfl 
Goldfmiths in the World j of moft perfe(il: skill in the purging and refining of all 
forts of Metals, but efpecially of Gold and Silver: And yet in other things fc 
ftrangely ftupid and ignorant,that when the Spaniards firffc appeared amongft them, 
not a few of them (as 'tis reported) took the Horfe and Man both for one Crea« 
ture J and when the Horfe Neighed, they would enquire very ferioufly what he 

There are likewife many fair Lakes in this Province, but the principal arethofji: 
of Chapala and Mexico : the former of which is in the more Northern parts of the 
Kingdom, towards the Borders o^Nen? Galltcia.^ and is chiefly famous for the abun' 
dance of good Salt that is yearly made and Traniported thence. The other oi 
Mexico is one of the largeft and goodlieft in the World, of circular form (as 
fome fay) little lefs than nine hundred Miles in compafs, environed with the mair 
Land, the (Pe?ziw/«/^, or Cape of F/on<i4, Jucatan, and the l(\a.nd (^uha, having twc 
onely PaiTages in and out, and both of them well fortifi'd : the one betwixt the 
Point o^Jucatan and the Ifle Cuba, where the Tyde violently enters ; and the othei 
betwixt the faid Ifland and the Cape of HonW4, where it goeth as violently out : up 
on which Gulf the King of Spain hath always fome good Ships in readinefs for al 
occafions j and by them, 'tis luppos'd, he doth more affurehis Eftates in thofe part 
o( America, than by all the Garrifons befides. '^" 

The whole Kingdom of Mexico, or Ke"^ Spain, is fubdivided into thefe Inferioi 
Provinces : 

I. The Arch-^biilioprick of Mexico. 2. The Biflioprick , Mechoacon* 3. Lo 
Jngelos, or Tlafcale. 4. Guaxaca, 5. The Lo rd fli i p "P^nwco : And 6. theFrovino 

Mexico, the chief Province o[ l^ew 'Spain, fo denominated from Mexico the chie 
City, not only of the Province, but of all America • lying between Tlafcale and Mt 
choacan, extends in length from North to South, a hundred and feventecn Leagues 
and in breadth along the Southern Ocean, feventcen, but up in the Countrey, fife 


Lakes of 

The feveral 
I'r evinces. 



Chap. V. 

.a M E %^l C A. 

four Leagues ; In which circumferencd lie to the North-Eaft, UuotUbu, M^xtu 
liar,, Xdotefe<jue, and famco ■ Weftward, Matd^ingo, and Cnltcpeque ■ Eaft ward, Tu^. 
.COCO; South.Eaft, Qmlco ., Southward, Suchmulco, Tlaluc, Coyxca, and Acafuko. 

It is bounded on the Eaft, with the Gulf of A/exico ; on the Weft, with W«W- 
can- on the North, with 'Pamco. and fome parts oi fiew-Callicia ; and on the South 
with THafcalU. ' 

This Countrey is both large and rich, containing not much lefs than one hun= 
dred and thirty Leagues, both in length and breadth ; attd if it yields any thing to 
¥eru in the plenty of Gold and Silver, 'tis certain it much excels it in many other 
Commodities ; as namely, in all forts of Fruits, abundance ofCattel, plenty of 
Gorn and Grain ; in all which, the advantage this Countrey hath, not only of Tc 
ru, but of all the other Provinces of Jmerica befide, is well known : Not to fpeak 
anything of the great plenty and variety of good Fifh, which both the Rivers and 
Lakes of this Countrey afford, which is very great; infomuch, that the very Tri» 
bute of the one Lake ofMxicois faid to yield an Income of above twenty thoufand 
Crowns yearly, one with another. 

The People of the Countrey are generally Induftrious and Adive, efpecially 
fince the Spaniards ame among them; rich Merchants, if they apply themfelves to 
It; and they fay likewifegood Soldiers, when they are train'd and imploy'd that 
way. '^ ' 

The chief Towns and places of the Province are, i. Mexico, both anciently and 
at prefent, the Metropolis and Capital City; being the Seatof an Archbifliop, and 
the ordinary Refidence of the Vice.Roy, and chief Governors of 2^«-S/,^i«. 

This City, by the Indians was formerly cali'd Tenuftatan, lies in nineteen Degrees 
and a half to the Northward of the EquinoBial-Line , rais'd out of a brackilh Lake, 
full of muddy Water; whofe circumference along the Mountains is feventy 
Leagues; This Lake fwarms continually with Boats, which carry the People to 
and again from one inhabited Ifland to another ; four Stone-bridges, no lefs coft- 
ly than artificial, with Arches and Gates in feveral places, lead from the City to 
the Main Continent. ' 

The frefli Water which they have in the City Mexico, is led into the fame through 
Pipes that he m the bottom of the Lake; but none are to enjoy the benefit thereof, 
before they have paid a certain Sum of Money to the King's Colledors. 

Moreover the City divided into Iflands, contains above fixty thoufand Houfes, 
which being built on feveral Ifles,have large Bridges.which reach from one to ano- 
ther ; lome that lie in the middle of the Lake, they approach in little Boats, round 
ibout the Lake, efpecially where the way leads from the Continent into the City, 
lieleyeral Suburbs, all incWd with Walls; between which ftandftrong Towers, 
:over d on the top : To keep off the force of the Water, the Tenufiatans have with 
;reat labor and charge,made a Bank through the Lake,half way along the City: But 
lie Lake Lacuna, from whofe bottom Mexico is rais'd, is divided in two parts , the 
>«>.« Lake, which is higher than the Salt, falls in to the fame through Sluces, with 
Jridges built on the Bank that leads from the City to the main Land : The Salt- 
^Ke, which hath brackifl, and bitter Water, ebbs and flows accordina as the Wind 

fT' 7n '"'''' '° '"'' '" "-^^ '"*"^' '^'""'"^ the Water which in the fight 
.t Mexico fttlls into the fame out of the Mountains, hath a fulphury Ground : All 
^ong the Ihore, much Salt is made , with which the Citizens drive a areat Trade : 
I here are continually above a hundred thoufand Boats (by the Indians cAVi Acahs, 
nd by tlie Spamards,Canoos) going ofFand on from one fliore to another : The freOi 
vater Lake, which is bigger than the fait, and feeds fmall Fiflies, hath above fif. 


Bounds of 

Nature of the 


Chief Towns 

of the City 



<tA M E %l C A. 

Chap. V. 

The Tempe- 
rature of the 

ty Suburbs about the fame, of which, fomeboaft five thoufand, and others ten 

rhoufand Houfes : Nay, the Suburb Tejaao, rn former tirres was no way >nfer,or 

to U^.tco in bigncfs; fince the S^anuris have been Mafters of this Oty, they ftopt 

up many Moats, to inUrge their narrow Streets. . j., .- 

^Befis three pubUck Markets, every open place affords all forts of iProv.fions 

daily . the IniuJ c.W the Markets T.anguyftly, and the S^mad^.rwt^ueK; the firft«/co, adorn'd with Galleries on three fides ^ '" ^he mid- 

die of this Square, which is accounted the biggeft in the World, ftands next to the 

place of Execution, a ttately Fountain ; the Tents ^^^'i^^^/^^J ^"f P''^ j 

L here for Trade, amount to above thirty thoufand The fecond Market ca Id 

St. John's, is in K.xico, and fwarms continually with People The third ,s call d 

HMlu, from the G.aril.uSaint of the City, whither every Wednefday and Thurf- 

day comes fuch a multitude of People , that this fpacious Market is too little for 

them, for the fale of every Commodity, a peculiar comer is allotted ; but great 

Packs'are left to be difpos'd of in Boats, which lie near the fhore. 

At the four corners of the City, at prefent call'd St. John St. Man. WKotonia, 
St. fdlo, and St. Sebajl,a«, are above four thoufand Spamjh Families, and thirty 
thoufand !«&,«., befides what inhabit r<.K/«fco, now St. /o^o. 

The Air in this place is very ftrange ; in the day time, the Sky is generally Se- 
rene • the North Wind againft the Evening brings Rain, of which the Mountam 
7^4'"/?'^ lying a little League beyond the City gives certain Teftimonies; fo, 
when a bkck Cloud appears on the top thereof, it is certain to be Mown roni 
thence over Mexico with Rain : After a moift Evening follows a Starlight Nighty 
and a pleafant Morning : From September till My, it is generally dry Weather here, 
but if it chances to Rain , the Ram is attended with a Storm , which occaf.oni 
a fulphurous Fogg , very unwholfom, and fo dark that one Man cannot di- 
fcern^another, and caufes a pain through all the Limbs, nay fometimes Dea h . 
felf; wherefore, when foe're it approaches, every one keeps clofe m his Houfe, o. 

goes into the Countrey. t i • ^- • u '^ a^.. 

Moreover, it is worthy of obfervation, how ftrangely this City is alter d finc< 

its being Conquer'd by the Sfan.anU, and efpecially when Anno l6^9. it was over. 

flow'd by a mighty Deluge ; which alteration by Sarnde Cabo, in a Letter to th. 

JefuiteHernande Leon, is thus [a hnh: _ , v r 

n 1 1 • • « \r^\\p^T Kpr\x;ppn hioh Mountains, hath levent> 
Bmuahcaho Mcxtco . favs hc , Iving in a Valley Detween m^n iviuui , j 

P»o?or Leagues i^ circumference : The Valley being Oval, is for the mod part inter 

fpers'd with Lakes, which the Mlans,^nd after them .hcSpamard^ have digg d,onl3 

hLak! which waflies Me.uo is natural , and to ftop the Water-falls. there ar, 

Banks and Sluces every where : The Flood before Mex.calan^o flows.a Fathom an. 

!ha gher than beflre Mex.eo. The four other Lakes to the Northward ha. 

much m!re Water than the Mex.calan.o , of which, fome have fcarce four, other 

Tt three Leagues in circumference , when as Mexu.lan.os Lake reckons fifteen 

and Mexico s fixteen. On the breaking of the Banks, M«,o hath of-fuffer d gr 

dama.e, wherefore the Vice-Roy de Valefco took fpecia care to make a vent to 

the Water through the lo weft Mountains, whereupon the C°"ntrey being Sur 

vev'd the Northern Coaft near the Village Guep,enoca , was found to be the mo 

convenient. But about the manner of letting the Water out. the Surveyors coul 

no ways agree ; moft of them were of opinion to dig Channels into which h 

Lak" might d fcharge their Waters ., others, thought beft to make a Gutter und 

G ound, Ihich iJveUfia put in hand with ""^^^PPy ^-"J^' .'^"^"t/ ^e sln 
rers who under-min'd the Ground, were choak'd with the falling in of the San 




Chap. V. _^ M E%^1C A. Z45 

or ilifled with the fulphurous Vapors lifing oiit of the Earth : Neverthelefs, they 
gave not over the Work, though they began it quite another way,for a Fr^«c/;.Man, 
caird Henry Martm^ advis'd to deepen the River Quaiotitlan, which falls into the 
Uguna, and by that means make it a Bay, into which the Lagtma might pour her 
over-charg'd Waters : Which defign,though contradided by the Jefuit ^'o^w Sanche:^^ 
was put in pradice j by which means the Water fell in a fhort time fo much that 
they could walk dry to the Cliffy/ fonnel, lying a League from the City ; where- 
fore they continually laboured on this Work, till fuch time zsConde de Getues came 
over for Vice-Roy , who judgM the Charge to be unneceflary , nay Commanded 
the Ditches to be broken down, which ftopt the Water along the Silver Mines of 
fachucaj that he might fee exatftly how much it would over-flow Mx/'co : After ^«'«overi 
which the Flood rofe yearly higher and higher j till at h{{^ Jnno i6ic}. a mighty 
Rain falling, fwole the Lagu?ta in fuch a manner, that it over-whelm'd all Mexico 
wafli'd down the Houfes, all Merchandizes which could not endure the Water 
were fpoil'd, and had not they had innumerable Boats to help them;, thoufands of 
People might have periOiM in this Deluge: But at laft , Henry Martin reftor'd 
again the forc-mention'd Channel to its former Perfedion;, and brought the Flood ' 
which fell down out of the Mountains within the Banks of the River. 

Quantidandio^'d alfo a Channel of eight thoufand Fathom long, and made'ati 
Arch'd Sewer under Ground of the fame length , which Sewer hath at every two 
hundred Fathoms diftance;, Vcnt-holes,and ahole of fixty Fathom deep, and by this 
means, diverting abundance of Water, they dry'd Mexico in a fhort time : When the 
Banks and Streets began no fooner to appear, but they fell to work to raife the 
Ground, and to lay Bridges, and alfo to build more Boats. The Citizens like- 
wife found it convenient to make another deep Sewer for the carrying away of 
more Water, notwithftanding it required twenty years labor. The River, which in 
a manner runs through the middle of the City, is curb'd by a Wall j a crooked 
Bridge, with many Arches, and of a long extent, leads to the City, in which ftand stately Paia-- 
many brave Palaces, with pleafant Walks of I'rees about them 5 the Cloyfters of ''** 
feveral Orders of Fryers, appear with high Spires and- Turrets, above all other 

The Franci/cans have here four very fumptuous Buildings : The firft,Confecrated Andum^ 
to St. Francis, ftands in the uppermoft part o£ Mexico, within a large fquare Court, ^'"''' 
and on each a pleafant Walk of Trees : The Cloyfter it felf is very high, and treb' 
ble Wall'd, with Towers and Galleries about it : In the middle of the City 
ftands another Tower'd-Cloyfter, call'd St. Jago. The third lies a little diftancc 
from it, which being built long, hath a ftately Turret, and is called Maria de (I(odon- 
da. The fourth, not far from the firfl, but much fmaller, is namM San Diego • thefe 
belong to the Francifcans, The Auguftin Monks are alfo no way inferior to the' Fran- 
cifcans, for magnificent Strudures, with fpacious Halls, high Towers, and rich 
Balconies : The firft is denominated from St, Auguftine, juft behind which appears 
San (pahla, lefs ftately than the reft. St. Sebafltan, near the Laguna, is built in manner 
like a Church, whofe Tower ends like a Pyramid. The Cloyfter San Cru^, belong. 
ing alfo to the ^«^«/?-i«^,^ built fquare, ftands near the Market, in the middle of 
Which ftands a ftately Fountain ; The Court within inviroo'd with thick Walls, 
amazes the beholders by the plcafantnefs of its fituation. 

. Moreover, the Dominicans inhabit two brave Cloyfters ; the chiefeft Dedicated to 
St. Dominic, is eight fquare 5 to which is adjoyning a pretty large Church, with a. 
Steeple : The fecond, which ftands on one fide o[SL%go, and confifts of three fe. 
veral Strudures, is callM Collegw de forU UU, Oppofite to St, Jago, near the great 




Cloyflers be- 
longing to the 



The Vice- 
Roy's Palace 
and Arch- 
bifhop's Seat. 

The gallantry 
oi Mexico 2.x. 
this day. 

AMERICA. Chap. V. 

Market the J e/u its have a (lately Colledge , or High-School, where many are 
brought up in the Latin and Greek Tongues, whence it is callM, Cafa Trofeffa Les 

There is alfo another Habitation of Religious Men, call'd llkfonfe SannaKoykiad^ 
which for State, may vie with any Royal Palace. 

The C^lonks of La Merced dwell in two Cloyfters , both Confecrated to the Vir- 
gin Maryj yet Sirnam'd Montferatte, and Cannd : The firft lying not far from the 
River, is a mean Structure, in comparifon to the lafl: ; the uppermoft Tower of 
whofe Temple appears above all other Buildings, in the upper part oi Mexico near 
the Cloyfter of St. Fr^?2ci^. 

The Women have alio fourteen Cloyflers here, the chiefeft whereof is Dedica- 
ted to Catharine of Siena ; but much more fplendid is that of Santa Terefa, built like 
an Imperial Palace j famous for its ftately Gardens, and round Fountain, which 
continually fpouts Water. The reft, which we fhall onely name, are La Encar^ 
nacio , Santa Lies , Jefm^Maria , Laurenfo , Las Des-cakas, Santa Clara j Juan de la (Pe- 
nitentia^^ginaCceliy Santa Monica^ las^cogidas^ 'jeronjmo, znd Concept io?2e -^ befides the 
AlmQioufes, (^eal de los LidioSy and Nojira Senora del Amor : There are likewife eight 
Hofpitals, "p/;^. de Dios, del Spiritu Santo, Juan de Doys, d?, la Mifericordia., defan Hippoli' 
to, and defan La^aro. The three chief Churches bear the Name of Catharine, Mar* 
tin, and Fera Cru:^-, and the Clergy=raen thereto belonging, enjoy many ftately Pa- 
laces, amongft which are _/«d?z de Lateran^ de Chrtfto, and las ISii'Vas, 

The Refidence of the Vice-Roy which lies near the Vominican Cloyfter, ^orto Ccem 
It, isfo iumptuous a Structure, that it may ftand in competition with any of thofe 
Edifices which were fo much cry'd up by the Ancients ; neverthelefs, it is not to be 
compared to the Arch-biiliop's Seat, built round like a Theatre, whofe Lufter ex~ 
preftes the Quality of him that inhabits the fame, he being Governor of the Bi- 
iho pricks of F^j/cd/^;, Guaxaca, Mechaocan, New Gallciaj Chiapa, lucatan, Guatimala, Ve^ 
rapa:^, and the fhili^pinas. This marvellous Strudure was begun by Ferdinand Qorte* 
fim, but was finifh'd by Sehaftian %amires de Fuenleal j and not much inferior there- 
unto is the Cafa de Cahddo Mameda. 

At prefeot, Mexico is thought to be one of the richeft Cities of the World, 
abounding (if reports be true) in all kind of voluptuous gallantry and bravery, 
even to excefs : It is fuppos'd to contain about fix or feven Miles in compafs, and 
to confift of above an hundred thoufand Houfes or Families, whereof not the tenth 
part Spaniards^ but thofe that are, all Gentlemen, at leaft as to their garb and 
manner of living -, for they live moft fplendidly in all refpeds, both for Diet and 

For the firft, we have fpoken fo much already of the general plenty of all things 
in the Kingdom of 2^eTi?-Sp^m, that pertain to this part of pleafure, that it is not 
to be doubted : And for the fecond this may be fomc inftance, V/^. that it is no ex- 
traordinary matter to fee an Hat-band or Role all of Diamonds, in fome ordinary 
Gentlemans Hat • and of Pearl among the common Citizens and Tradefmen. 
The Coaches (which moft Gentlemen keep) almoft covered with Gold and Silver, 
richly befet with Precious Stones, and within ordinarily lin'd with Cloth of Gold, 
or the beft China Silk that can be gotten -, of which Coaches, in time of year, at the 
Jlameda, as they call it, which is, as it were, The Hide^Tark of Mexico, and a place 
made of purpofe for recreation and delight, a Man fliall obferve not feldom, above 
a thoufand or two thoufand Coaches, full of Ladies and Gallants coming thithei 
onely to take the Air, and their Pleafure, both rhe one and the other attended witl 
a numerous Train of Servants and Mtdattoes of both Sexes. In la flateria, which i: 





PIP jii ■ 1 

Chap. V. '^ J M E K I C A %^y 

buc onely one Street in Afciro, nigh to the Vice-Roy's Palace, in lefs than Iralf arl 
hours fpace : with the turn of an Eye, you may lee Millions of Wealth in Gold^ 
Silver, and Precious Stones, in the Goldfmiths and Jewellers Shops thereabouts. 
la a word, there is nothing hinders Mexico from being the moft abfoluce City in 
the World for delight and bravery, but onely two Inconveniences to which it is/ 
fiibjed: : The one is the danger of the Lake, with the Infalls whereof it may feem 
to be almoft continually threatned, and in the Year i6ip. did adually fuffer a very 
great calamity, the Waters breaking through the Banks, and drownino- a great 
part of the City, with the dellrudion of much People, and the lofs of all their 
Goods intirely, through the avarice (as is fuppos'd) of the Vice-Roy that then was^ 
and fome other of the King's Officers, who diverted the Money that fhould have 
been employed for the fortifying and repairing of the Banks^ to their own proper 
ufes : The other is from the nature of the Soil and Ground it felf on which ic 
[hndeth j which is found to have a tindure of Sal Nitre in it, fomewhat flrong - 
md the Winds partly from the Lake it felf, and partly from the Hills about it, rai* 
fing the Duft of this Earth conftantly every Evening, for many Moneths of the 
^ear together, Co violently, that the Air is even darkned therewith for fome time : 
rhe Inhabitants are much annoy'd by it, and made fubjeato divers Hypocondria« 
:al Pains and Infirmities, and fometimes kill'd with it, efpecially fiich as either 
:annotjOr care not much to avoid it. 

The City lieth about fixty Leagues, or a hundred and fifty Miles diflant from 
hejtlantick or North Sea, from whence by the Port of St. John d' Ullua^ or Vera 
Wtix, (which are the ufual Landing-places^ there is a fair and eafie March to Mexico^ 
)y the Cities ofXalabar^ Terotta, fuebU de los Jngelos^ and TtafcdUj all of them open 
.nd unfortifi'd Places, -(as likewife Mx/co it felf) and the Countrey round about 
'ery rich and well accommodated with all things, ' 

The next City of note in ancient times was Qhulula, which being built in a fruit- chyehtsiuk. 
ul Plain, had above twenty thoufand Dwelling-houfes, and as many more Ban* 
juetting-houfes. The number of the Temples and Turrets were equal with that 
>f the days in the Year : The Government thereof belonged to a Mayor and fix 
Udermen, and one chief Prieft,- for they never went upon the leaft Defign before 
hey had been at their Devotion j in which the Prieft's Office was onely to / 
»erfume the Idols four times in twenty four hours, vi;^. in the Morning, at Noori;, 
fter Sun.fet, and "at Midnight ; at which times nonedurilbeabfent, but they us'd 
Ifo a cruel Exercife on themfelves, and one much mort cruel on others, for on \ 
ilual Feaft-days they abftainM from Meat, Drink, ^nd Sleep, fcourg'd their Bodies 
vich knotted Cords after a miferable manner, evacuated their Seed, that fo they 
night curb all fleflily Defires, and met every Night in a fpacious place, where fir- 
ing down they wounded themfelves with Lances in ttieir Legs and Arms, fo Ions 
ill the Blood gufh'd out of the fame ; which gathering in a Cup, they anointed 
heir Temples therewith, and dipt the Lances in the fame, and then huncr them up 
leforethe Temple in Bundles of Straw. Of thefe were a great number, and -the 
aore, becaufe they never us'd their Lances but once. But on thefe Days, which 
vcxs Confecrated to the Idol Te;^catHpuca, every one befides the Priefts wore a new 
lope made of the Hemp Mtw^g, of a Fathom long, and a thick Knot at the endj 
vith which they beat themfelves fo miferably on their Backs, as if they intended to 
ave broken them : After which the Priefts ftay'd five days in the Temole, in 
mich they us'd the like. cruelty, eating fcarce once in twenty four hours. 

Their Prifoners they us'd after a mod horrid manner, Vi:^, in their Temples- 
:ood a round Stage of Stone 5 to rhe top of which they afeended by a Square Scaf- 



f rl 


^ M E KI C^A 

Chap, y, 

foldj fupportied by twenty eight Pillars j behind which appear'd thoufands of-Men: 
Heads, and amongft them the Piifoners that were to he Offer'd fat ftark naked 
and guarded by feveral Armed Men ^ three Foot from the Steps which led up tc 
the top of the Scaffold , ftood a pyramidical Stone, ( by the Imiians called Quauxl 
calli) and behind it two round Chappels, cover'd on the top like Mitres, each hac 
four Holes in a large Gate, in which fat a horrid Reprefentation, worfliipp'd b) 
fix Priefts call'd Chackalmua, whereof one call'd Tapc^, or Xopi/;^i?i, whofe Office wa: 
to pluck out the Hearts of the Prifoners, being in greateft efteem, wore a red Man 
tie about his Body, not unlike a long Coat, with broad Fringe, which trail'd af 
ter him upon the Ground, and alfo a Crown of green and yellow Plumes on hi 
Head; his Ears and under Lip were likewife adorn'd with Precious Stones: Th( 
other five appear'd in like manner with their Hands and Faces painted red^ but ha 
ving Leathern Fafcia's 2iboin their Heads , and white Coats ftitch'd with Black or 
their Bodies, they might eafily be diftinguifli'd from the Topl:^n-^ who on a fudder 
ran down the Stairs to the Prifoners, and file wM each of them an Image, (faying 
This is your God) made of Bledo Pafte, Mai;^ and Honey, green Beads for Eyes, anc 
Grains of Mdi;^ for Teeth : whereupon the Prifoners were led up, and laid witi 
their Backs on the fliarp Stone QuauxicalU ; then the five Priefts took hold of thei 
Leggs, Arms and Head, put woodden Collars about the Sufferer's Necks, whilf 
the Topil^m fliew'd Reverence to the Idol ; which done, with a fiiarp Stone he cu 
open the Breafts of the Prifoners, who in a deplorable condition lay on the pyra 
midical Stone, and pulling their Hearts out of their Bodies, fhew'd the fame reek 
ing to the Sun, and at laft threw them toward the Idol, and the dead Bodies dowi 
the Stairs, where fome appointed for that purpofe carried the fame awayj but eve 
ry one taking his own Prifoner, and roafting and boyling him, fervM him up to hi 
Friends as a great Dainty* 

This kind of Murdering was not onely us'd amongft the ^T^x/ai/iy, but alfo by al 
the other neighboring Indiansy and efpecially in the City Chulula, which (as we hav 
faid before) fignifies The Saniiity of all the Gods '. for in this Xown fix thoufan( 
Children were yearly Offer'd. 

The Citizens hereof us'd to drive a great Trade, efpecially in Cochincle. 

Their Habits were feveral j for Perfons of Nooe wore Cotton Coats, about th 
Edges of which hung Feathers and pieces ofCony-skins : the meaner fort went ii 
Ke^uons, or a fort of Linnen Coats made of the hairy Leaves of the Tree Maguey. 

3. The City Te^«co, full of handfom Streets and fair Houfes, is built near th 
fait M'^XiCd?^ Lake, yet hath no want of frefli Water, with which it is fupply'd b' 
Gutters from the Mountains under Ground, according to Anthony HerrerUy it twic 
cxccedcth in bignefs the famous City SiVill in Spain, 

4. Quitlayaca^ by the Spaniards call'd Vene:^uela, (becaufe it is, like Venice^ fur 
rounded with Water, and divided into feveral Ifles,) boafted formerly above tW' 
thoufand Families : From the Town a Cawfey of twenty Foot broad, and half ; 
League long, leads through the Lake to the Main Continent. 

5. Y^tacpalapa, a very populous Place, and lying part of it in the fait Lake, an( 
partly on the Main Land ■ where feveral frefli-water Pools afford ftore of Fifii 
two Leagues diftant from Mexico, to which leads a broad Way ; in the middle o 
which ftands a Fountain, farrounded with high Trees, which produces excellen 

6. Mexicalt;^ngo, fituate upon the Lake Laguna, a Town confifting of four thou 
fand ftately Houfes. 

7. Qayocauj in a fruitful Plain, containing fix thoufand, bein»- but a League ani 


•Chap.'' V. 



lA M E 1Q. r C A. 

Towns and 
plea fan t ViJ* 
i.iges abouEj 


HUm^omr^tac^aU^a: to which the neighboring Village HoucilopudQ was noi 
iuuch inferior. i bnJK ,2!3. 

Theie three Places, before chey were fubdu^d. by the %«^^^^^ boafted many 
brave Temples and high Towers, whofe luftre appeared at a great diftancc, but 
how being turn'd inco Cloyfters, they arc inhabited by Monks and Huns. 

The Salt made here of Earth, though not whke, and-'Onelf fie to make Pickle of 
is Tranfported to many-Places.'-'- ''''by - -^^H J; fJ3{ jid'// : 

About Mexico there are alfo feveral Villages^ ehe chiefiTftof which are i. Ma* 
ftulan;a-Tbwn pleafantly feated upon the top of an huge Mountain, in the midi\ro^ 
mod delicate Groves and fliady Woods, and reckon^ to cbfttain no lefs than thirty 
thoufand Inhabitants in all, dwelling eithe^ift'lhe City,- or updnchie:fides of ,^^^^ 
Mountain. wpK bn^ ,oj?m?;\hiaM v.y'afkV ^rli =T.^.eQ'j:: ^orml rno-iVrl ir.t 

2. Jntepccque. this-is a Town belohging^-CoV^ihe Mirqdefs^^r^f/^^^ of 
the Pofterity of Corf e^, and faid to be feated in the moft defeibus p^ce-^f^all Km 
Spain. 2Y!»nxir;oD bns .?9r)£fliV ?n^'->T J>-^^urf-, , ,.. mU.^ v.^., ^ 

3. Jcapulco, a Town Cc2itcd upon the South^Sea, or Mare del Zur, fat^bdongi 
ing to this Province. It is a haven-T^wn, aiid^ one 6f the moft freqtfeTited upon 
the South-Sea, fituate upon a large and capacioifs Bay of about a League broad at 
the Entrance, and affording many convenient' Stations and Docks for Shipping. 
At the bottom of the Bay Weft ward lieth. the ToWn, withaftrong Caftl^;vcry op. 
portunely built, both for the comn^and and feeiirity of theTbtt, well v^all'd and 
fortifi'd with Bulwarks, and having a conftant barrildn of four hundred Sol^iiets 
in It, or thereabouts.^ The reafon whereof, I fuppofe, may^beichiefly c'his'^fcthatJ 
from this Pore there is the greateft Traffick arid cEntercourfe hfeld betwixr^he EM 
and W^lif-i«^iey, together with the fM/^/«e Iflands. .:-iin^in-.d ' ^ ii.dr[aurh 

The Countrey hath many rich Mynes of Si^i^^^ 
chief of which are by Herera reported to be thefeV'Vi^. i. Thofc offuchuca - four. ^ 
teen Leagues diftant fVom Mx/co. .^ Of iV^o. y7^lpuw:a.:^. Culte,i.m.^:l^^^^ 
alpa<. 6, ^upanmo, 2nd divers othcrii r'^''^ • ^i« 1 

The reft of the Villages are Gmtitlan, Tenymca, Efcafufdco, T^uiJ; and Su^ 

., » ■ c, iu^iiW ,.3n£iJ(,«cjo),3ri3noani 

The neighboring Province X,te^WA, which is exceeding fruitful, is alfo famous^ 
br two Fountams, whereof one near the Village Queretaro produces boyline Water ^ 
which when cool'd is a vvholfom Drink for Cattel : The other for four' years is 
full of Water and for four years after it is empty ; in great rainy Seafons -h i* 
■}u,tedry,andmdroughty Weather it overflows. MiJ-'i 

- - Between the Villages Queretaro and S« Juan, is a Plain which extends it felf feveti 
Leagues m breadth and leven in length, befides two Leagues farther beyond Quar- 

^The Mountain ^evada, near the City Delosjn^eks, deferves ho' fmalVadiraJ 
.on ; for K begmsat thirty Leagues end to rife exceeding high, and being flat on 
he top, hath a wide gaping Mouth, whofe bottom is fathomlefs • froiit which at 
mn.rifing and rifes a Smoak up diredly towards the Skie, but imtnediatblv 
|^^^=rfpread,„g a Plume of Feathers, n is difpers'd by the Wind, ad n J 

nd pL r^°ZT "'f7 P'"'"^"^'y P'^"^^-^ ^"l' l<^fty Cyprefs, Cedar,Oak, 

nd^r Th Ju ""g''''°""g f-'d^ abound likewifewilh Wheat, Cotton 
nd Ma,^. There feldora appears any Rain here. 

At the Foot of this Mountain lies the Village %«<,, famous for the Gryftal 

' ' - ^\* ^ and 

Strange ' 

The wonder"" 
fuJ Mountain!' 


■.O***^**" IILII. IMJWl 

250 ^ M E%1 C A, Chap. \ 

and Alloni gotten there. The Village Ocotlan\s alfo maintain^ by the fame : Bi 
T«aif^/.i by Gold^Mines, and fruitful Lands, which are twice a year fliaken b 
Earthquakes j wherefore the Inhabitants live not in Stone Houfes, but in littl 

Straw Huts. 

South^Eaftward from Kerada is excellent Sugar to be had, and on the Mountaii 
it felf the famous Gum Anime, which drops out of a Tree call'd Jetatba, which is al 
ways green, with hard white Wood, a pale yellow fpeckled Bark, three long ioi 
Leaves hanging one over another on one Stalk, and the Fruit on the middle of th 
Body. After the rainy Seafon is paft in OEioher, then they cut a Hole in the Bod; 
of the Tree, out of which the Gum drops : it hath a pleafant fmell, and is exceed 
ipg good againft the Head-ache occafion'd by Colds. 

Not far from hence appears the Valleys Matal^^tngo and Jt^ompain, which hav 
cxccilenrPaftures, in which Diego l>{unne:^de Camargo bred forty thoufand Sheep ou 

pf two in ten years tim?. 

And thefe are the chiefeft Towns, Villages, and Countreys, which iurround th 

famous City Mx/'co. 
The firft Concerning the ereaing of this City, the Indians relate thus : That the feveuL 

t^hTatrof Family of the Nayatlacas, ExtraAed out of the Countrey J^tlan, rang'd up an, 
"^"'"'■^ ° down not without thoufands of Inconveniences, from one Countrey to another 
according to the Information which their Sages had given their Spirit Vt^tltj^utU 
tillat laft fomeof the Priefts ftraying from the Army, or rather Multitude,got int. 
a Wildernefs, full of Brambles and Thorns, and came at length to a Place wher 
was a Spring of clear Water, in which the FiOics glittered like Silver, where ta 
king up their repofe that Might, their Spirit inform'd the oldeft of them m 
Dream, that they (hould find thereabouts a Tunal Tree (whofe Leaves grow out o 
one another) under which, on a Stone, lay the Heart of the famous Sorcerer Qo^d 
This rumi Tree fliould be difcover'd by a Crane on the top of it, which in on 
Foot fliould hold a Bird, and in the other a Bough of the Tree, near which the 
were to build a City : The old Prieft waking, and relating his Dream, every on 
endeavor'd to find out the fore-mentionM Tree ; at laft they found it, by difcover 
ing on the top a Crane, with fpread-out Wings looking up towards the Sun, an. 
holding in hisClaws afmall Bird, inverted with curious Feathers: Whereupoi 
they with all fpeed built a Chappel of Turf and Clods of Earth, and cover'd th 
fame with Canes, to keep their Idol from the Weather, refolving, fo foon as the; 
could, to build him a better Temple. 

The Lake on whofe iHes they fetled, abounded with Fifli and Fowls, which the; 
cxchang'd with the neighboring People for Stone and Mortar for the building of 
Temple for r/;^t//i^«t;^/^and anew City • to which they made a Cawfey in the Lak 
Lagum, and divided it into four great Wards or Divifions, and fubdivided ther 
again into leffer , over which they plac'd peculiar Idols, and orderM a Crane hk 
that which they hadfeenon the T.../ Tree to be their City Arms. The dividin 
of the Wards occafion'd great diQike amongft the Grandees, judging thofe to vvhoi 
lot they fell, not to be worthy of them ; wherefore delcrting the fame, and trn 
veiling along the LakcL.^.^z., they fetled themfelves at laft in a fandy Soil, whic 
they caird 7lamlklco, and entertain^ a bitter hatred againft their Countrey^trie 
who kept the four Wards of the new rcnuftitnn, doing them all the mifchiel the 
could i whereforethe Affaulted weteneceffitated to chufe a King, that they migt 
be the' better able to oppofe their Enemies : But that they might not raife a Dil 
content amongft themfelves about ele^ing a Governor, they judg d it fitteft to tak 
a Foreigner , amongft whom they found none fo capable of fo great an Oftce . 



'hap. V. 




A M E%^I C A. 

Mmapmli, Grand.fon to- the King of «/;«.,.„, whereupon fending Ambaffadors 
thither, they obtain d cheirdefires. 

The new King was no fooner Crown'd, but he fettled all things in order with 
great Prudence, inlomuch, that Mexico grew daily to be more famous and fear'd ; 
But this fudden growth rais'd a jealoufie araongft the Neighbors, who dreaded 
their growing Power and Valor. 

The Tapunecaus who were alfo a valiant People, being the neareft to them , and 
having Acapu^alco fo. their chief City, made it their main d.fign, utterly to root 
out the K™, before they grew to be more Populous and Potent; notwith. 
ftanding they had hitherto receiv'd Tribute from them, for delivering the Lake 
Lasuna.o them which was a quantity of Timber and Plants ; yet they demanded 
not only more Tribute than formerly, but alfo in fuch a manner, as was thought 
impoiTible to have been perform'd, which was, that thofe Plants which were for- 
merly brought to them, as growing on the Land, (hould be fet in the Water, foas 
to come floating to them as they grew, to Jfc.fu^atco, which if they did not pay, 
they (hould exped to be all put to the Sword. The Mexicans much amaz'd hereat 
and not knowing how to produce the demanded Plants , F,ztliput^l. inform'd the 
oldeft Pneft, that the demands might be fatisfi'd, and commanded him to throw 
Earth on the Water, and to Sow Seed on the fame, which at the ufuai time produc'd 
Mai^.J^,, Ckas, Tomates, and the like, with which the Tapunecans bein^ fatisfi'd de- 
mand next a Goofe, and a Hen which laid Eggs, out of which the'young'^nes 
fliould ^par when on the floating Clods of Earth, the Nefts came oppofite to 
A^capu^ako which by the adviceofr,^.^,^/,- they perform'd fifty years one after 
another. Meanwhile, Jcamap>.di (who had inlarg d Mexico with Streets, Palaces, 
Temples, and Markets^ dying, would not name any one to fucceed him but lef 

the choice of the Eleftion to the Commonalty, who Crown'd his Son Vn^UoVuli 
and Marry d h.m to the King of tapunecans Daughter, that by that means they 
might gain his friendfliip, and be eas'd of their ftrange Annual Tribute ; Where- 
upon ./;«r%„./, the King ofTapuneca.s Daughter being Marry'd to F,t.,lomli was 
within twelve Moneths delivered of a Son', which the GrJnd.fachef al^'c^V 
^^Ipofoca which fignifies^ Gun -^Uch^^es Smoke, and afterwards was fatisfi'd with 
hat ^,f ^'.^"'','^7 f ■'V"^'y f^°- '•'^ ^---^ onely as an Acknowledgment 
ea t'c" :„'d K TT ^*-'^°f- 'oofing hi. Parents, in his'tenth ' 

eat was Crown d King, with a Bowe and Arrows in his left Hand, and a Wood- 
kn Sword in the right : Soon after he oblig'd his Mothers Father to be kind to the 
M.x..«, for they being in great want for freft Water, he had leave by Channel 
:o bring the fame out of the Mountain aap.kepec, a League diftant from " 

Wkh C^ I ""'': : '''' °^ ''''''''' ^"'' '^°"°™ Trees joyn'd toge! 

J and h?tftT r! ''' '^'^'■' ''" '^'^ P'-P-- being teight'and dura. 
>le, and the frefh Water by that means mixing with the Salt.they fent Lents to ^z- 
■apu^alco,ro requeft Stones, Mortar, and Work-men to make MnZsZt 
rhis melfage was ill refented by the Council of J^capu^alco • Mat (faid thevTl' 

h H rr f ""' "'"'"' ""'" '" '' "'"'■ ^-^-^ '■ This grudge wentToI 
dfh he Mwl „ V ''""'^f '^ ^ On-^eopoca) to forbid all manner of Trade 

M Teopk ., which laft being approvM of, fo troubled the King of the T.pune. 

^^ ^ - cans. 


between the 
and Menu 


lctt»h/ fuc- 
cek againli 
thi tapanecas. 


The Cujoa- 
tans utterly 
fubdu'd by 


A M E %^l C jJ. Chap. V. 

cmi that he dy'd of grief; for the Defign being fooii after put into, execution, and 
the'T«(>««ec/s breaking in the Night into Gmml^oiocai Palace, Murder'd him; 
which Murder made the Umcam thirft for revenge -, whereupon, fetting them- 
felves wholly againft the Ta(unecm$, they enter'd into a League with Vizsuco, and 
Culhmc^n, and chofe Izcodt, for his great Valor , for their King ; notwichftandmg 
AcamaMxtli had begotten him on a Slave. 

I^coalt was no fooner Crown'd,but he made great preparation for a War.though 
aaainft every ones Opinion, becaufe of the Populoufnefs of the Ta^unecam ; yet u 
was concluded on, that they fhould requeft Peace, and a place to inhabit on the 
main Continent, that fo they might remove from the lOes: This Requeft they 
thought could not be deny'd them in A^caf,iz.dco, provided the Mexicans brought 
■their Gods thither , and wholly conform'd themfelves to the manners of the T<./>k- 
necans, for othetwife they could expeft nothing but utter Ruine : Yet though eve- 
ry one elfe imbrac'd the Propofal, TUcaelM, the King's Nephew, ftiffly oppos d it, 
alleging, that it did not agree with the Mexicans quality, to make fo mean and Ha. 
vifli a Proffer • and chat they had beft confider , firft if there were no other means 
to be found : and that he would willingly venture his Life in going to AzopK^tlco, 
as a Spie, to pry into their whole Defigns and Intentions, which was perform'd ac- 
cordingly • andfoon after returning, he brought information, that the tafumcam 
were making great preparations for War, and made no mention at all of Peace ; 
which news ftruck a general fear into all Peoples Hearts ; many defirmg that the) 
might fave themfelves by flight ; but ^co^lt putting frefli courage into them mad( 
an agreement with the People, that if he was beaten by the Tal>umcans, they fhouk 
eat him up • but if he prov'd Conqueror, they fliould all be at his Command ; t< 
which all confenting, they boldly march'd withtheit King to the City J^rafu^ako 
The Front of the Army confifting of the prime Nobility, was led by TlamM, an< 
the Rear I:^codt brought up, who was alfo to give the fign on a Drum, when the; 
fiiould fall upon the Enemies ; who having ten Men to the Mexicms one, fuddenl: 
Sally'd out of the Gates, where they were fo briskly entertain'd by Ttacaellel, tha 
in a confus'd manner they foon ran back into the City, whither the Conquero 
purfuingthem, got withm the Gates, where he put all to the Sword which h 
could meet with ; fome fled to a fteep neighboring Mountain , whither bemg alh 
follow'd, they threw down their Arms, and begg'd Quarter, to ferve the Mexican 
as Slaves, which was granted them, whilft hcoak found an unvaluable Mafs o 
Treafure in J;^ca^u^alco, and diftributed the Conquei'd Countrey amongft thol 
who had behav'd themfelves beft. _ 

This Conqueft made the neighboring People jealous of the Mexicam, whole Sue 

cefs and grov?ing Power they dreaded. 

The Towns Tacuba and C-y^can, though they had Governors of their own, y< 
were fubjeft to the Tafiumcans, vihok General advifing thofe oU;^ca(u^nlco to try an 
other Encounter, they took up Arms again; but before it came to a Battel, th 
Cuyoacans play'd a fubtile trick with the M«ic.,«, for inviting them to an Idolatro^ 
Feaft, after they had Eat, Drunk, and Danc'd, they fore d them to put on W<: 
mens Apparel, to their no froall difgtace and ignomy ; which remain d not unre 
veng'd for the Mexicans made a Poyfonous Fume in the Gates of Cuyoacan,v.'hK 
made Women with Child to Mifcarry, and many to fall dangeroufiy lick; yetlall 
ly both Parties march'd into the Fields, where whilft 7<™/t was elfewhere w 
saVd, Tlacaellel marching about, came upon the backs of the Cy^acam with luc 
eagernefs, that thev fled to a ftrong Temple, wl.ich foon after let on hre t 

Ikcaellel, who purfu'd the Enemy ten Leagues, 




K*i. J . iiiiiiP umi^rsr 


\ °-V. 





THB^3— ai 

<tJ[ M E%^ I C J. 

Chap. V. 

This Conqueft fth--d up the S.cln,n.lco., rhe firft of the naV.dacas to flop 
the p.oceedmgs of the Me...., that they ,.ight not, as'they had already dln!°o 
others, fall upon them ; to which purpofe tiey thought to r.„nriz. th. r 
ing At.y bu. TW.^. who led the V^^maL-d ^,o:/oS::f:^ZZ 
cW.».,fell refolutely upon their whole A|rny,,and after a fl.ort conflift pu them 
to fl.ght, an tookthe City ^«.«, for ^oM, m, being Crown'dtir^t" 
Co.nmanded the Conquer-^ to make^ diteivMad %twi^ SuMMco and m2 ' 
of four i^eagues Jong^ bot , that a Trade^ight the cafier be drove between^S 
t^o, and tok«p them tJ.e betterin awe : Notwithftanding the^'am 
pies, G^to.c..,aC ty bui^t atthe lAcL^u, trufting to the abundfncT^B^r 

rlj-^y Hf '^^'^^r ^'-^'^ "^'^-'J to,ft„d his y,i,rious Atlf^h 
dK, bacM/oppofing thefime, promis'd to fiibdue the Rebelling Cit/with 
a confiderable number of Boys, which had:-sk.!l. in t?,e managing of a ci,o ^h i h 
bemg permuted him, he accordingly r«ade himfelf Mafter^of^cllv I' ^1 
whence the Boy. brought a greatBooty, .nd d.vets Prifoners, Zm Z'i^ " 
an Offering to r/f;<;<>H/f;5;.«. j.^ . vm tney lent as 

„lTt'^ "ll?""^ ;f;yiaorie.Keinglpre*d far and near, mcyy-iTe^uco after ftve- 
LtT^'' Co^fli^ with TUcaeUel, tofubmit to the a4.L Ki.g Zo 

cho(^ the Governor thereof for his Prim. Golincellor. %o./. De.eafing 7Z 
havmg Reign d twelveyears, his Son Muuc^n^a was chofen his SuccelTor !he E 
a.oa and Coronation beih^ perform'd after the following manner. ' 

The new King mantled in Tygers Skins, was led into the chief Temple before a 
H arth, on which burnt Fire both Night and Day ., not far from which ftoo h 
Throne where fitting dowa,h. Offer'd Blood, which was taken from hilcheeks 

■ V vr T\f" "'^'^''' ^" O--' Congratulated him, in thrnam^oftc' 
Nobdity , which done, they ended the Solemnity in a great Dinner FirWor 
and Dancmg : At the fame time it was eftabl^fli'd .ht 11 c ^"«' W'orks, 

^ould be kept with an Offering of ProviS,'lthUry tt'e Kr;:u^f ^ r 

"f the N ?"'' '- :r'T """^^^"^ §°'"S '° ^^^ C-"-y ci, took f ver ; 
Cot,^ rL'loTv S making Hearts he Offefd to r,,r/,4 : Which don J h 

froTarthentrb •;"'"""" 

trom all tlje neighboring Provinces : Thofe which were Tributaries br«„ U 

Ptefents with them, before which the Heralds carry'd the Coats of ArL K 1^ 
ing to the Nobility of Mrn^, in a good order ^ '^ '*^^^°«^ °f Aims belong. 

t J::rS^dS;d'trr,::s trvif ' f '" rr ""' -'- '"'''' 

among feveol other PHloners/'rjhlS'c ^'uer ^iS^"''''' 
nient. which at firft he refus'd, but at laft acceoted ofl ^^ j • ^ ""° 

high Maft fliould be ereded wi h a S affolSt r ." T^^T"' '^'' ' 

ruppofe, that M..,Ws Brother ^^^t!^:.^ 2' it;:'^^! 7 

and ipaketo the taken which were there Prefent ro this eff.-T- • n , 

fome Flowefs SiSt ;'°"I TT T'^'^\'^ ^'^ "" '°-" ^-d, but with 
which for„ra.?h a A '" t" u"''' '^'"'' ^'""^'^^ ^^'^'^ ^-^ '''^ Scaffold, 
that wX'epiSn? :;'"■■ " f '^ ''^"^''"^^^ "^" ^" the other M.x,W 
notonelyS cS: f "" "°^'°"S after was reveng'd by Af«f.c^«,„, , ,,ho 

attempted that ttt^' \"f "^"" ''■"°^'"«'' '"^-g onely T/./c /. un= 

«*ucmpced, that the Mcx/c^^j miaht have 3 npmhKr^ri^^ t: . r , ^ - 

ij^oc nave a neignbormg Enemy to fetch Prilooers 

^ ^ 3 ^ from 

Tezcuce fub- 
mirs to the 


Prifoder by 
thofe of Chai- 

An example 
of great Fide- 


of the Tem- 
ple Cu. 

J M E'KI C J. 

Chap, V, 

from for their Offerings, and alfo by Skirmifliing with them, train up their Youth 

in Martial Difcipline. 

Thus his PredecelTors and he, having Conquered divers Provinces, infomuch 
that he v\ras now become abfolute Emperor over a vaft Traa: of Land, he refolv'd 
to fettle the fame in good order ; to which purpofe he ereaed Courts of Judica- 
ture, with good Laws ; built a ftately Palace and Temple ; ordain'd fevcral Cu- 
ftoms to be obferv'd in Religion • which done, and having Reign'd twenty eight 
years, he Deceafmg, left Ticocic for his Succeflbr. 

The foremention'd Temple was call'd Cu , being built of Stone, in form like a 
Serpent, of an exceeding bignefs, in the middle thereof there was a fpacious open 
place, and roundabout it Habitations, two Stories high, the lowcrmoft for the 
Inferior Priefts, and the uppermoft for the High Priefts^ in this place alfo above ten 
thoufand People Danc'd in a Circle, on all high Feafts; four great Gates fac'd the 
like number of broad Streets, each two Leagues long : On the outmoft Gate flood 
large Images, the Front of black Stones, Painted between each Lay with red and 
yellow Colours, no lefs Beautiful than Artificial: On each corner of the Tem- 
ple were plac'd two Marble Statues of Indians , fitting with their Arms ftretch'd 
out, and holding a Candle, and on their Heads Plumes of Feathers : Thirty high 
fteps led up to a round place, fet about with Deaths-Heads, which was a Stage ap- 
pointed for the (laughter of thofe,whofe Hearts were to be Offered to the Diabolical 
gods, and whofe Heads, their Bodies being eaten, were brought back to the Priefts, 
who'hung them under the Stage, where every Head hanging till it droppM off, the 
vacant place was immediately fupply'd with a frefh Head. At the end of the 
Stage flood two Chappels, cover'd like a Gr^iW^s.Cap, in one of which fate th^ 
Image of rt^dj^ut^lt, and in the other Udoc, to which led a hundred and twent) 

Stone fleps. 

But befides this ftately Temple Cu, Mexico boafted nine more, ftanding not h 
afunder in a large Plain, all adorn'd with curious Imagery, and fet out with larg 
Pillars each bein^ Dedicated to a peculiar Idol, and built with magnificent Apart 




Chap. V. ^^ M E%^I C A. ^^^ 

ments, for the Priefts to lodge in ; the chiefeft of them Dedicated to an Idol 
caird Tci^eadipuca, or Lord of the Humble. This Temple was afcended to by eighty 
ileps, and had before it a fpacious Court ; within a low and broad Gate appeared 
a high Vail, which open'd into a fpacibus fquare Hall, hung with Tapeftry, at 
the end whereof flood large Images , and beyond which were feveral. Rooms 
in which Ailemblies met', Scholars were taught, Judges fate, and Priefts Re- 
fided. _ • 

But to return again to Mutec;^u?nay his Funeral was no fooner finifL'd;, but the '^'"^"^^m rz^ 
four Prime Councellors were attended by the Commiflioners of Te^cuco and Tacu- KSgdomsto 



ha, in order to the Eledion of a new King : Tlacaelkl being the chief amonoft the 
Dukes, was by a general Vote Saluted King, as being moft worthy thereof, for 
his fpecial Services Oiown in behalf of the Empire of Mexico : But he humbly re- 
fufing the fame, was defir'd to Nominate another, whereupon he making choice 
o^Ticoctc, Miitec^umas cldcd Son ; the Council immediately bor'd a hole through 
his Nofe, and hung an Emrauld in the fame. But before he received the Crown 
he wasforc'd, according to the Cuftom, to fetch in fome of his Enemies for an Of- 
fering, which though he performed, yet he lofl more Mexicans than he took Prifo- 
ners;, riot without fufficient teftimony of Cowardife j. which being ill refented by 
the People, he was Poyfon d in the fourth year of his Reign, and fucceeded by his 
.Brother Jxayaca, by the appointment ofTkcaeUel-^ who having attain'd to a great '^^"^'''^'^ , 
Age, and left the Charge of his Children to the new King, departed this Life, to '°'" '"^' 
the great forrow and griefofthe whole Empire 5 by the States whereof he was Bu- 
ry'd with great Solemnity. 

In the mean time, Jxayaca went with a confiderable Army to the remote Pro- ^'^vi^'^ry ; 
yince2e^uahtepek,-to ktch Prifoners to be OfferM at his Coronation 5 and march- Jjf^r''" ' 
ing before alone, Challenged his Antagonift, the King, to afingle Combat, which ^" ' 
he refus'd, and chofe rather to fall upon Jxayaca with all his Forces 5 whereupon, 
the Mexicans cunningly feignM flight, ambufcaded themfelvcs till the Enemies pur' 
fuing them, gave them their defir'd advantage, for ruOiing out of their Ambufcade, 
they fet upon the Teguantepecks, Co diforder'd, that they eaiily put them to flight' 
and had the purfuit of them as far as Guatulco, a noted Haven upon the South-Sea ; 
from whence Axayaca returning Vi^or , received a Crown for a Reward j yet 
notwithftanding thefc Proofs of his Valor, the Lord ofTlatellulco Challenged him 5 
whereupon he fent Agents, thither, with proffers , that fince the Citizens of T/4- 
tellulco were of one Blood with the Mexicans, whom they deferted upon the divi- 
ding of the Wards and Towns, juft before the Eledion of the fivi}: King Jcamapixtli, 
they fliould, if they received anew into fellowfiiip and alliance with the 
Mexicans, acknowledging one and the fame King for their Supreme Head and Go- 
vernor : But the Ambaffadors being fcornM and laugh'd at for their proffers, re- 
turning, related the fame to Jxayaca, who immediately marching thither to take 
revenge, fent part of his Army to fall on the Enemy by Water^ whilil himfelf 
falling upon them by Land, put the Lord of Tiatelklco, with his whole Army, to ' 
flight, which was fo clofely purlVd, that they forced their way into the City with 
them, put the Governor to Death, and laid' the Town in Afliesj thofe which 
Wentby Water, having had no lefsfuccefs, ^ . 

Jxayaca, after eleven years Reign, Deceaiing, bequeathe his Crown to Jut^ol ^-noH.c. ' 
who fought to promote his Eledion by ingaging with the mighty Province Qua. ""'^''' 
xutatlan, whofc Inhabitants, though but a little before, they had been fo bold as to • 
demand Tribute of the M.xrc4«5, yet terrified at the approach oC Jut:^ol' s hx my, 
tied over an J\rm of the Sea, where they had been fecure, had not Jut^ol invented a 

' " ' " ' Fioatirig '• \ 

IS 6 

a M E %1 C A. 

Chap. V. 

A'AtxpW Ge- 
ntrotity and 

The Lord of ( ( 
2ejfHfO his 
Speech to 

floatnia me of Planks, by v^hich he got over his whole Army -, upon which the 
^r^^Aona^maUm .mmed.ately fubmiued chemfelves to the M™. who put- 
luingtheirViaory, extended their Dominions to G«.fimA over a Traft of three 

hundred Leagues. i j i- nr i • 

The n^w Kina havingnow fubdu'd all his, and made himfelf glorious 
by hisViaories/was alfo ambitious to be as much extoU'd for h.s Generofity 
and Magnificence; to which purpofe he diftributed all the Wealth was 
brought unto him from the neighboring Countreys, amongft the Poor and the No- 
bility" to the firft he gave Clothes and ProvifionS; to the laft, Plumes of Feathers 
and Aniis. Moreover he caus'd all mean Houfes to be puU'd down and new ones 
to be built in their places. Lafxly, he coniuked how to bring frelh Water mto 
W.vko which was plac'd in a brackifii Soil : Upon this Defign he was fo bent 
that when one of his Sages diffwaded him from it, alledging, lUt the Water i^ould 
hown the Qty, he, in ftead of following his Advice, bamfh'd him h.s Prelence, and 
upon his flying to Q^jaocun, caus'd him to be fetch'd from thence and Executed. 
Then profecuting his Defign, he cut the Ditch before Quyaocun, by means 
areatftore of frefh' Water came flowing into the Lake L<.^«h;!, which the Pneiis 
welcom'd with ftrange Ceremonies ; for fomeperfum'd the Water, others OfFer'd 
Quails Bfood, whilft others play 'd on feveral Mufical Inftruments, with many 
other Ceremonies, which are at large defcrib'd >n the ancient Mexkm Chronicles, 
kept in the Vatuan Library at '^ome. But the Prophecy of the Executed Sorcerer 
was in a manner fulfiU'd ; for the Water overwhelm'd a great part of Mix,co and 
divided the City into Ifies: But to prevent farther Mifchief, Autzollc^a%i Banks 
to be rais'd , and Channels digg'd ; and not long after, in the eleventh Year of his 
Reign, he deceased : After which the Unctcm Kingdom tended towards its period, 
as the enfuing Story will declare. , 

Amonaft the Mexican Nobility, Mntexuma, a melancholy Man, yet very prudent, 
who refid'ed in a ftately Apartment near the great Temple C«, that there he might 
the better convetfe with nztU^u^tU, was elefted King ; which he no fooner heard 
but fled from hence : but being found out, he was againft his will led to the Grand 
Affembly, and from thence to the holy Hearth,where for an Offering he drew Blood 
out of his Checks, Ears, and Legs ; and, according to an ancient Cuftom the O^n. 
dl of State boring a Hole in his Nofe, hung an Emerauld in the fame ; after which 
the Lord of T./-«co faluted him with a Speech ; which (fince it is mention db> 
Jofephi' A<.>., together with feveral other Speeches of Congratulation to then 
KiiL, which were taught to Schollars, to make them expert in their Language) 
it will not be amifs to be annexed here, that of many this one may ferve for a pat- 
tern of the Mexicans Eloquence, which is as foUoweth : 

THe great happinefs, moft noble Mutec^um,v^hych is befall'n this Realm b, 
your Eleftion, may eafily be conjeftur'd from the general ,oy, none be 
" fides your fdf being able to undergo an Office, in the management whereof fi 
« much Prudence is requir'd : It is a moft certain teftimony that God loves Ato. 
"that he hath aiven its Inhabitants unde.ftanding to make fuch a Choice. Wh< 
"can doubt, but that you who have expatiated through the Heavens and cor 
" vers'd ^miW^ztUfuztU, may eafily Govern us Mortals on Earth ? Who can de 
" fpair but that the Vcrtue inclos'd within your Breaft, will extend to the Widow 
"and Orphans? Therefore rejoyce, O Mexuo , the Heavens have granted tis 
" Prince without Vice; Merciful, and not a Violator of the Laws ; AflabK 
'« not d-fp.fincT common Converfation. And you, O King, let not this great Pr< 
i- <^ . *< termer 


lap. V7 

J M E R I C A 

'' fermenc occalipn any alteration in your To long known Vertues : The Crown 
" breeds care for the publick good J the troubles thereof muft extend over the 
*' whole Realm_, and every one in the Realm. 

Muteczuma having heard out the Speech, would willingly have anfwer'd the pi^^P^fado", 

C' i. ' o J fortheCoio- 

fame, but could not utter a word for Tears, which aufh'd from his Eves. Before "^"''" ^"^ * 
he went out to fetch Prifoners for Offerings at his Coronation, he firft fetled his 
Houfliold Affairs. ^ And whereas till this time the Kings had been ferv'd in their 
Palaces by ordinary Citizens, he took Knights, and the chiefeft of the Nobility, 
intending thereby to make a diftindion between the Nobility and the common 
People , and add more Majefty to the Royal Dignity. This done, Mutec^ma 
marching againft a certain rebellious Province, fetch'd a^ conliderable number of 
People to be Offer'd to Vtztt^^uztlu At his Return the Coronation- Day was ap- 
pointed, againft which thoufands of People came to Mexico -^ even their very Ene« 
mics o^TlafcaUy Mechoacaji, iind TepeacUy which were never conquer'd by the Mexi^ 
cans, flock'd thither in great numbers. All thofe Countreys which were under 
Tribute bringing unvaluable Treafures^camc in vaft Multitudes, which To thronged 
the City, that the very tops of the Houfes were fiU'd with Spectators, no King in 
CMexico ever going to the Throne in fuch fplendor ; nor was ever any King To His Graa-- 
much fear'd by his Subjeds, none of the common People daring to look in his '^^"'^' 
Face J neither did he ever fet Foot on the Ground, but was always carried in a 
Chair on the Shoulders of his prime Nobility ^ he never wore a Suit of Clothes 
but ance, nor ever us'd a Cup or Difli after it was once foul'd j he ftri<5tly main- 
tained the Laws which he had made, and often went himfelf in aDifguife, to make 
a ftri<5t enquiry after all Affairs whatfoever 5 by which means the Mexican Power 
was now arrived to the higheft top : but, as other Realms, grown top-heavy with 
good Fortune, turn at laft topfie^turvy, juft fuch a Misfortune befell Mxico ; but 
not without feveral fore^running figns of its deftru(5tion : for in the City Cholola Theruincof 
their God Que^akoalt informed them, that a ftrange People were coming to take Empire'prog- 
poffeflion of the Mexican Dominions^ and their Soothfayers prognofticated the fame, 
for which Mutec:^uma committed them all to Prifon, and doubtlefs had put theni all 
to death, had not they efcap'd with the help of the Mafter of their diabolical Art . 
and though they efcap'd themfelves, yet their Wives and Children were all put to 
death upon the King's Command : Soon after which appeared a mighty Comet, 
or blazing Starfor a whole year together j the great Temple Cu was fet on Fire, 
and burnt to the Ground none knew how ; the Water which was thrown on the 
fame to quench it, burnt like Brimftone 5 in the Skie appeared three fiery Heads at 
noon»day, and out of a long Tail fhot Sparks on the Earth ; the Laguna, between 
Mexico and Texcuco, began to fwell into a Tide, which turn'd fome Houfes topfie- 
turvy ; a flirill Voice was heard in the Night crying on the Water, Children, your 
mine is at hand 5 whither jhall I carry you that you may not he lojl ^ ^ , 

No lefs ftrange is what d' Jcofta relates of a Bird prefented to Mutec^ma^ not a miraculous 
unlike a Crane, which the Fifliermen had taken on the Laguna ; on the fhining E"<i- 
Forehead of which there appeared the refemblanceof two Armies Engag'd, and one 
defeated by the other, and that whilftthe Sages, calFd to interpret the meaning 
hereof, fat in Confultation, the Bird vanifli'd. 

Moreover there goes a Tradition, That a Countrey=man being at his Labor, Another ofa 

It,, O f Country- 

Was taken up by an Eagle, and carried through the Air into a gloomy Cave, where '^^"• 

a Man lay faft afleep fnoaring, when on a fiidden he heard a Voice afar off, faying, 

2)o you know thatMml whereupon the Countrey^man taking fpecial notice of the 




New* «jf the 
arrival cf fhe 
the SpaniJIi 

committed to 
Prifon by 

marches a- 
gainft Velaf- 
f «f j's Party. 

dormant Man, knew him, by the Royal Apparel, to be yfutexuma ; after whicl 
the Voice was heard again, faying, How foundly doth he ^eep : the thne is coming 
iphtch proVides f mi figments for many Qr'mus j hum the Snoarer with the Torch li^hich he hold, 
in his Hands, he i^ili ftel y:o pain : Not long after he being informed hereof, and look= 
ing on his Thigh, found the fame burnt, to his no fmall amazement. 

Having now poffefs'd the Throne fourteen years^ he received news of i 
Fleet, and therewith a Draught of the Men and Veffels painted on Cloth. Thi; 
ftartling him, he immediately advis'd with his Council, who j^idg d it convenieni 
CO fecure the Coaft along the Southern Ocean with ftrong Watches ; yet neverthe 
lefs Ferdinand Cortefms Landed with five hundred Foot and fixty Horfe, took th< 
City Totanchajium, march'd through the Countrey Stcuchimalar to Tafcalieca, when 
they had a fliarp Conflid, in which the Spaniards were in great danger 5 and hac 
not they had fix Field-Pieccs with them, which did as much affright as hurt th( 
Indians, they had without doubt been cut off there. In Chiurutecal they were in a; 
much danger ; for certainly the Spanifl? Army had been fet upon in the Night, hac 
not a Woman inform'd them of it. 

Mean while Mutec:^ma confulted with his Sorcerers to deftroy Qortefim by Charms, 
who then was marching through Chalcoj whereupon a confiderable number of Sorcd 
rers went thither to the top of a high Mountain, where,as they were beginning tbeii 
.Incantations and Charms, their \Ao\Te:^calipuca appeared to them '• and in an angr) 
manner told them, That Montec:?^uma fliould lofehis Crown and Life ; and to con^ 
firm his words, he fliew'd them a dreadful fpeitacle ; for looking about, they faw 
the City in a light flame. This being told to Uutec^uma, he refol v'd to make him- 
felf as fecure as he could, and went to meet Cortefim with coftly Prefents, delivering 
him the Crown in the prefence of all his Council ; to which purpofe he took on( 
Marina, experienced in the Cajldtan Tongue, with him for his Interpreter j all things 
then Teeming to end in Friendfliip. But they continued not long in that ftate - 
fbr Qortefim, whole whole Defign was to bring Mexico under the Spaniards Sub- 
jedion, not long after accus'd Mutec;^uma, thit Coalcopoc a had on his Commands 
ftorm'd the new Spanifi? City Fera Qrux, which he could no way excufe ; and not- 
withftanding Mutec-^uma deliver'd him Qoalcopoca, with fifteen of his Nobles Prifo- 
ners, who were all burnt with green Wood ; yet he was committed Prifoner, to 
the great difcontent of the ^Mexicans, who faid, " That they were now come to a 
" finepafs, to be thus fool'd by a few Strangers, who had imprifon'd their King, 
" trampled upon their ancient Images, endeavored to murther them all, and in de* 
"fpite of them brought their mortal Enemies, the Tafcaltecans and Gua:^u^mgans, in. 
" to Mexico, 

About this time there were certain Ships come to Fera Crux, wmch was a new 
Port-Town of this Countrey, that the Spaniards had built fince their coming thi- 
ther, and had Landed near upon a thoufand Men ; which was an Accident that had 
like to have fpoilM the Defign of Cortefim and all his Company at Mexico, thefc 
Men being fent by James Felajque^, Governor oUuha, cxprefsly againft Qortefim and 
his Men, upon pretence that they had a^ed not conformably to the GommilTion 
which they had receiv'd from him, and gave him no account of their proceedings ; 
which in a great meafure was true '. for it mufi be confefs'd,' that Cortefm and his 
Men finding themlelves to have falTn upon an Adventure that was certainly rich 
and good, and having got fuch footing and intercft in the Countrey already, by 
their Succefs and Viftories, and chiefly by their Confederacy with fo many of the 
Natives and People of the Countrey, revolted to them, did aimofl at fivft, by a ge- 
neral confent, renounce their CommifTion, and dependency upon Fdafpic^, and 



Chap. V. 

^.t M E%^I C A. 

profels'd to ad immediately frotn and for the King of Spahu What pretences they 
hadforfiich a Refolution, feemingly at lead irregular, is not To Well known. What* 
e;ver they were, they proceed in it, and the whole Company (excepting onely fome 
few, who yet went along with the reft) clmCQ Cortefius anew for their Commander 
-in chief, and appoint likewife by common confent, all other Officers of Juftice 
both Civil and Military, among themfelves: and to give the better colour at Court 
to their Proceedings, they fend Tortoconero and Monteioj two of their Principals in- 
to Spai?ij with a rich and noble Prefent to the Emperor, both to make report of the 
State of the Countrey, and to procure immediate Commiflion from his Majefty, to 
proceed ; after which they advance towards Mfx/co, as hath been faid. FeUfque;^, 
being at Cuba, and underftanding their Proceedings, labor'd to intercept both their 
Meifengers and Prefent, but could not 5 and therefore fent ^amphilim IslnryaeTi with 
eleven Ships, and about nine hundred or a thoufand Men to apprehend fomftm^ 
and oppofe his Proceedings. This hapned about the time that the Differences were 
but newly calmM betwixt the Spaniards and the People oi Mexico ; and though it ob* 
lig'd Cortefim to leave the City in a wavering and unfetled condition, yet he took 
fuch order, that Mutec^uma ftill remained under the Guard of the Spaniards as before 
aflifted with thoufands of their Friends o^Tla/calla, and he himfelf takinfr the reft 
and fome few Spaniards along with him, with undaunted courage and refblution 
marches againft Narvae:^ : and fuch was his good fortune,that not onely ^aryae^he- 
came his Prifoner without much biood^flied, but likewife all his Men joyn'd with 
him in his Defign, through the favour of the Chancery or fupream Court of St, Do* 
mingo, and by the procurement of the Licentiat Fafque:^de Jyllo}i,z Judge of it, who 
was fent with KarVae^ to accommodate the Differences. With this Recruit Corte- 
fius marches back again to Mexico j but at his coming finds things in a very bad con- 
dition J for the Citizens^ gathered together under the Command of one Quicuxte- 
?«oc, had recourfe to Arms, and for three days and three Nights vexM the Spaniards 
with continual Stormings, notwithftanding what^ever Commands they had to the 
contrary from their imprifon'd King, who at laft, looking out of a Window, 
endeavoring to appeafe them, was hurt with a Stone, of which he foon after died, 
as they fay, who would not have the Spaniards thought to have murdered him, as the 
Mexicans fay they did, with divers other Noble-men, and fome of his Children, the 
very Night they fled. However it were, not long after his Death, out of extream 
necelTity, and chiefly for want of Viduals, the Spaftiards were forc'd to leave the Ci- 
ty in thq night-time, and with the lofs of four hundred and fifty of their Men, who 
were either (lain or taken Prifoners at the paffing of a Draw^bridge, the reft ma- 
king a heavy Retreat to their Friends at Tlafcalla, There is ftanding at this day in 
Mexico, upon the place where fo many of them were kill'd, a certain Hermitage 
which they call Los Martyres, or The Hermitage of the Martyrs,xhoug\\ but improperly' 
if upon that occafion, as one of their own Writers confcffes, though he alledges no 
other reafon. 

This Retreat o^ t\\t Spaniards out of Mexico hapned to be upon the tenth o( July 
after mid-night, in the Year 1520. v^Kich the Spaniards zt Mexico call The Doleful 
J>iight. Neverthelefs the undaunted Cortefms being got, though with much diffi- 
culty and trouble, by reafon of the purfuit of the Mexicans for a good part of the 
Way, to his fure Friends oiTlafcalla, neither loft his Courage, nor gave over his Re^ 
folution of yet gaining M^^x/co, efpecially the way being now laid open, and fuf^- 
ficient occafion given by the Death of Mutec^Atna, and the provocations of the 
Mexicans thtm^dwts^to make himfelf abfolute and fole Lord of the Place : where, 
fore having fent for, and procured a competent Supply of freOi Soldiers from 



2 do 

^A M E "Kl C A, 

Chap. V. 

Mexico taken 
by the Sfani- 

Corttz ad- 
vancd to Ho- 

The grand 
Haven j4««- 

S^nto VGmingo^ or Hi^amoUj Ahnerla^ Cuha^ and other places, being in all nine hun- 
dred Foot, eight hundred Horfe, and ieventeen Pieces of Ordnance; he joyns him= 
fclf with the Auxiliary Forces o^Tlafcallcij which were no lefs than a hundred thou- 
fand Men, Arm'd with Bowes and Arrows : and with this Army marches again 
towards Mexico^ and Beileges it both by Land and Water, Vi:^. with the help of 
thirteen ^ngantims or Galliots, which he had built upon the Lake, and fix thouiand 
Ca?iooSj or little Boats, which his Friends and Confederates had procur'd him. By 
which means, and by his Army on Land, in a fhort time he cut off all Provifion 
from the City^and after a Siege of full three Months or more, and a mod ftout and 
obftinate refifrance made by the People within, in which they are faid to have loft 
above a hundred thoufand Men, befide thofe which perifli'd by Famine , Sicknefs, 
or otherwife, he took it by Storm upon Tuesday the thirteenth oi Jugujl 1521. Sackt 
it firft, and then burnt it to the Ground - yet afterwards he caus'd it to be Re-buik 
again, far more Beautiful than at firfl it was j as in due place we fhall further fee. 
They fpeak not of above fifty Spaniards flain during the whole Siegc^ fix Horfes, 
and not many Tlafcaltecans. 

In this manner , and with fo little Charges td the Conqueror , there fell to the 
Crown of Spain the richeft and goodlieft Kingdom (one of them) of the whole 
World, yi:^. the Kingdom o( Mexico, which the Conquerors prefently nam'd Ns^ 
Spain J and in reference to which name^ the Catholick K^ing hatb ever finte-ilird him- 
felf in the plural number Hijj^aniarum%eXj or Kjngofhoth Spains^ and all By the Va* 
lorjPrudence, admirable Reiolution,and happy Condu<^ of Corie;^; who was at firft 
but a private Adventurer in the American Plantations and Difcoveries, though other, 
wife a Gentleman of a good Family in Spain^ born at Medellin in the Country of 
BJlramedura. The Emperor Charles the Fifth, who was alfo then King of Spain , for 
his great Services, cndow'd him defervedly with many great and rich Territories 
in the Provinces of TlafcalUj Mechoacan, and other parts thereabouts, made him 
Marquefs of the Valley, Vt:^. of Guaxata^ (which is his chief Title) a rich and flou- 
rifliing Province of that Countrey, Captain General, or Commander in Chief, of 
all the Military Forces of ISlelp-Spain^ and General Difcoverer of all the Maritime 
parts and Coafts of America towards the South-Sea, ailigning him in propriety the 
twelfth part of whatfoever fhould be difcover'd, to him and his Heirs for ever ^ but 
deny'd him the Government of Mexico out of reafon of State, though 'tis faid, he 
much defir'd it. 

Among the famous Havens which lie along the South Sea and Northern Ocean, 
the chiefeft is Jcapulco before-mention'd, whither all Merchandize is fent to be 
tranfported to (^hiiia, which is above two thoufand Leagues diftant from thence j in 
which Voyage they generally fpend fourteen Months; four Sail, each of eight hun- 
dred Tun, appointed for this Tradejgenerally two of them fet Sail to CIma in Marchy 
and returning in Summer, have no fooner drop'd their Anchors, but the other two 
fet out from Jcapulco , from whence the way by Land to Mexico , is ievcnty two 
Leagues over fteep Mountains, dangerous Rocks , and ieveral Rivers ; the chiefeft 
whereof are, firft, Del Tapagayo^ or De /^ (Balja^^ which runs exceeding ftrong, which 
the Indians crofs on bundles of Canes ty'd upon Qjl-labapes : Next San Francifco, 
which though the biggeft, yet hath many fliallow places to wade over. The Mu- 
Jlichoes are no fmall Plagues to thole that travel this way, for their Poyionous Stings 
are the occafions of many Ulcerated Wounds, and oft-times Death it felf. 

In this way lies alfo the Countrey del Falle , from which Ferdithvid Cortcfim re- 
ceived the Title of Earl. ^ 






■■ _" \ i - i n i 7 i u..j esg- 

lonai/ail tzj y'oras de 
ItUifaJ 3p reras . 

T . J'uer/v del ^MantH^s 



\ergiti t 

: ani' 






1 } 



Chap. V. ^ M E X^I C A. 

The Mouth of the Haven Jcapulco ^2i^cs a full League Nonh and South, and 
ivichin exceeding large, hath a nook call'd Boca Grande , where the Ships Ride fafe 
It an Anchor : More Eafterly appears a Land Inlet^, (by the Spaniards call'd '?uerto 
id Marques) fecur'd againft all Winds,- near which is the City o^ San Diego, to 
,vbich belongs a Fort, with fix Bulwarks, lying on a Promontory . the main of 
;he City is one large Street , confiding of fair and ilately Houfes ^ and leadina di- 
:e(5tiy to the Haven j the Church which is of an oblong fquare^ hath a high Steeple 
n the middle. 

A T)utch Admiral, one Joris Sflhergen^ after he had done the Spaniards all the mif> 
:hief he could along the South Sea , ran with five Sail under the Fort Acapulco, 
7j\{\c\i fir'd ten Guns at him J whereupon, the D«fc/; Admiral Manning a Boat, 
vith a white Flag, they agreed upon a Ceflation , ^ndtht Spaniards \vtx\t aboard 
)fthe Admiral, to whom ^edro Jhares , stnd Francifco Menendi4^ , having been a 
;onfiderable time in Holla?id, and fpeaking the Language of that Countrey very 
)erfedj promised that all his Demands fliould be fatisfi'd j yet Sp'dbergen was fuf^ 
)icious that the Spaniards had a defign upon him, wherefore he came and lay clofe 
mder the Caftle with his five Sail^ and made ready his Guns : But this fufpicion 
vas foon cleared, when Shares and Menendiu prolFer'd to ftay as Hoftages, till the 
Governor of the Town fent the Admiral thirty Oxen^ fifty Sheep, fome hundreds 
>f Poultry, Coals, Oranges, Cittrons, and the like frefL Provifions j as alfo Wood 
,nd Water ; during which time, the Prifoners being fee at liberty, feveral Perfons 
»f Quality came to vifit the Admiral , amongfl whom was Captain Cajllllo j one 
hat had ferv'd twenty years in the Loli^-Qountrey Wars j and Melchior Hernando^ Ne« 
>hew to the Vice-Roy of ISljip-Spaln , who defirous to fee the Ships that durft fct 
wicc upon (^drlgo de Mendofe, Admiral of the King of Spam s mighty Fleet, ftood 
maz'd that fuch little Frigats durft Ingage with fo many great Spanljh Ships j and 
arry'd the Admiral's Son to the Governor of the Cicy^call'd GeorgiusTerro, whoci* 
illy entertained him : Eight days Spllbergen fpent here at Jcapulco, admirincr the 
ourteous Entertainment of the Spaniards j and the more, becaufe that having News 
lut eight Moneths before of the Dutch Fleet fetting out, they had in that fiiort time 
nade all things ready for refinance , the Fort having feventeen Brafs Guns, and 
our hundred Soldiers, befides many Noblemen and Reformades, whereas at other 
imes there us'd not to be above forty Men, and four Guns in the fame. 


'■t ff! 






He next Province of New Spain is the Biflioprick of Mechoacan, which hath ^'^""'^« ^'^^ 
on the North-Eait, 'Panuco j on the Eaft, Mexicana, properly fo call'd ; on of^«AM5«» 
the South i^2Ln,Tlafcalla . on the Wefi:, the Main Ocean, or Mare del Zur . 
nd laft of all, more diredly Northward, Xallfco, which is a Province ofl^ew GaU 
cia : The Name fignifieth in the ^mmV^w Language, 2iS much 2ls J Fip? Countrej ^^ 
nd fo it is, having many fair Lakes and Rivers in it, abundantly well ftor'd with 
•ifli. The Countrey fo exceedingly pleafant and healthful, that 'tis ufual for fick 
^erfons of other Provinces to come hither to recover their healthy only by the be- 
icfit of a good Air. The Soil Co abundantly fertile of all forts of Grain, that of 
bur meafures of Seed , it hath been often obfervM, they have reap'd the next Har-^ 
^eft, more thanfo many hundred meafures of the fame Grain, Very well Wooded-, 
^ndby reafon of its many Rivers and frgOi Springs, equally rich in gool Pafture : 

D d and 



1 1 


belonging to 
the JMechoa- 



A M E "R^I C J. Chap. ' 

and belldes great plenty of Medicinal Herbs and Plants, it affordeth good ilore 
Amber nigh the Sea Coafts, Mulberry-trees^, and coniequently Silks ^ much h 
ney, Wax, and divers other Commodities, both for nece/Tuy and pleafure. T 
People of the Countrey are generally tall, of a ftrong adive Body, and a go 
Wit, efpecially in comparifon of other Natives^ not unskilful in divers curie 
Manufactures, the mofl excellent Feather-Pi6tures, afore-mention'd, being faid 
be found in this Province. They leem more generally inclin'd to the Humors a 
Cuftoms of the Spatuards ^ than any other yfmericans ^ and received the Preachi 
o^ Chrijiia?i ^li^ion, when time was, with much willingnefsj fo that the Count] 
is now entirely Chrijtian, and divided into feveral Pariflies. 

The Languages which are fpoken in Mechoacan are feveral, as the Otomian, Chil 
inlauj and the Mexicans ^"^hich is common through all JSljiv Spain, and the Tarafcah 
neat and brief Language, w^hich properly belongs to this Countrey. 

The Lions and Wilde Dogs of this Countrey devour great numbers of Cat 
yearly, yet the greatefl: mifchiefs happen from the Tygers, which often fetch P 
pie out of their Houfes, notwithftanding the Doors are lock'd, for they break 
thorow the Walls and Roofs, with much eagernefs and flrength : Of the gre 
nefs whereof, Jacob 'Bontius tells us this flory. That the Governor ^eter Carpentier 
a Trap without the Walls of :B^rdV/rf, of great Timber, Pleited with Iron, Baiti 
it with a Goat j which taking effedr, the Tyger that was caught therein , impatii 
of fuch clofe Imprifonment, rent the Timber, and getting out, left the Goat i 

Hu^o L'mjchot relates. That the Tygers in the Wefl-lndies hurt no Spa7iiards, ex 
cifing their cruelty onely on Indians -^ and that finding a S/^c^ and 2l White Man llei 
ing together, they devour the 'Black and not the White : How far thefe affertic 
deferve to be credited, may appear by an evident contradidion of the iirft, fo] 
is well known, many Spaniards in the Weft-Indies have been eaten by the Tygers, 
General Fedreman marching in this Countrey at the Head of his Army, was 
faulted by a Tyger, which in defpight of them all killing a Spaniard ^ and three 
dianSycCca-^d from them j no Trees ferve for a refuge againft their fury, for th 
climb up to the top thereof,and fetch down their Prey; their Claws are fo exceedi 
Venomous, that whoever is fcratch'd with the fame, is never to be cur'dj there is 
Beaft but they will venture upon, wherefore they lie in the Buflies, from when 
they rufli out upon them j but this difadvantage they have , that moft other Bea 
are too nimble Footed for them, for they are a very heavy Creature, whatever ha 
been delivered by the Ancients concerning the Tygers fwiftnefs. 

As to the difference which they make in Humane Flefh,it is thus far true : Tli 
they find more fwectnefs in Womens Breads than other parts, and chofe a (BU 
Man before a White : Concerning the firft, France gives a fufficient teftimon 
when two Tygers , in the time of King Lewis the Twelfth , breaking looil 
left a great number of Women lying Breaftlefs in the Road. The fccond is co 
firmed by John Johnjhns Relation of a ftrange accident that happen'd in Benga. 
yi;^. A Moor dreaming that a Tyger fetched him out of the Ship , hid himfclf tl 
next Night between Decks, of which the Mafter asking the reafon , was i 
form'd concerning his Dream , which prov'd prophetick , for about Mid-nig 
a Tyger leapt into the Ship, and devouring the Moor^ went away without touc 
ing any one of the Hollatiders, of which there were thirty : But a Sea-man walkir 
on the fhorc efcap'd more wonderfully, for a Tyger fetting upon him. behind, ar 
a Crocrodile before, he leaping from betwixt them , dilcover'd to the Tyger tl 
Crocodile, to whom the Tyger dircdly running, and ingaging with the Crocodil 





The B'iid " 

Chap. V. ' A M E'B^I C J. 

fpw'd the Sea-mans life: Notwithftanding the cruelty and mifchief of thefeXy. 
gers, the Imbuns are led by their fottidi Superftition to -worfliip them - becaufe as 
they lay, the Devil oftea appears to them in that fhape. ' ' 

Befides the Tygers, the Inhabitants of jW"«/;,i(»ca« are exceedingly molefted with 
Squernls, which not only carry much Fruit into their Holes, but alfo under-mine 
the Houles,fo that they often fink or fall on one fide,the mifchief being the worfe 
becaufe they increafe daily. Moll of them bear four young at a time which on the 
third day run about for Prey , and can fcarce be taken, becaufe of their exceeding 
Iwiknefs , leapmg a great diftance from one Tree to another ; their Tails ferve 
;hem on divers occafions; for leaping they ufe it like a Wing, and at their crbffina 
Dver a R.ver, for a Sail; in tempeftuous Weather, they flop their holes therewith 
;o keep out the Wind. ' 

There arc fix feveral forts of thefeSquerrils; the firft call'd mv, cover them- ^^-'^^ 
elves with their Tails ; the fecond QuapatM, is as big again, and can never be '*"• 
nadc tame ; the third rechallotl, with a bald Tail and great Eycs; the fourth JaU 
■Motly, hath a thick Head, and a Tail full of black and white ftreaks . the fifth Qui- 
utchpatlan , hath a little Head and long Legs , and leaping from one Tree to an. 
.ther, (eems to flie ; the laft fort call'd Y^taaechalotl, is whitilli. 

The Foxes do alfo great mifchief here, their Urine fmells fo horribly, that forty 
ays after , none are able to abide near the place where they have urin'd , and on 
.hatloever StufFor Cloth a drop thereof chanceth to light, the ftink can never be 
Tuh d away. 

Here breeds alfo a fort of Birds, call'd Mr^ , which are not unlike Moore: 
lens; they flie exceeding high in the Air, feed on nought but ftinking Carrion 
rhich they fcent at a great diftance ; they have a hairy Head and Neck, and udy 
ace : Some of the Fowls of this Countrey ftay here all the year long , others go 
way, and return at certain times. o> 6 

The Natives, fince the Spaniards coming thither, have gotten their Habits and l"8'r'!' ** 

tTrFlJ'7'' '" '"" °'^"'^" * ''''" ^^"^^' ^''^ft' ^ -^ Cupboards made ' ' ""• 
i S.o/fe-Wood are no way inferior to the beft that are made in Europe. Paintine 

; alfo m great efteem amongft them : They make handfom Clothes, Shooes and 
range Copper Locks. They have a peculiar Art in Tilling their Ground : They 
:ach the Spamfi Dogs feveral tricks , but not feeding them well, they caufe thein 
) run trom them, and turn wilde , whence they are call'd Cimarrma, becaufe thev 
o much hurt to the Cattel. ^ 

The Inhabitants when a Feaver or Ague is upon them at the higheft, leap into 

.Id Water: againft other Sickneffes they ufe Herbs, whofefoveraign Power Expe. 
ence hath longfince taught them. 
Since the Spaniards made Mechoacan a Biflioprick, they have built ninety four 

A°f'' ! L 7 " ' ^''"'^ "°'P'"'^ ^-"^ ^l°yft"^> ■"'^^bited by FrLfcan 
nd Auguflm Monks. ^ . 

There are faid to be in this Binioprick a hundred and fifty Towns or Burroughs 
.efides many fcatter'd Villages) moft of which have Free-Schools erefted in 
.em, for the Training up of Youth in the ari/?M« Religion, good Literature and 
.rts J and few of them without an Hofpital for the Sick : of which Towns the 
rincipal are as followeth : 

,r!;S"^T' '^'^T 1 ''''=^"^'^"' Kings of M./,„...„. .. p,/,,^;. City P«p„ 
'rtyievenLeaguesd.ftantfromM«c<,,onceaBiniop'sSee. 5. ValladoM the Me- ^'"" 
opolis or chief City of theProvince, fince the Epifcopal Chair was remo'v'd from 
^jcuar thither. It Ifeth upon a grcu Lake, equal amoft for bignefs to that of 

■^ " ^ Mexico. 

! I 


^^^ a M E%1 C J. Cl^ap. V 

' U^.lco, and is about fcven Leagues d.ftnn: fron. P./c«r,tov.ards the ^^^^^^^ 
I , 4 T^x^rn fnrrv Leagues Weftward ot Afex^co, and in the Way to th 

S rrt^ r^'in aLad L ,s fo.ewha. dangerous, being not a Hule.n 
S: .uh sllge! on boch fides of u. 5./^- ^'^"'F- . 6- ^« C"-^;- '^ ^.^ 
fventeen Leagues d.ftant from r.//<.<;oW, and a convenient Stage for Traveller 
rgTde'd.liththe twolaftr..ention-d, ^^'-^'^^y ^^ Vtw^o;! ^ 
Hng-^of the Countrey againft the ^^J-^TCuZ^^^ 

TowaTdV he Sea there is , . JutUn, but two M.les d.ftant from the Sea^CoaO 
and afm^l Town, yet by reafon of a fafe and very good Harbor >t hath fc 
Shipp r a Place Jf no Irttle Trading, a. NatMaJ, another well known an 
o^v ft Haven upon M Zur, pertainrng to this Province and from when, 
hey ufually let Sail for the fW%m.I(lands. y Sc.Ja^oie u^naSper.j, focal 
Ly The ii.^., perhaps from the abundance of good Pearls they found upon th 
Coaft A.Qhma. 5. Zacatu^ and fome others. r- nr r u .-A 

This P -ovLe as we faid, was at firft a diftind Kingdom of it felf, yet fuboi 
nnia 4 rZary to that ofVfexico ., the King whereof nam'd T.-,. v. or BM 
Tl Leporteth/atthe firft coming of the Sfan^rds thither, afar ^he Conqueft^ 
M^ico voluntarily fubmitted himfelf to them, and was Bapt.z d /^evenhelels 
U wads upon a pretence of I know not what Treafon intended by him agair 
em ar;d whkh the Sfa.p Writers themfelves profeffedly think to have be, 
ilned by rommand of wL^^e, Prefidentof the C''-'7 -f ^-;. ' 
was moft Lumanely burnt alive, and his Kingdom leiz'd upon by the S^an.ris. 

, Sect. III. 


THe Biftioprick of TUfcalU, formerly call'd TUfcalteca lU.c^a and tl^ 
Ian is a Province of N.»- Si-.-, which extendetb it felf entirely from o: 
sla to another, vi^. from the ^.te.A to M.. MZur, with vvhich ic 
bounded on the Eaft and Weft Parts, lying otherwi e, -//- j^ -f.^X'^ 
twi« the Provinces o^Mcxkana, laft fpoken of.and that of G,mx«u which folio' 
"h on taLin, in length from one Sea to the other, not much lefs than an hu 
ile tu s and in fome places fourfcore in breadth; but towards the Sou 
tatfowfng much narrower.' It is a Countrey exceedingly plentihil both in Co 
and cltTc full of rich Pafturage. and fo plentifully ftor'd with ^'«^. Wieat a 
and (^attei, tuu 01 n ^ V ■, ,_.,., the Granary of Jmcnca ■ befides De 

other Grain, that It IS accounted as It weic the oranaiy -r, ^„„„,,pa / 

all manner of Venifon, and great ftore of Fowl. There is ikewife Copp refs 
Jom Silver.Mynes, Mann., Lne, and Liquid Amber, with a fweet fme ling G 
wWcdIps out The Rivers feed no Fifl., becaufe they fa 1 with 
ceedingfoL from the Mountains; onely near To,»,..o, js ^ <^«P ^ ^ f ^^ 
Waterf inhabited round about hy Ini.ans, enjoying the P'f "[^ ^"'^ P'^^J "^ 
„,any C«.^.i.-Trees, which yield Cocinnele, producing yearly above two hm j 
thoufand Duckets worth of that Commodity. In this Lake fw.m black Hed, 
hoss, whofeFlcniisgoodandwhoUomtoeat.. 
«»„*„. "^ Vhe People of this Countrey , when the S^.n.rds came firft amongft the,., Ir 
li-M- i„ ,he form of a Common-weakh,or Free.State,rcfufing to be iubjeft to the K,nj 

Situation and 
of Uafcalla. 



Chap. V. ^ M E%^I C A. ■ 2(J5 

IfesicOy wicli whom they had almoft continual War j and upon that accoiuit, asr 
hath been raid,aflifted Cortejius in th.c Conqiiefi: of the Kingdom,withoLK whofehelp 
'tis moil certain he had never been able to do any thing. They enjoy therefore ma* 
ny fpecial Priviledges and Immunities more than other Americans do. They pay 
no Tribute, but onely a handRil of Wheat yearly for every Perion, by way of ac- 
knowledgment,, otherwile living;, under the Prote6tion of the Spaniards, wholly in 
the Form of their ancient Government. Informer times they were great Man- 
eaters, andnoc onely eat the Flefli of their Enemies, but alfo of one anotther, info- 
much that Man's*flefli hung in publick to be fold. 

The River Zahuatl, which ruflies out of the Mountain Xicokucalt, oftentimes River ti- 
overflows all the Countrcy near it, and walbes away divers Houies. Zahtiatmi^ni- 
fies Scabby Water, becaufeallthofe, efpecially Children, that waOi in the fame, are 
fure to be Scabby. OA its Banks the Spaniards have built many Houfes, thefafliion 
whereof is now alfb imitated by the Indians of this Province, who formerly buik 
quite after another manner j for they made low Houfes of Earth, Wood and Stone, 
with large and flrange Chambers j fome a Stones^caffc one from another, others 
clofe together, had narrow crooked Streets that ran betwixt them. 

In this Province are two forts of Languages fpoken, 1;^;^. the Mexican, and that rufcaHiH^ 
of the Ottomonsy who formerly deferting SMexico, chofe the Tlafcalkns for their ^"^*"^^' 
Proted:ors : They are a toilfom and painful People. 

To the Northward of Tlafcalla are Mountains, which all the year long, except: 
three Moneths, are covcr'd with Mift j and the Woods on the tops of them are a 
great fhelter to Lyons, Tygers, Wolves, and wild Dogs, csiWd Jdi^^es, and other 
wild Beafts, which do much hurt to the fmall Cattel. Here are alfo many Serpents 
and Adders. 

I'he whole Province is faid to c^^ntain two hundred good Towns and Bur- 
roughs, and more than one thoufand Villages, all of them exceedingly populous^ 
and fuppos'd to contain in the whole above a Million and half of Natives, beiides 
Spaniards, who have fome few Colonies in the Countrey for fecuring of it. 

The chief Towns of the Province are i . Tlafcallak felf, which denominates the towns ^rd 
whole Countrey as the Metropolis, and where the Bifliop's See was at firft, till in ' ^^ * 
the Year 1550. it was removM to^uebla de los Mgelos, It is a fairTown,and com- 
modiouily feated in the midfl: of a large and fertile Champain of threefcore Miles in 
compafs. It confifteth of four large and beautiful Streets or Quarters, and in the 
midft of them where they all meet, hath a fia:^t^ or Market=place, equal to that 
o^ Mexico, and able to receive twenty or thirty thoufand Perfons conveniently, to 
Buy and Sell in it j and whofe Shambles feldom fliew lefs than fifteen thoufand 
Sheep, four thoufand Oxen, and two thoufand Hogs. 

2. fuebU de los Angelos, or The Qty of Angels, a Town buik by Sebafiian %amire;^j 
a Church-man, and he that was the firft Prefident, or chief Governor o^ Mexico, un- 
der the Crown of G/i/^. It was built in the Year 1531. almoft in the Road-way 
from Vera Crux to Mexico, and feated in a very delicate and fertile Countrey, and of 
a good Air. It is a Bifliop's See, and valu'd at twenty thoufand Vucats of yearly 
Rent, the City it felf fuppos'd to contain about fifteen hundred Families 5 where 
there is abundance of excellent Cloth made, and for finenefs not yielding to the 
beft of Spain. Its chief Edifices are, the Cathedral and four (lately Gloyfters, be« 
longing to the Dominicans, Francifcans, Augufiines, znd Capuchins 5 as alfo a Free-School 
for five hundred Indian Children, endow'd by %amire:^ with a yearly Revenue. 
I, ZempoaUan, ieated upon a River of the fame Name. 

4. lS{apakca, in the Valley Ocnmba^ ows its original to an Indian called juan^ who 

D d ^ ' at, 




A M E ^I C A. 

Chap. V 


Great in- 
creafe of 

at firfl: had onely one Hoiife, and a Herd of Hogs there , till upon his invitatior 
all the neighboring People came from the tops of the Hills j infomuch, that in 
fliort time, the place was Peopled by thoufands of Families. 

5. Guaxachm, all hitherto areat and ancient Towns of the Natives. 

6. ScgiiYd de la Frontera^ a Spa?iijh Town, built by Coyte:^ preiently upon the Coi 
queft of Mexico, for the fecuring of the Confines, as the Name importeth. 

7. Vera Crux^ a Town built by Corf^^^and his Companions, at their firft Lane 
in<T ^ and where afterwards, by a Stratagem, and out of a refolution cither to Cor 
quer or Die m the Countrey , he caus'd all his Ships to be burnt, that his Sold 
ers rni^^ht not fo much as think of returning back from whence they came. Tl- 
Tov\m was at firft built five or fix Leagues up within Land j but the place bein 
found not to be fo healthful, the Inhabitants in a fliort time deferted it, and featc 
therafelves upon a Bay of the Sea, right over againft S^ 'John D' Ullua. 

^. Medeliin, another 5pdw//J? Town, built like wife by Corrf;^,, in memory of h 
own Birth=place, which was Meddlin, a finall Town oi Eftraymdura^ a Province < 
Spain, but was afterwards deftroy'd by fome Spantjl^ Commanders^ out of malice ( 


Laftly^ St. John D' Ulka, a noted, and the moft ufual Port to all thisProvinc 
and like wife to the City o^ Mexico it felf, from the North Sea : but of difficult ei 
trance, efpecially to fuch as are not v^^ell acquainted with the Pafiage , or wai 
Guides, by reafon of certain Rocks and Quickfands, wherewith the Mouth of tl 
Haven is faid to be bar'dj but within, the ftation is more fafe. It hath likewife t\^ 
ftrong Bulwarks or Forts rais'd , on either fide of the Entrance one , to defend tl 
PaiTagej befides a ftrong Caftle, built fince Captain Jo/?w HaipKms furpris'd twel 
Ships richly Laden within the Haven, and thirteen others that arrived with a ne 
Vice-Roy from Spain j valuM at near fixty Tun of Gold , of which he might eafi 
have made Prize, had he not trufted to the Vice=Roys Promife, to give him all 1 
tisfadion he Oiould require^ by which being deceived , he loft all his Fleet but c\a 

Between Tlafcala and Los Angelos are the Fountains, out of which the River ha 
its Original, which gliding by Machaocan and Zacatula, falls into the South Se^ 
This River is To exceeding full of Crocodiles , that they have made feveral plac 
which formerly were Inhabited on its Banks, utterly defolatej for the Females la 
ing generally Eggs as big as thofe of a Goofe, increafe prodigioufly ; and were 
not that the Indian Mice, cailM Ichneumonesj deftroy'd them, they would grow fti 
to greater numbers: But this Animal creeping in at the Crocodiles Mouth, ea 
his way out of the Belly again -, Water-Serpents, Hawks, 'Bnfeloes, and efpecial 
Tygers, are alfo their mortal Enemies , for they throwing the Crocodiles on the 
Backs, rend open their Bellies : They are more defirous of Mansflefli here than 
any other place, becaufe the River of Tlafcala hath but fmall ftore of Fifli ; in tl 
day time they lie cover'd in the Mud, from whence they rufli forth, and fet upc 
thofe that happen to pafs by them ; they purfue the Ca7ioos in the Water, and ftril 
down the Rowers with their Tails. 
Burning Eight Leagucs beyond Tlafcala, appears the Mountain fopatepeck , which for t( 

fan^T^"' ye^^s ceas'd fmoaking, till ^wzo 1540. it broke forth in fuch a manner , that tl 
Countrey all about was terrifi'd therewith ; for it vomited not onely a bla( 
Smoak, but alfo horrible Flames, which fomctimes being blow'd downwar 
burnt the Corn in the Fields, and the Aflies thereof flying as far as Guaxocif^go at 
Qmhla, burnt a great deal of the Town to the Ground ; every one endeavored 1 
flight to fecure themfelves , with intention never to return thither again j but t 





Rivers of 


Chap. V. ^ AMERICA, 

Flame and Smoak abating, Captain Diego de Ordas went up to view the place 
whence the Fire was call: forth • which curioficy and prefiimption of his, had like' 
to have coft him his Life, for the fulphury Smoak breaking forth on a fudden, had 
alrnofl ftifled him. 

Moreover, the Biflioprick of Tlafcaia, is on'the North Coaft wafli'd by the River 
(Papoioava, fince callM Aharado, from a Spanifi Commander, who firft Steer'd his 
Courfe thither : The next Stream nam'd l^ander^^ is fo called, becaufe the Natives 
held white Clothes on Poles, to invite the Spaniards afliore. The third is Almeria on 
which, Cortefuis, a year after the taking oi Mexico, built the Town Medellm, as afore- 

Along the riafcallan fliore, wafli'd by the Northern Ocean, lie the liles manca 
Verde, and S^urtficios : The firft receiv'd its denomination from White Land, the other 
from Green Trees • and the third, becaufe Joan de Greyahe, who firft DifcoverM Nem 
Spain, Landing on this Ifland, found a Bloody Altar there, with Sacrificed People 
with opened Brefts, chopt off Arms and Legs. 

The River Jmeria falling into the Ocean oppofite to the Sacrificios, the Spanijh 
Ships came often to an Aiichor there j but in thefe latter times, they have forlaken 
the fame, becaufe the Northern Winds us'd to blow very hard againft the fiiore 
and fpoil'd many VeiTels : But Henry Hawks gives this reafon, That a dreadful ap- 
parition of Spirits frighted the Spaniards from thence. 

In the Biflioprick Tlafcaia, is alfo compriz'd the Province Tepeaca, whofe Metro- ^heProvinct 
polis was built by Corte^, when with great Lofs he was fenc from Jlmeria, The '^^'"" 
Soil thereabouts is barren and ftony^ the Water which they have in the City is 
brought in Pipes from a River which flows out of the Mountains into the Market 
place. The plain Countrey hath many good Paftures. The Inhabitants thereof 
fpeak four forts of Languages j of which, the commoneft is the Mexican^ others 
ufe the Topolucan or Qtoman Tongues, ' 

The Village 4>ox«c^« appears afar off on a high Mountain, on whofe top is a ''^^''""''^ 
Lake of a hundred and fifty Fathom in circumference 5 the Water whereof is very 
cold, and of a bluiOi Colour , and neither Ebbs nor Flows, to which the Villagers 
climb along a narrow Path. ■ 

Not far from thence, in the Plain, are two other very deep Lakes : The firfl 
cilVd riacae, is a League in circumference, and breeds delicate white Fifli, not 
above a Fingers length : The fecond nam'd Jlchuhican, about the fame biancfs 
which in flormy Weather is very turbulent. ^ ' 

Amongft the Fowls of this Countrey , the moR- noted is a little Summer Bird ^-^s« ro« 
with a long crooked Tail, fpeckled Feathers , feeds on nothing but Flowers and '''"' 
the Dew . about Harveft time, when the Rain ceafes, it hangs faft with its Bill on 
a Tree, and as foon as the firft Rain falls, it revives again. 

^ In this Countrey tepeacazrc five Villages, in each of which is zFrancifcan Cloy. 
Iter and convenient Hofpital. 

In this Cpountrey they gather the Water in the time of the Rainy Moneths, in a 
Jigg d Pool which every Morning produces little Toads with long Tails which 
n tew days fall offj but thefe little ones growing to be great,make a moft dreadful 
loife in the Night : From OEiober till March, not one drop of Rain falls in this 
^ountrey ; durmg which time, the Northern Winds make a dry and wholfome 
fin, yet oftentimes a tempeftuous Sea, to the lofs of many Ships. 

Farther up into the Countrey, between Fera Crux and Los Jngelos, lies the ViU 
age i^mcoW.. and alfo X./.^^ 

t Vood of Cedar and Pine-Trees, inhabited by the Spaniards, for the accommoda» 






J M E'KI C J. 

Chap. "V 

Situation and 
Befcription - 





tins of Travellers : To which purpofe there are likewife Inns built near tl 
Spring hmite de Ot;;iimba, which gufhes out of a high Rock. 

Not far from hence is the Populous Vill